Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (v.406, #2)

Challenges and new directions in analytical sample preparation by Astrid Gjelstad; Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard (375-376).
is Associate Professor of Pharmacy in the School of Pharmacy of the University of Oslo. Her current research interests are in the field of analytical microextraction technologies and analytical sampling, including development of hollow-fibre liquid-phase microextraction, electromembrane extraction, and new devices for dried blood spot sampling. is Professor of Pharmacy in the School of Pharmacy of the University of Oslo and Professor of Analytical Chemistry in the Department of Pharmacy of the University of Copenhagen. His current research interests are in the field of analytical microextraction technologies and analytical sampling, including development of hollow-fibre liquid-phase microextraction and electromembrane extraction.

Application of functionalized magnetic nanoparticles in sample preparation by Lijun Xie; Ruifen Jiang; Fang Zhu; Hong Liu; Gangfeng Ouyang (377-399).
Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles have attracted much attention in sample preparation because of their excellent performance compared with traditional sample-preparation sorbents. In this review, we describe the application of magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with silica, octadecylsilane, carbon-based material, surfactants, and polymers as adsorbents for separation and preconcentration of analytes from a variety of matrices. Magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) techniques, mainly reported in the last five years, are presented and discussed.
Keywords: Functionalized magnetic nanoparticles; Sample preparation; Magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE)

Analysis of drugs and metabolites in biological matrices such as blood or plasma by LC-MS is routinely challenged by the presence of large quantities of competing molecules for ionization in soft ionization sources, such as proteins and phospholipids. While the former can easily be removed by protein precipitation, pre-analytical extraction of the latter is necessary because they show very high retention in reversed-phase LC resulting in long analysis times or in ion suppression effects when not eluted before the next runs. A novel HILIC-based SPE approach, making use of silica cartridges and of acetone as organic solvent, is introduced as a potent alternative to current commercial methods for phospholipid removal. The methodology was developed and tested for a broad polarity range of pharmaceutical solutes (log P from 0 to 6.6) and broad applicability can therefore be envisaged.
Keywords: LC-MS; Matrix effects; Ion suppression; Phospholipid removal; HILIC SPE; Acetone as eluting solvent

The dual nature of the quaternary ammonium compounds, having permanently charged hydrophilic quaternary ammonium heads and long-chain hydrophobic tails, makes the sample preparation step and analysis of these compounds challenging. A high-throughput method based on thin-film solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry was developed for simultaneous quantitative analysis of nine benzylic and aliphatic quaternary ammonium compounds. Chromatographic separation and detection of analytes were obtained in reverse-phase mode in 8 min using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Hydrophilic lipophilic balance particle-coated blades were found to be the most suitable among the different coatings tested in terms of recoveries and carryover on the blades. For desorption solvents, 70/30, v/v (A/B) with 0.1 % formic acid (where A is 10 mM ammonium acetate in acetonitrile/water (95/5 , v/v) and B is 0.1 %  (v/v) formic acid in isopropyl alcohol) was shown to be the most efficient solvent for the desorption of the analytes from the SPME sorbent. The SPME method was optimised in terms of extraction, pH, and preconditioning, as well as extraction and desorption times. Optimum conditions were 45 min of extraction time and 15 min of desorption time, all with agitation. The extraction was found to be optimum in a range of pH 6.0 to 8.0, which is consistent with the natural pH of water samples. Wide linear dynamic ranges with the developed method were obtained for each compound, enabling the application of the method for a wide range of concentrations. The developed method was validated according to the Food and Drug Administration criteria. The proposed method is the first SPME-based approach describing the applicability of the high-throughput thin-film SPME in a 96-well system for analysis of such challenging compounds.
Keywords: Solid-phase microextraction; Thin-film solid-phase microextraction; Quaternary ammonium compounds/surfactants; LC-MS/MS; Water analysis; Carryover and secondary interaction

Development and characterization of a small electromembrane extraction probe coupled with mass spectrometry for real-time and online monitoring of in vitro drug metabolism by Helene Bonkerud Dugstad; Nickolaj Jacob Petersen; Henrik Jensen; Charlotte Gabel-Jensen; Steen Honoré Hansen; Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard (421-429).
A small and very simple electromembrane extraction probe (EME-probe) was developed and coupled directly to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), and this system was used to monitor in real time in vitro metabolism by rat liver microsomes of drug substances from a small reaction (incubation) chamber (37 °C). The drug-related substances were continuously extracted from the 1.0 mL metabolic reaction mixture and into the EME-probe by an electrical potential of 2.5 V. The extraction probe consisted of a 1-mm long and 350-μm ID thin supported liquid membrane (SLM) of 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether. The drugs and formed metabolites where extracted through the SLM and directly into a 3 μL min−1 flow of 60 mM HCOOH inside the probe serving as the acceptor solution. The acceptor solution was directed into the ESI-MS-system, and the MS continuously monitored the drug-related substances extracted by the EME-probe. The extraction efficiency of the EME-probe was dependant on the applied electrical potential and the length of the SLM, and these parameters as well as the volume of the reaction chamber were set to the values mentioned above to avoid serious depletion from the reaction chamber (soft extraction). Soft extraction was mandatory in order not to affect the reaction kinetics by sample composition changes induced by the EME-probe. The EME-probe/MS-system was used to establish kinetic profiles for the in vitro metabolism of promethazine, amitriptyline and imipramine as model substances.
Keywords: Electromembrane extraction probe; Mass spectrometry; Drug metabolism; Real-time measurement

Parallel electromembrane extraction in a multiwell plate by Lars Erik Eng Eibak; Marthe Petrine Parmer; Knut Einar Rasmussen; Stig Pedersen-Bjergaard; Astrid Gjelstad (431-440).
This paper describes the concept of parallel electromembrane extraction (Pa-EME) with flat membranes in a multiwell format for the first time. The setup is based on a multiwell plate and provided simultaneous and selective isolation, cleanup, and enrichment of several human plasma samples as well as LC-MS-compatible extracts within 8 min of extraction. Undiluted human plasma samples spiked with four antidepressant drugs were added to separate wells in the donor plate. Subsequently, the samples were extracted with Pa-EME. The four drugs migrated electrokinetically from undiluted human plasma through a flat polypropylene membrane impregnated with 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether, and were isolated into formic acid. Extraction time, extraction voltage, agitation rate, sample volume, and acceptor solution volume were all optimized with an experimental design. The optimal conditions were as follows: The agitation rate was 1,040 rpm, and an extraction voltage of 200 V was applied. The sample volume and acceptor solution volume was 240 and 70 μL, respectively. The extraction was continued for 8 min. Eventually, the extracts were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. The combination of Pa-EME with LC-MS/MS provided quantitation limits below the therapeutic level and reported relative standard deviations in the range 5–13 %. Linear calibration curves were obtained for all analytes, and the correlation coefficients were above 0.9974 in the range 1–400 ng mL−1. The drug concentrations from two subjects treated with quetiapine and sertraline were successfully determined with Pa-EME combined with LC-MS/MS. Post-column infusion experiments demonstrated that Pa-EME provided extracts free from interfering matrix components.
Keywords: High-throughput sample preparation; Electromembrane extraction; Human plasma; LC-MS/MS; Antidepressants; Quality by design

Pressurised hot water extraction in continuous flow mode for thermolabile compounds: extraction of polyphenols in red onions by Jiayin Liu; Margareta Sandahl; Per J. R. Sjöberg; Charlotta Turner (441-445).
Extraction and analysis of labile compounds in complex sample matrices, such as plants, is often a big analytical challenge. In this work, the use of a “green and clean” pressurised hot water extraction (PHWE) approach performed in continuous flow mode is explored. Experimental data for extraction and degradation kinetics of selected compounds were utilised to develop a continuous flow extraction (CFE) method targeting thermolabile polyphenols in red onions, with detection by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)–diode array detection (DAD)–mass spectrometry (MS). Water containing ethanol and formic acid was used as extraction solvent. Method performance was focused on extraction yield with minimal analyte degradation. By adjusting the flow rate of the extraction solvent, degradation effects were minimised, and complete extraction could be achieved within 60 min. The CFE extraction yields of the polyphenols investigated were 80–90 % of the theoretically calculated quantitative yields and were significantly higher than the yields obtained by conventional methanol extraction and static batch extraction (70–79 and 58–67 % of the theoretical yields, respectively). The precision of the developed method was lower than 8 % expressed as relative standard deviation. Figure Scheme of pressurised hot water extraction of polyphenols in continuous flow mode
Keywords: Anthocyanins; Quercetin; Polyphenols; Extraction; Degradation; Kinetics

NO2 measurement artifacts in the presence of soot by Jan-Christoph Wolf; Alexander Danner; Reinhard Niessner; Christoph Haisch (447-453).
Nitrogen dioxide is a regulated pollutant, which is measured routinely. Since it can be formed during combustion processes, it is often measured in the presence of soot. This study investigates the possible artifact formation due to the interaction of soot and NO2 in the sampling lines and instrument prefilters. The transfer of varying NO2 concentrations through filters and tubes coated with different kinds of soot was investigated by using a dedicated photoacoustic soot and NO2 analyzer (TwinPAS). The effects of flow rate, temperature, relative humidity, tubing respectively filter material, soot reactivity, and passivation on the NO2 measurement artifacts have been investigated. We found significant lags (up to 2 min) of the NO2 transfer as well as total NO2 losses of up 10 %.
Keywords: NO2 ; Soot; Artifacts; Photoacoustic; Diesel exhaust

Analysis of polyamidoamine dendrimers by isoelectric focusing by Samik K. Upadhaya; Douglas R. Swanson; Donald A. Tomalia; Ajit Sharma (455-458).
Polyamidoamine dendrimers have been studied extensively for their potential applications in nanomedicine. Their uses as imaging, drug, and nucleic acid delivery agents are nearing clinical trials. As such, characterization of polyamidoamine dendrimers and their nano-devices is of immense importance for monitoring the efficiency of their synthesis, purity, and quality control of manufactured products as well as their in vivo behavior. We report here the analysis of polyamidoamine dendrimers possessing various cores and surface groups with a simple and inexpensive isoelectric focusing method. The isoelectric points of the dendrimers were readily determined from a calibration plot generated by running proteins with known pI values. The isoelectric points for various surface-modified polyamidoamine dendrimers ranged from 4 to 9. Polyamidoamine dendrimers possessing terminal hydroxyl groups gave a pI > 7, while those with terminal carboxyl groups exhibit a pI < 7. Generation number and cores of the dendrimers did not significantly affect their isoelectric points. Isoelectric focusing thus offers another important tool for characterizing these nanomolecules. Figure IEF of PAMAM dendrimers
Keywords: Polyamidoamine; Dendrimers; Isoelectric focusing; Electrophoresis; pI

Measuring polymer solubility accurately and precisely is challenging. This is especially true at unfavourable solvent compositions, when only very small amounts of polymer dissolve. In this paper, pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) is demonstrated to be much more informative and sensitive than conventional methods, such as ultraviolet spectroscopy. By using a programmed-temperature-vapourisation injector as the pyrolysis chamber, we demonstrate that Py-GC-MS can cover up to five orders of magnitude in dissolved polymer concentrations. For polystyrene, a detection limit of 1 ng mL−1 is attained. Dissolution in poor solvents is demonstrated to be discriminating in terms of the analyte molecular weight. Py-GC-MS additionally can yield information on polymer composition (e.g. in case of copolymers). In combination with size-exclusion chromatography, Py-GC-MS allows us to estimate the molecular weight distributions of minute amounts of a dissolved polymer and variations therein as a function of time. Figure SEC/-/Py-GC-MS (reconstructed, chromatograms) of dissolved polymer in ACN/THF%.
Keywords: Pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS); Size-exclusion chromatography (SEC); Off-line size-exclusion chromatography/pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SEC/-/Py-GC-MS); Polystyrene (PS); Polymer solubility; Low-detection limit

ICP-MS-based characterization of inorganic nanoparticles—sample preparation and off-line fractionation strategies by Anne-Lena Fabricius; Lars Duester; Björn Meermann; Thomas A. Ternes (467-479).
Validated and easily applicable analytical tools are required to develop and implement regulatory frameworks and an appropriate risk assessment for engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). Concerning metal-based ENPs, two main aspects are the quantification of the absolute mass concentration and of the “dissolved” fraction in, e.g., (eco)toxicity and environmental studies. To provide information on preparative aspects and on potential uncertainties, preferably simple off-line methods were compared to determine (1) the total concentration of suspensions of five metal-based ENP materials (Ag, TiO2, CeO2, ZnO, and Au; two sizes), and (2) six methods to quantify the “dissolved” fraction of an Ag ENP suspension. Focusing on inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry, the total concentration of the ENP suspensions was determined by direct measurement, after acidification and after microwave-assisted digestion. Except for Au 10 nm, the total concentrations determined by direct measurements were clearly lower than those measured after digestion (between 61.1 % for Au 200 nm and 93.7 % for ZnO). In general, acidified suspensions delivered better recoveries from 89.3 % (ZnO) to 99.3 % (Ag). For the quantification of dissolved fractions two filtration methods (ultrafiltration and tangential flow filtration), centrifugation and ion selective electrode were mainly appropriate with certain limitations, while dialysis and cloud point extraction cannot be recommended. With respect to precision, time consumption, applicability, as well as to economic demands, ultrafiltration in combination with microwave digestion was identified as best practice. Figure A Multi-method approach to identify best practice for ICP-MS based off-line characterization of ENP suspensions.
Keywords: Nanoparticle quantification; Total concentration analyses; Off-line fractionation; Sample preparation; Dissolved fraction; ICP-MS

The pivotal role of copper(II) in the enantiorecognition of tryptophan and histidine by gold nanoparticles by Annalinda Contino; Giuseppe Maccarrone; Massimo Zimbone; Paolo Musumeci; Alessandro Giuffrida; Lucia Calcagno (481-491).
Stereoselective amino acid analysis has increasingly moved into the scope of interest of the scientific community. In this work, we report a study on the chiral recognition of d,l-Trp and d,l-His using l-Cys-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and copper(II) ion. In the l-Cys-capped AuNPs, the thiol group of the amino acid interacts with AuNPs through the formation of Au–S bond, whereas the α-amino and α-carboxyl groups of the surface-confined cysteine can coordinate the copper(II) ion, which in turn, binds the l- or d-amino acid present in solution forming diastereoisomeric complexes. The resulting systems have been characterized by UV–Vis spectra and dynamic light scattering measurements, obtaining different results for l- and d-Trp, as well as for l- and d-His. The knowledge of the solution equilibria of the investigated systems allowed us to accurately calculate in advance the concentrations of the species present in solution and to optimize the system performances, highlighting the pivotal role of copper(II) ion in the enantiodiscrimination processes.
Keywords: Chiral analysis; Gold nanoparticles; Solution equilibria; Copper(II); Amino acids

Kinetics of bioconjugate nanoparticle label binding in a sandwich-type immunoassay by Tuomas Näreoja; Andreas Ebner; Hermann J. Gruber; Barbara Taskinen; Ferry Kienberger; Pekka E. Hänninen; Vesa P. Hytönen; Peter Hinterdorfer; Harri Härmä (493-503).
Nanoparticle labels have enhanced the performance of diagnostic, screening, and other measurement applications and hold further promise for more sensitive, precise, and cost-effective assay technologies. Nevertheless, a clear view of the biomolecular interactions on the molecular level is missing. Controlling the ratio of molecular recognition over undesired nonspecific adhesion is the key to improve biosensing with nanoparticles. To improve this ratio with an aim to disallow nonspecific binding, a more detailed perspective into the kinetic differences between the cases is needed. We present the application of two novel methods to determine complex binding kinetics of bioconjugate nanoparticles, interferometry, and force spectroscopy. Force spectroscopy is an atomic force microscopy technique and optical interferometry is a direct method to monitor reaction kinetics in second-hour timescale, both having steadily increasing importance in nanomedicine. The combination is perfectly suited for this purpose, due to the high sensitivity to detect binding events and the ability to investigate biological samples under physiological conditions. We have attached a single biofunctionalized nanoparticle to the outer tip apex and studied the binding behavior of the nanoparticle in a sandwich-type immunoassay using dynamic force spectroscopy in millisecond timescale. Utilization of the two novel methods allowed characterization of binding kinetics in a time range spanning from 50 ms to 4 h. These experiments allowed detection and demonstration of differences between specific and nonspecific binding. Most importantly, nonspecific binding of a nanoparticle was reduced at contact times below 100 ms with the solid-phase surface. Figure A single biofunctionalized nanoparticle was attached to the outer tip apex and the binding behavior of the nanoparticle in a sandwich-type immunoassay, A) without analyte, B) with analyte and C) saturating analyte concentration, was recorded using dynamic force spectroscopy in millisecond timescale. The setting allowed measurement of the association speed of nonspecific binding.
Keywords: Biofunctionalized nanoparticle labels; Sandwich-type immunoassay; Force spectroscopy; Nonspecific binding; Biolayer interferometry

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in analysis of deoxynivalenol: investigation of the impact of sample matrix on results accuracy by Zbynek Dzuman; Marta Vaclavikova; Ivana Polisenska; Zdenka Veprikova; Marie Fenclova; Milena Zachariasova; Jana Hajslova (505-514).
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) represents a bioanalytical strategy frequently used for rapid screening of mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) in cereals and derived products. Due to a considerable affinity of some anti-DON antibodies to structurally similar DON metabolites, such as DON-3-glucoside (DON-3-Glc) and 3-acetyl-DON (3-ADON), a significant overestimation of DON concentrations may occur. A validation study of six commercial DON-dedicated ELISA kits, namely Ridascreen DON, Ridascreen FAST, DON, DON EIA, AgraQuant DON Assay, Veratox 5/5, and Veratox HS was carried out on wheat, barley, and malt matrices. Performance characteristics of all tested ELISAs were determined using aqueous solutions of DON, DON-3-Glc, and 3-ADON analytical standards, further with extracts of artificially spiked blank cereals, and finally with matrix-matched standards of all three compounds. In the final phase, the accuracy of data was assessed through a comparison of DON concentrations determined by particular ELISAs and reference ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method. For this purpose, both quality control materials and a comprehensive set of naturally and artificially contaminated samples of wheat, barley, and malt were analyzed. High cross-reactivities were proved for both DON-3-Glc and 3-ADON in the majority of examined assays, and moreover, a considerable contribution of some matrix components to overestimation of DON results was confirmed.
Keywords: Deoxynivalenol; Deoxynivalenol metabolites; Cereals; Cross-reactivity; ELISA; LC-MS/MS

Label-free detection of gliadin food allergen mediated by real-time apta-PCR by Alessandro Pinto; Pedro Nadal Polo; Olivier Henry; M. Carmen Bermudo Redondo; Marketa Svobodova; Ciara K. O’Sullivan (515-524).
Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten. The only effective treatment consists in a lifelong gluten-free diet, requiring the food industry to tightly control the gluten contents of their products. To date, several gluten quantification approaches using antibodies are available and recommended by the legal authorities, such as Codex Alimentarius. However, whilst these antibody-based tests exhibit high sensitivity and specificity, the production of antibodies inherently requires the killing of host animals and is time-consuming and relatively expensive. Aptamers are structured single-stranded nucleic acid ligands that bind with high affinity and specificity to their cognate target, and aiming for a cost-effective viable alternative to the use of antibodies. Herein, we report the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX)-based selection of a DNA aptamer against gliadin from a combinatorial DNA library and its application in a novel detection assay. Taking into account the hydrophobic nature of the gliadin target, a microtitre plate format was exploited for SELEX, where the target was immobilised via hydrophobic interactions, thus exposing aptatopes accessible for interaction with the DNA library. Evolution was followed using surface plasmon resonance, and following eight rounds of SELEX, the enriched DNA pool was cloned, sequenced and a clear consensus motif was identified. An apta-PCR assay was developed where competition for the aptamer takes place between the surface-immobilised gliadin and gliadin in the target sample, akin to an ELISA competitive format where the more target present in the sample, the less aptamer will bind to the immobilised gliadin. Following competition, any aptamer bound to the immobilised gliadin was heat-eluted and quantitatively amplified using real-time PCR, achieving a detection limit of approx. 2 nM (100 ng mL−1). The specificity of the selected aptamer was demonstrated and no cross-reactivity was observed with streptavidin, bovine serum albumin or anti-gliadin IgG. Figure Schematic overview of Apta-PCR
Keywords: Aptamers; Celiac disease; Gliadin; Gluten; Hydrophobic; SELEX

Assays for determining heparan sulfate and heparin O-sulfotransferase activity and specificity by Eric Sterner; Lingyun Li; Priscilla Paul; Julie M. Beaudet; Jian Liu; Robert J. Linhardt; Jonathan S. Dordick (525-536).
O-sulfotransferases (OSTs) are critical enzymes in the cellular biosynthesis of the biologically and pharmacologically important heparan sulfate and heparin. Recently, these enzymes have been cloned and expressed in bacteria for application in the chemoenzymatic synthesis of glycosaminoglycan-based drugs. OST activity assays have largely relied on the use of radioisotopic methods using [35S] 3′-phosphoadenosine-5′-phosphosulfate and scintillation counting. Herein, we examine alternative assays that are more compatible with a biomanufacturing environment. A high throughput microtiter-based approach is reported that relies on a coupled bienzymic colorimetric assay for heparan sulfate and heparin OSTs acting on polysaccharide substrates using arylsulfotransferase-IV and p-nitrophenylsulfate as a sacrificial sulfogroup donor. A second liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric assay, for heparan sulfate and heparin OSTs acting on structurally defined oligosaccharide substrates, is also reported that provides additional information on the number and positions of the transferred sulfo groups within the product. Together, these assays allow quantitative and mechanistic information to be obtained on OSTs that act on heparan sulfate and heparin precursors. Figure Herapan sulfate O-sulfotranferase coupled enzyme colorimetric assay
Keywords: Enzymes; Mass spectrometry; Bioassays; Sulfotransferases; Coupled assay; Heparin; Heparan sulfate

Analyzing abundance of mRNA molecules with a near-infrared fluorescence technique by Ying Chen; Yan Pan; Beibei Zhang; Jinke Wang (537-548).
This study describes a simple method for analyzing the abundance of mRNA molecules in a total DNA sample. Due to the dependence on the near-infrared fluorescence technique, this method is named near-infrared fluorescence gene expression detection (NIRF-GED). The procedure has three steps: (1) isolating total RNA from detected samples and reverse-transcription into cDNA with a biotin-labeled oligo dT; (2) hybridizing cDNA to oligonucleotide probes coupled to a 96-well microplate; and (3) detecting biotins with NIRF-labeled streptavidin. The method was evaluated by performing proof-in-concept detections of absolute and relative expressions of housekeeping and NF-κB target genes in HeLa cells. As a result, the absolute expression of three genes, Ccl20, Cxcl2, and Gapdh, in TNF-α-uninduced HeLa cells was determined with a standard curve constructed on the same microplate, and the relative expression of five genes, Ccl20, Cxcl2, Il-6, STAT5A, and Gapdh, in TNF-α-induced and -uninduced HeLa cells was measured by using NIRF-GED. The results were verified by quantitative PCR (qPCR) and DNA microarray detections. The biggest advantage of NIRF-GED over the current techniques lies in its independence of exponential or linear amplification of nucleic acids. Moreover, NIRF-GED also has several other benefits, including high sensitivity as low as several fmols, absolute quantification in the range of 9 to 147 fmols, low cDNA consumption similar to qPCR template, and the current medium throughput in 96-well microplate format and future high throughput in DNA microarray format. NIRF-GED thus provides a new tool for analyzing gene transcripts and other nucleic acid molecules. Figure ᅟ
Keywords: Near-infrared fluorescence; DNA-coupled microplate; Gene expression

Recirculation—a novel approach to quantify interstitial analytes in living tissue by combining a sensor with open-flow microperfusion by Lukas Schaupp; Franz Feichtner; Roland Schaller-Ammann; Selma Mautner; Martin Ellmerer; Thomas R. Pieber (549-554).
We report a novel approach to quantify interstitial analytes in living tissue by combining open-flow microperfusion (OFM) with a sensor and the re-circulation method. OFM is based on the unrestricted exchange of molecules between the interstitial fluid (ISF) and a perfusion medium through macroscopic perforations that enables direct access to the ISF. By re-circulating the perfusate and monitoring the changes of the analytes’ concentration with a sensor, the absolute analyte concentration in the ISF can be calculated. In order to validate the new concept, the absolute electrical conductivity of the ISF was identified in six subjects to be 1.33 ± 0.08 S/m (coefficient of variation CV = 6 %), showing the robustness of this approach. The most striking feature of this procedure is the possibility to monitor several compounds simultaneously by applying different sensors which will allow not only the determination of the concentration of a single substance in vivo but also the simultaneous dynamics of different analytes. This will open new fields in analytical chemistry, pharmacology, as well as clinical experimental research.
Keywords: Sampling technique; Open flow microperfusion; Quantification; Electrical conductivity; Re-circulation

Lipidomic profiling of plasma in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection by Feng Qu; Su-Jun Zheng; Cai-Sheng Wu; Zhi-Xin Jia; Jin-Lan Zhang; Zhong-Ping Duan (555-564).
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a global health issue. Although its progression is reported to be closely associated with lipids, the way in which the plasma lipidome changes during the development of chronic HCV infection in humans is currently unknown. Using an improved quantitative high-throughput lipidomic platform, we profiled 284 lipids in human plasma samples obtained from healthy controls (n = 11) and patients with chronic HCV infection (n = 113). The intrahepatic inflammation grade (IG) of liver tissue was determined by biopsy. Two types of mass spectrometers were integrated into a single lipidomic platform with a wide dynamic range. Compared with previous methods, the performance of this method was significantly improved in terms of both the number of target sphingolipids identified and the specificity of the high-resolution mass spectrometer. As a result, 44 sphingolipids, one diacylglycerol, 43 triglycerides, 24 glycerophosphocholines, and 5 glycerophospho-ethanolamines were successfully identified and quantified. The lipid profiles of individuals with chronic HCV infection were significantly different from those of healthy individuals. Several lipids showed significant differences between mild and severe intrahepatic inflammation grades, indicating that they could be utilized as novel noninvasive indicators of intrahepatic IG. Using multivariate analysis, healthy controls could be discriminated from HCV patients based on their plasma lipidome; however, patients with different IGs were not well discriminated. Based on these results, we speculate that variations in lipid composition arise as a result of HCV infection, and are caused by HCV-related digestive system disorders rather than progression of the disease. Figure Flowchart of the lipidomic platform
Keywords: Lipidomics; Hepatitis C virus; Plasma; Clinical analysis; Intrahepatic inflammation grade

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging of cardiolipins in rat organ sections by Hay-Yan J. Wang; Hsuan-Wen Wu; Ping-Ju Tsai; Cheng Bin Liu; Zhi-Fu Zheng (565-575).
Cardiolipin (CL) is a class of phospholipid tightly associated with the mitochondria functions and a prime target of oxidative stress. Peroxidation of CL dissociates its bound cytochrome C, a phenomenon that reflects oxidative stress sustained by the organ and a trigger for the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. However, CL distribution in normal organ tissues has yet to be documented. Fresh rat organs were snap-frozen, cut into cryosections that were subsequently desalted with ammonium acetate solution, and vacuum-dried. CL distribution in situ was determined using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) technique on sections sublimed with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid. CL images in rat cardiac ventricular section showed a homogeneous distribution of a single m/z 1447.9 ion species that was confirmed as the (18:2)4 CL by tandem mass spectrometry. The presence of low abundant (18:2)3(18:1) CL with the bulk (18:2)4 CL in quadriceps femoris rendered the muscle CL exhibiting a slightly deviated isotopic pattern from that of cardiac muscle. In rat liver, MALDI-MSI unveiled three CL-containing mass ranges, each with a unique in situ distribution pattern. Co-registration of the CL ion images with its stained liver section image further revealed the association of CLs in each mass range with the functional zones in the liver parenchyma and suggests the participation of in situ CLs with localized hepatic functions such as oxidation, conjugation, and detoxification. The advances in CL imaging offer an approach with molecular accuracy to reveal potentially dysregulated metabolic machineries in acute and chronic diseased states.
Keywords: MALDI-mass spectrometry imaging; Cardiolipin; Mitochondria; Lipidomics

Using electrospray laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry to rapidly examine the integrity of proteins stored in various solutions by Yi-Tzu Cho; Min-Zong Huang; Sih-You Wu; Ming-Feng Hou; Jianjun Li; Jentaie Shiea (577-586).
Electrospray laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry (ELDI/MS) allows the rapid desorption and ionization of proteins from solutions under ambient conditions. In this study, we have demonstrated the use of ELDI/MS to efficiently examine the integrity of the proteins stored in various solutions before they were further used for other biochemical tests. The protein standards were prepared in the solutions containing buffers, organic salts, inorganic salts, strong acid, strong base, and organic solvents, respectively, to simulate those collected from solvent extraction, filtration, dialysis, or chromatographic separation. Other than the deposit of a drop of the sample solution on the metallic sample plate in an ELDI source, no additional sample pretreatment is needed. The sample drop was then irradiated with a pulsed laser; this led to desorption of the analyte molecules, which subsequently entered the ESI plume to undergo post-ionization. Because adjustment of the composition of the sample solution is unnecessary, this technique appears to be useful for rapidly evaluating the integrity of proteins after storage or prior to further biochemical treatment. In addition, when using acid-free and low-organic-solvent ESI solutions for ELDI/MS analysis, the native conformations of the proteins in solution could be detected. Figure ᅟ
Keywords: Electrospray laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry; ELDI; Protein integrity; Native conformation

3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and metabolites disposition in blood and plasma following controlled oral administration by Rebecca L. Hartman; Nathalie A. Desrosiers; Allan J. Barnes; Keming Yun; Karl B. Scheidweiler; Erin A. Kolbrich-Spargo; David A. Gorelick; Robert S. Goodwin; Marilyn A. Huestis (587-599).
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an illicit phenethylamine ingested for entactogenic and euphoric effects. Although blood is more commonly submitted for forensic analysis, previous human MDMA pharmacokinetics research focused on plasma data; no direct blood–plasma comparisons were drawn. Blood and plasma specimens from 50 healthy adult volunteers (33 males, 17 females, 36 African-American) who ingested recreational 1.0 and 1.6 mg/kg MDMA doses were quantified for MDMA and metabolites 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyamphetamine (HMA) by two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Specimens were collected up to 3 h post-dose and evaluated for maximum concentration (C max), first detection time (t first), time of C max (t max), and 3-h area under the curve (AUC0–3 h); as well as blood metabolite ratios and blood/plasma ratios. Median blood MDMA and MDA C max were significantly greater (p < 0.0005) than in plasma, but HMMA was significantly less (p < 0.0005). HMA was detected in few blood specimens, at low concentrations. Nonlinear pharmacokinetics were not observed for MDMA or MDA in this absorptive phase, but HMMA C max and AUC0–3 h were similar for both doses despite the 1.6-fold dose difference. Blood MDA/MDMA and MDA/HMMA significantly increased (p < 0.0001) over the 3-h time course, and HMMA/MDMA significantly decreased (p < 0.0001). Blood MDMA C max was significantly greater in females (p = 0.010) after the low dose only. Low-dose HMMA AUC0–3 h was significantly decreased in females’ blood and plasma (p = 0.027) and in African-Americans’ plasma (p = 0.035). These data provide valuable insight into MDMA blood–plasma relationships for forensic interpretation and evidence of sex- and race-based differential metabolism and risk profiles. Figure Median (interquartile range) blood/plasma 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) (a), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxymethamphetamine (HMMA) (b), and 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) (c) ratios for 3 h after controlled MDMA administration. Changes over time were significant after the 1.6 mg/kg dose for HMMA and MDA (p = 0.013 and p = 0.021), but not for MDMA. No changes over time were significant after the 1.0 mg/kg dose. Note: y-axes do not begin at 0. *p  < 0.05 (low vs. high)
Keywords: MDMA; Ecstasy; Pharmacokinetics; Metabolites; Blood; Plasma

Coastal areas are subject to growing pressures and impacts because of the increase in human activities. Lipophilic organic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), have been monitored for decades within monitoring programs. However, until now, little information on the detection of so-called “emerging contaminants” such as hydrophilic organic compounds in the marine environment and no data on its metabolites or transformation products in marine organisms is available. In this report, a sensitive analytical methodology for identification and confirmation of venlafaxine (VEN) residues and five of its main metabolites in the marine mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis was validated. The sample preparation procedure was based on the Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe (QuEChERS) approach. An analytical method was developed to quantify these compounds at trace levels by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. The method was then applied to marine mussels collected from the Mediterranean Sea in southeastern France. Residues of the antidepressant VEN were occasionally detected at ng/g dw level. In addition, the approach allowed us to identify several transformation products in the analyzed samples. N-desmethylvenlafaxine (NDV) was the most frequently detected metabolite followed by N,O-di-desmethylvenlafaxine (NODDV). Figure Occurrence of v enlafaxine residues and its metabolites in marine mussels
Keywords: Antidepressant; Emerging contaminants; Transformation products; Marine organisms; Orbitrap; QuEChERS

Qualitative/quantitative strategy for the determination of glufosinate and metabolites in plants by A. M. Rojano-Delgado; F. Priego-Capote; R. De Prado; M. D. Luque de Castro (611-620).
A simple method for the simultaneous determination of glufosinate and its metabolites in plants based on liquid chromatography–ultraviolet (LC–UV) absorption detection after derivatization with fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chloride (FMOC-Cl) of some analytes to facilitate separation is reported here. Nonavailable standard metabolites were identified by LC–TOF/mass spectrometry (MS), which also confirmed all target analytes. Ultrasound-assisted extraction was used for sample preparation (power of 70 W and duty cycle of 0.7 s/s for 10 min) with subsequent evaporation of the extractant, reconstitution and filtration as the cleanup/concentration step prior to derivatization, and chromatographic separation and detection at 270 nm for underivatized analytes and 340 nm for those that were derivatized. The chromatographic analysis was completed in 40 min using a Luna® column (C18 phase). The analytical characteristics of the method were linear dynamic range of the calibration curves within 0.047–700 μg/mL with a regression coefficient (rc) of 0.999 for glufosinate, 0.077–700 μg/mL with a rc of 0.998 for N-acetyl-glufosinate, and 0.116–600 μg/mL with a rc of 0.998 for 3-(methylphosphinico)propanoic acid. The precision for the determination of glufosinate (studied at two levels, 0.1 and 5 μg/mL) was 2.7 and 6.0 % for repeatability and 4.7 and 7.2 % for within-laboratory reproducibility, respectively. Identification and confirmatory analysis of the presence of glufosinate and metabolites in the extracts from treated plants was carried out by LC–TOF/MS in high-resolution mode for the precursor ion. The method was validated by analyzing wheat (Triticum aestivum) samples (resistant and susceptible biotypes) treated with 300 g of glufosinate/ha following conventional agronomical practices.
Keywords: FMOC-Cl derivatization; Glufosinate; LC–TOF/MS; LC–UV separation–determination; Metabolites

Sensitive analytical methods for 22 relevant insecticides of 3 chemical families in honey by GC-MS/MS and LC-MS/MS by Delphine Paradis; Géraldine Bérail; Jean-Marc Bonmatin; Luc P. Belzunces (621-633).
Several methods for analyzing pesticides in honey have been developed. However, they do not always reach the sufficiently low limits of quantification (LOQ) needed to quantify pesticides toxic to honey bees at low doses. To properly evaluate the toxicity of pesticides, LOQ have to reach at least 1 ng/g. In this context, we developed extraction and analytical methods for the simultaneous detection of 22 relevant insecticides belonging to three chemical families (neonicotinoids, pyrethroids, and pyrazoles) in honey. The insecticides were extracted with the QuEChERS method that consists in an extraction and a purification with mixtures of salts adapted to the matrix and the substances to be extracted. Analyses were performed by gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) for the pyrazoles and the pyrethroids and by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) for the neonicotinoids and ethiprole. Calibration curves were built from various honey types fortified at different concentrations. Linear responses were obtained between 0.2 and 5 ng/g. Limits of detection (LOD) ranged between 0.07 and 0.2 ng/g, and LOQ ranged between 0.2 and 0.5 ng/g. The mean extraction yields ranged between 63 % and 139 % with RSD <25 %. A complete validation of the methods also examined recovery rates and specificity. These methods were applied to 90 honey samples collected during a 2009–2010 field study in two apiaries placed in different anthropic contexts. Figure During their foraging activity, honey bees harvest nectar or pollen that can be contaminated with pesticides used in agriculture
Keywords: Honey; Insecticide residues; QuEChERS; Neonicotinoids; Pyrethroids; Pyrazoles

A simple, low-cost, and efficient online focusing method that combines a dynamic pH junction and sweeping by capillary electrophoresis with polymer solutions was developed and optimized for the simultaneous determination of benzoic acid (BA) and sorbic acid (SA). A sample solution consisting of 2.5 mM phosphate at pH 3.0 and a buffer solution containing 15 mM tetraborate (pH 9.2), 40 mM sodium dodecyl sulfate, and 0.100 % (w/v) poly(ethylene oxide) were utilized to realize dynamic pH junction–sweeping for BA and SA. Under the optimized conditions, the entire analysis process was completed in 7 min, and a 900-fold sensitivity enhancement was achieved with limits of detection (S/N = 3) as low as 8.2 and 6.1 nM for BA and SA, respectively. The linear ranges were between 20 nM and 20 μM for BA and 20 nM and 10 μM for SA, with correlation coefficients greater than 0.992. The recoveries of the proposed method ranged from 90 to 113 %. These satisfactory results indicate that this method has the potential to be an effective analytical tool for the rapid screening of BA and SA in different food products. Figure An online focusing strategy combining dynamic pH junction and sweeping for sensitive determination of benzoic and sorbic acid in food products using capillary electrophoresis wit polymer solutions
Keywords: Benzoic acid; Capillary electrophoresis; Dynamic pH junction–sweeping; Sodium dodecyl sulfate; Sorbic acid

The gas–liquid partitioning behavior of major odorants (acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid, n-butyric acid, i-valeric acid, n-valeric acid, hexanoic acid, phenol, p-cresol, indole, skatole, and toluene (as a reference)) commonly found in microbially digested wastewaters was investigated by two experimental approaches. Firstly, a simple vaporization method was applied to measure the target odorants dissolved in liquid samples with the aid of sorbent tube/thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. As an alternative method, an impinger-based dynamic headspace sampling method was also explored to measure the partitioning of target odorants between the gas and liquid phases with the same detection system. The relative extraction efficiency (in percent) of the odorants by dynamic headspace sampling was estimated against the calibration results derived by the vaporization method. Finally, the concentrations of the major odorants in real digested wastewater samples were also analyzed using both analytical approaches. Through a parallel application of the two experimental methods, we intended to develop an experimental approach to be able to assess the liquid-to-gas phase partitioning behavior of major odorants in a complex wastewater system. The relative sensitivity of the two methods expressed in terms of response factor ratios (RFvap/RFimp) of liquid standard calibration between vaporization and impinger-based calibrations varied widely from 981 (skatole) to 6,022 (acetic acid). Comparison of this relative sensitivity thus highlights the rather low extraction efficiency of the highly soluble and more acidic odorants from wastewater samples in dynamic headspace sampling.
Keywords: Odorants; Vaporization; Dynamic headspace; Impinger system; Relative recovery; Wastewater