Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry (v.390, #5)

is Professor of Chemistry at Michigan State University, where she is actively involved in the formal and informal education of graduate and postdoctoral students. Her primary research interests are in the thermodynamic and kinetic basis of liquid chromatography and electrophoresis. She is also interested in the development of novel laser-based detection systems for chromatography and electrophoresis, as well their practical application for forensic and environmental applications.

Quality assurance challenge 6 by Manfred Reichenbächer; Jürgen W. Einax (1217-1218).

Solution to spectroscopy challenge 12 by Reinhard Meusinger (1219-1220).

Chemometrics in analytical chemistry by Jürgen W. Einax (1225-1226).
is Professor of Analytical Chemistry at the Friedrich Schiller University of Jena and Head of the Department of Environmental Analysis. His main areas of research include not only trace analysis problems in the environment, but also the application of chemometrics to environmental research. He is a member of the executive board of the Analytical Chemistry Division of the German Chemical Society and is Chairman of the Working Group for Chemometrics and Laboratory Data Processing in that division.

For screening purposes, two-level screening designs, such as fractional factorial (FF) and Plackett–Burman (PB) designs, are usually applied. These designs enable examination of, at most, N−1 factors in N experiments. However, when many factors need to be examined, the number of experiments still becomes unfeasibly large. Occasionally, in order to reduce time and costs, a given number of factors can be examined in fewer experiments than with the above screening designs, by using supersaturated designs. These designs examine more than N SS−1 factors in N SS experiments. In this review, different set-ups to construct supersaturated designs are explained and discussed, followed by several possible data interpretations of supersaturated design results. Finally, some analytical applications of supersaturated designs are given.
Keywords: Supersaturated designs; Set-up; Data interpretation; Analytical application

Cross-validation of component models: A critical look at current methods by R. Bro; K. Kjeldahl; A. K. Smilde; H. A. L. Kiers (1241-1251).
In regression, cross-validation is an effective and popular approach that is used to decide, for example, the number of underlying features, and to estimate the average prediction error. The basic principle of cross-validation is to leave out part of the data, build a model, and then predict the left-out samples. While such an approach can also be envisioned for component models such as principal component analysis (PCA), most current implementations do not comply with the essential requirement that the predictions should be independent of the entity being predicted. Further, these methods have not been properly reviewed in the literature. In this paper, we review the most commonly used generic PCA cross-validation schemes and assess how well they work in various scenarios.
Keywords: Overfitting; PRESS; Cross-validation; PCA; Rank estimation

Force microscopy analysis using chemometric tools by Christian Budich; Jonathan West; Peter Lampen; Volker Deckert (1253-1260).
In this paper we report the first application of multivariate data analysis techniques to force spectrometry measurement sets to enable the physicochemical assignment of spatially ordered multi-component systems. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering techniques were used to reveal hidden chemical information within force-distance curves generated by high spatial resolution force microscopy. Two experimental samples were analyzed: (i) a two-component system of cytochrome c proteins on a mica surface, and (ii) a three-component system of avidin protein islands positioned on a gold and glass surface. PCA and hierarchical clustering techniques were used to discriminate the different components of the two-component system, whereas hierarchical clustering was found to be superior for the three-component system. Results were in good agreement with the topography and prior knowledge of the surface patterns. This research represents a formative step towards the combination of force spectrometry with chemometric tools for the high resolution physicochemical investigation of complex biochemical systems.
Keywords: Interface; Surface analysis; Chemometrics; Statistics; AFM (atomic force microscopy); Force spectroscopy; Force-distance curves

Small sample sizes are very common in multivariate analysis. Sample sizes of 10–100 statistically independent objects (rejects from processes or loading dock analysis, or patients with a rare disease), each with hundreds of data points, cause unstable models with poor predictive quality. Model stability is assessed by comparing models that were built using slightly varying training data. Iterated k-fold cross-validation is used for this purpose. Aggregation stabilizes models. It is possible to assess the quality of the aggregated model without calculating further models. The validation and aggregation methods investigated in this study apply to regression as well as to classification. These techniques are useful for analyzing data with large numbers of variates, e.g., any spectral data like FT-IR, Raman, UV/VIS, fluorescence, AAS, and MS. FT-IR images of tumor tissue were used in this study. Some tissue types occur frequently, while some are very rare. They are classified using LDA. Initial models were severely unstable. Aggregation stabilizes the predictions. The hit rate increased from 67% to 82%.
Keywords: Chemometrics/statistics; Small sample size; Model aggregation; Model stability; IR spectroscopy/Raman spectroscopy; Brain tumor

Discrimination of biofilm samples using pattern recognition techniques by Ivana Stanimirova; Andrea Kubik; Beata Walczak; Jürgen W. Einax (1273-1282).
Biofilms are complex aggregates formed by microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi and algae, which grow at the interfaces between water and natural or artificial materials. They are actively involved in processes of sorption and desorption of metal ions in water and reflect the environmental conditions in the recent past. Therefore, biofilms can be used as bioindicators of water quality. The goal of this study was to determine whether the biofilms, developed in different aquatic systems, could be successfully discriminated using data on their elemental compositions. Biofilms were grown on natural or polycarbonate materials in flowing water, standing water and seawater bodies. Using an unsupervised technique such as principal component analysis (PCA) and several supervised methods like classification and regression trees (CART), discriminant partial least squares regression (DPLS) and uninformative variable elimination–DPLS (UVE-DPLS), we could confirm the uniqueness of sea biofilms and make a distinction between flowing water and standing water biofilms. The CART, DPLS and UVE-DPLS discriminant models were validated with an independent test set selected either by the Kennard and Stone method or the duplex algorithm. The best model was obtained from CART with 100% correct classification rate for the test set designed by the Kennard and Stone algorithm. With CART, one variable describing the Mg content in the biofilm water phase was found to be important for the discrimination of flowing water and standing water biofilms.
Keywords: Biofilms; Chemometrics; Environmental pollution; Classification and regression trees; Uninformative variable elimination–discriminant partial least squares regression

Multivariate classification and modeling in surface water pollution estimation by A. Astel; S. Tsakovski; V. Simeonov; E. Reisenhofer; S. Piselli; P. Barbieri (1283-1292).
The present study deals with the application of self-organizing maps (SOM) and multiway principal-components analysis to classify, model, and interpret a large monitoring data set for surface water quality. The chemometric methods applied made it possible to reveal specific quality patterns of the chemical and biological parameters used to monitor the water quality (relation between water temperature, turbidity, hardness, colibacteria), seasonal impacts during the long period of observation and the relative independence on the spatial location of the sampling sites (water supply sources for the City of Trieste). Figure The schematic procedure for surface water pollution estimation supported by neural network-based classification and multivariate factor analysis
Keywords: Chemometrics; Surface water; N-way PCA; SOM; City of Trieste

We discuss the clustering of 234 environmental samples resulting from an extensive monitoring program concerning soil lead content, plant lead content, traffic density, and distance from the road at different sampling locations in former East Germany. Considering the structure of data and the unsatisfactory results obtained applying classical clustering and principal component analysis, it appeared evident that fuzzy clustering could be one of the best solutions. In the following order we used different fuzzy clustering algorithms, namely, the fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm, the Gustafson–Kessel (GK) algorithm, which may detect clusters of ellipsoidal shapes in data by introducing an adaptive distance norm for each cluster, and the fuzzy c-varieties (FCV) algorithm, which was developed for recognition of r-dimensional linear varieties in high-dimensional data (lines, planes or hyperplanes). Fuzzy clustering with convex combination of point prototypes and different multidimensional linear prototypes is also discussed and applied for the first time in analytical chemistry (environmetrics). The results obtained in this study show the advantages of the FCV and GK algorithms over the FCM algorithm. The performance of each algorithm is illustrated by graphs and evaluated by the values of some conventional cluster validity indices. The values of the validity indices are in very good agreement with the quality of the clustering results. Figure Projection of all samples on the plane defined by the membership degrees to cluster A2, and A4 obtained using Fuzzy c-varieties (FCV) algorithm (expression of objective function and distance enclosed)
Keywords: Fuzzy c-means algorithm; Gustafson–Kessel algorithm; Fuzzy c-varieties algorithm; Clustering validity; Soil and plant samples; Traffic-emitted lead pollution

The laccase-catalysed transformation of indigo carmine (IC) with and without a redox active mediator was studied using online UV–visible spectroscopy. Deconvolution of the mixture spectra obtained during the reaction was performed on a model-free basis using multivariate curve resolution (MCR). Thereby, the time courses of educts, products, and reaction intermediates involved in the transformation were reconstructed without prior mechanistic assumptions. Furthermore, the spectral signature of a reactive intermediate which could not have been detected by a classical hard-modelling approach was extracted from the chemometric analysis. The findings suggest that the combined use of UV–visible spectroscopy and MCR may lead to unexpectedly deep mechanistic evidence otherwise buried in the experimental data. Thus, although rather an unspecific method, UV–visible spectroscopy can prove useful in the monitoring of chemical reactions when combined with MCR. This offers a wide range of chemists a cheap and readily available, highly sensitive tool for chemical reaction online monitoring.
Keywords: UV–visible spectroscopy; MCR-ALS; Online reaction monitoring; Indigo carmine; Laccase

Assessment of robustness for an LC–MS–MS multi-method by response-surface methodology, and its sensitivity by Alexander Müller; Dirk Flottmann; Wolfgang Schulz; Wolfram Seitz; Walter H. Weber (1317-1326).
Sensitive, fast, and robust multi-methods are required for the surveillance of the contamination of the drinking water resources by organic trace contaminants. In the present work an alternative strategy using response surface methodology (RSM) was applied for assessment of the robustness of a LC–MS–MS multi-method. The analytical method was optimised by means of a central composite design including six design variables. The main object was to evaluate the significance of the RSM results with regard to robustness and to the sensitivity to the mass transitions used in the multi-method. The robustness of the multi-method was represented by the curvature of the calculated response surfaces for the response value R. Furthermore, it could be demonstrated that the RSM was sensitive to changes made to the investigated data set and was able to clearly indicate the fraction of substances, which met the defined criterion for signal-to-noise-ratio.
Keywords: Central composite design; Response surface methodology; Validation; Robustness; LC–MS–MS; Multi-method

Application of partial least squares discriminant analysis and variable selection procedures: a 2D-PAGE proteomic study by Emilio Marengo; Elisa Robotti; Marco Bobba; Alberto Milli; Natascia Campostrini; Sabina Carla Righetti; Daniela Cecconi; Pier Giorgio Righetti (1327-1342).
2D gel electrophoresis is a tool for measuring protein regulation, involving image analysis by dedicated software (PDQuest, Melanie, etc.). Here, partial least squares discriminant analysis was applied to improve the results obtained by classic image analysis and to identify the significant spots responsible for the differences between two datasets. A human colon cancer HCT116 cell line was analyzed, treated and not treated with a new histone deacetylase inhibitor, RC307. The proteins regulated by RC307 were detected by analyzing the total lysates and nuclear proteome profiles. Some of the regulated spots were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. The preliminary data are encouraging and the protein modulation reported is consistent with the antitumoral effect of RC307 on the HCT116 cell line. Partial least squares discriminant analysis coupled with backward elimination variable selection allowed the identification of a larger number of spots than classic PDQuest analysis. Moreover, it allows the achievement of the best performances of the model in terms of prediction and provides therefore more robust and reliable results. From this point of view, the multivariate procedure applied can be considered a good alternative to standard differential analysis, also taking into account the interdependencies existing among the variables.
Keywords: Two-dimensional maps; Proteomics; Multivariate statistical methods; Partial least squares discriminant analysis; Variable selection procedures

Determination of PBDEs in human breast adipose tissues by gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry by C. M. Medina; E. Pitarch; F. J. López; C. Vázquez; F. Hernández (1343-1354).
The potential of gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with a triple quadrupole analyzer for determination of 12 polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human breast tissues has been investigated. After extraction with hexane, two purification procedures-automated normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and solid-phase extraction-were assayed. Both electron impact ionization, in selected reaction monitoring mode, and negative chemical ionization, in selected ion recording mode, were tested for the optimum determination of analytes. Isotopically labeled standards were added before extraction as surrogates: [13C]BDE47, [13C]BDE99 and [13C]BDE153 for electron impact ionization, and p,p′-DDE-d 8 for negative chemical ionization. The method was validated in terms of accuracy, precision, limits of detection and limits of quantification, using human breast tissue spiked at three levels in the range 1–50 ng/g (5–250 ng/g for BDE209). The analytical approach using solid-phase extraction cleanup followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (negative chemical ionization ) led to lower detection limits (0.006–2 ng/g) and allowed the determination of the most problematic congener, BDE209, whose poor sensitivity made difficult its determination at low residue levels. Special attention was given to the confirmation of the compounds detected in samples in order to avoid reporting false positives. Two tandem mass spectrometry transitions or three m/z ions were selected for each analyte when using electron impact ionization or negative chemical ionization modes, respectively. In both cases, the transition to ion intensity ratio was used as a confirmation parameter. The method developed was applied to the analysis of real human samples. Several brominated diphenyl ethers (congeners 47, 100, 99, 154, 153, 183 and 209) were detected in the range 0.08–0.23 ng/g.
Keywords: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers; Gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry; Human breast adipose tissue; Triple quadrupole analyzer; Electron impact; Negative chemical ionization

Self-referencing with ion-selective microelectrodes (ISMs) is a useful approach for monitoring near-real-time ion flux near single cells and across epithelia. While ISMs for H+, Ca2+, and K+ have been optimized for use with self-referencing, ISMs for two other primary inorganic ions, Na+ and Cl, have not. In this study, we have characterized ISMs based on three Na+ ionophores (I, VI, and X) and one Cl ionophore to assess their suitability for use with self-referencing. ISMs constructed with Na+ ionophore VI have short response times (≈100 ms) but possess nearly an order of magnitude less selectivity for Na+ over K+ than ISMs constructed with Na+ ionophore X. The Na+ ionophore X mixture was enhanced to give it a shorter response time while not compromising its selectivity. A Cl-selective microelectrode was constructed and characterized with superior anionic selectivity compared with previously reported Cl ISMs used with self-referencing. This Cl-selective microelectrode, however, has a relatively slow response time (≈3 s), thus requiring changes to the self-referencing protocol. Self-referencing with these ISMs will enable near-real-time ion flux measurements for Na+ and Cl.
Keywords: Ion-selective microelectrode; Self-referencing; Na+ ; Cl

A new electrochemical method for the quantitation of bacteria that is rapid, inexpensive, and amenable to miniaturization is reported. Cyclic voltammetry was used to quantitate M. luteus, C. sporogenes, and E. coli JM105 in exponential and stationary phases, following exposure of screen-printed carbon working electrodes (SPCEs) to lysed culture samples. Ferricyanide was used as a probe. The detection limits (3s) were calculated and the dynamic ranges for E. coli (exponential and stationary phases), M. luteus (exponential and stationary phases), and C. sporogenes (exponential phase) lysed by lysozyme were 3 × 104 to 5 × 106 colony-forming units (CFU) mL−1, 5 × 106 to 2 × 108 CFU mL−1 and 3 × 103 to 3 × 105 CFU mL−1, respectively. Good overlap was obtained between the calibration curves when the electrochemical signal was plotted against the dry bacterial weight, or between the protein concentration in the bacterial lysate. In contrast, unlysed bacteria did not change the electrochemical signal of ferricyanide. The results indicate that the reduction of the electrochemical signal in the presence of the lysate is mainly due to the fouling of the electrode by proteins. Similar results were obtained with carbon-paste electrodes although detection limits were better with SPCEs. The method described herein was applied to quantitation of bacteria in a cooling tower water sample.
Keywords: Quantitation of bacteria; Lysis; Screen-printed carbon electrode; Voltammetry; Adsorption; Biomolecules

Development of a photodiode array biochip using a bipolar semiconductor and its application to detection of human papilloma virus by Taek Jin Baek; Pan Yun Park; Kwi Nam Han; Ho Taik Kwon; Gi Hun Seong (1373-1378).
We describe a DNA microarray system using a bipolar integrated circuit photodiode array (PDA) chip as a new platform for DNA analysis. The PDA chip comprises an 8 × 6 array of photodiodes each with a diameter of 600 μm. Each photodiode element acts both as a support for an immobilizing probe DNA and as a two-dimensional photodetector. The usefulness of the PDA microarray platform is demonstrated by the detection of high-risk subtypes of human papilloma virus (HPV). The polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified biotinylated HPV target DNA was hybridized with the immobilized probe DNA on the photodiode surface, and the chip was incubated in an anti-biotin antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticle solution. The silver enhancement by the gold nanoparticles bound to the biotin of the HPV target DNA precipitates silver metal particles at the chip surfaces, which block light irradiated from above. The resulting drop in output voltage depends on the amount of target DNA present in the sample solution, which allows the specific detection and the quantitative analysis of the complementary target DNA. The PDA chip showed high relative signal ratios of HPV probe DNA hybridized with complementary target DNA, indicating an excellent capability in discriminating HPV subtypes. The detection limit for the HPV target DNA analysis improved from 1.2 nM to 30 pM by changing the silver development time from 5 to 10 min. Moreover, the enhanced silver development promoted by the gold nanoparticles could be applied to a broader range of target DNA concentration by controlling the silver development time. Figure An optical image of the PDA chip and target DNA detection through silver enhancement
Keywords: Biochips; Photodiode array; Human papilloma virus; Gold nanoparticles; DNA detection; Silver enhancement

Individually addressable microelectrode array for monitoring oxygen and nitric oxide release by Bhavik Anil Patel; Martin Arundell; Ruben G. W. Quek; Severin L. R. Harvey; Ian R. Ellis; Margaret M. Florence; Anthony E. G. Cass; Ana M. Schor; Danny O’Hare (1379-1387).
We have fabricated a six individual addressable gold working electrode microarray. The device is wirebonded to an eight-pin DIL package that can be easily interconnected to an external multi-channel potentiostat. A polyion complex film coating on the electrode surface provides a suitable coating for the growth of cells. The responses of oxygen and nitric oxide were assessed on uncoated and coated devices using electroanalytical methods. The film coating reduced the diffusion current by approximately 20% in both cases. No changes in the electrochemical mechanism were observed. Simultaneous recordings were obtained for 2 h in the presence of the cells, thus the device is stable for the duration of the bioanalytical measurements. Measurements were conducted to study the simultaneous changes in oxygen and nitric oxide levels in cultured fibroblast cells in the presence of growth hormones that cause cell proliferation. Increases in oxygen consumption of the cells were coupled with increases in nitric oxide levels when in the presence of the growth hormones. Use of a biological detergent to cause an oxidative burst resulted in a large increase in the current for potentials set to detect nitric oxide and oxygen.
Keywords: Microelectrode array; Nitric oxide; Oxygen; Fibroblast cell; Film coating

This paper describes a liquid chromatographic/tandem mass spectrometric (LC/MS–MS) method specifically designed for the screening of synthetic glucocorticosteroids in human urine. The method is designed to recognize a common mass spectral fragment formed from the particular portion of the molecular structure that is common to all synthetic glucocorticosteroids and that is fundamental to their pharmacological activity. As such, the method is also suitable for detecting unknown substances, provided they contain the portion of the molecular structure selected as the analytical target. The effectiveness of this approach was evaluated on seventeen synthetic glucocorticosteroids. Urine samples, including blank urines spiked with one or more synthetic glucocorticosteroids, were treated according to a standard procedure (enzymatic hydrolysis, liquid/liquid extraction and evaporation to dryness) and analyzed using LC/MS-MS with electrospray ionization (ESI). MS–MS acquisition was carried out in a precursor ion scan, and the results were compared with those obtained by a previously developed reference technique based on acquisition in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. All of the glucocorticosteroids considered in this study are clearly detectable in urine, with a limit of detection in the concentration range 5–20 ng/mL, depending on the glucocorticosteroid structure. The proposed method is therefore suitable for the detection of glucocorticosteroids in urine samples taken for “in competition” sport anti-doping control tests, matching the requirements of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) for accredited anti-doping laboratories. Figure Structures of the synthetic glucocorticoids considered in this study
Keywords: Glucocorticosteroids; LC/MS–MS; Precursor ion scan; Structure–activity relationships; Anti-doping analysis

Simultaneous determination of glutathione and cysteine concentrations and 2H enrichments in microvolumes of neonatal blood using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry by Alice Küster; Illa Tea; Shawn Sweeten; Jean-Christophe Rozé; Richard J. Robins; Dominique Darmaun (1403-1412).
A method is described whereby the concentrations and 2H isotope enrichment of glutathione (GSH) and cysteine can be simultaneously determined in a single gas chromatography–mass spectrometry run following derivatization as their N,S-ethoxycarbonyl methyl esters. Improvements of the derivatization protocol and the use of a short gas chromatography column combined with single-ion monitoring allow for rapid quantification of these parameters with acceptable precision and reproducibility (coefficient of variation less than 5%). The method makes possible their quantitative measurement in very small volumes (50 μL) of human umbilical cord blood, and is thus suitable for determining the cysteine and GSH concentrations and 2H isotope enrichments in blood samples from neonates or in other conditions in which sample size is restricted. It is shown that the fractional synthesis rate of human umbilical erythrocyte lysates in vitro is several-fold greater than that measured in vivo.
Keywords: Antioxidant; Cysteine; Fractional synthesis rate; Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry; Glutathione; Neonate

Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in ambient air by gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry by Rosa Martínez Ocaña; Angela Mena Granero; Francisco Javier Egea Gonzalez; Antonia Garrido Frenich; José Luis Martínez Vidal; Patricia Plaza Bolaños (1413-1423).
A multiresidue method for determining 22 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in air has been developed and validated by gas chromatography (GC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using a triple quadrupole analyzer (QqQ). The method was validated in terms of both steps of sampling and analysis. The sampling method, which is based on active sampling using polyurethane foam (PUF) as adsorbent, was validated by generating standard atmospheres. The retention capacity of this sampling sorbent allows up to 5 m3 of air to be sampled without any breakthrough for most compounds. Two solvent extraction methods were compared: sonication and Soxhlet extraction with a mixture of n-hexane:diethyl ether (95:5 v/v). Both extraction methods yielded similar results, but the first one required less solvent and time. The method exhibited good accuracy (80.3–99.8%), precision (2.2–15.2%) and lower limits that allowed quantification and confirmation at levels as low as 0.008 ng/m3. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of PCBs in the air in areas near to a municipal solid-waste landfill and directly above the refuse in the landfill, where it indicatedd the presence of some of the target compounds. Figure General chemical structure of polychlorinated biphenyls
Keywords: Polychlorinated biphenyls; Air analysis; Gas chromatography; Tandem mass spectrometry; Triple quadrupole

MSPD procedure for determining buprofezin, tetradifon, vinclozolin, and bifenthrin residues in propolis by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry by Thaíse Fernanda Santana dos Santos; Adriano Aquino; Haroldo Silveira Dórea; Sandro Navickiene (1425-1430).
A simple and effective extraction method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) was developed to determine bifenthrin, buprofezin, tetradifon, and vinclozolin in propolis using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode (GC–MS, SIM). Different method conditions were evaluated, for example type of solid phase (C18, alumina, silica, and Florisil), the amount of solid phase and eluent (n-hexane, dichloromethane, dichloromethane–n-hexane (8:2 and 1:1, v/v) and dichloromethane–ethyl acetate (9:1, 8:2 and 7:3, v/v)). The best results were obtained using 0.5 g propolis, 1.0 g silica as dispersant sorbent, 1.0 g Florisil as clean-up sorbent, and dichloromethane–ethyl acetate (9:1, v/v) as eluting solvent. The method was validated by analysis of propolis samples fortified at different concentration levels (0.25 to 1.0 mg kg−1). Average recoveries (four replicates) ranged from 67% to 175% with relative standard deviation between 5.6% and 12.1%. Detection and quantification limits ranged from 0.05 to 0.10 mg kg−1 and 0.15 to 0.25 mg kg−1 propolis, respectively.
Keywords: MSPD; Propolis; Pesticides; GC–MS

A new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)–chemiluminescence (CL) imaging detection approach towards chiral recognition of dansyl-phenylalanine (Phe) is presented. The polymer microspheres were synthesized using precipitation polymerization with dansyl-l-Phe as template. Polymer microspheres were immobilized in microtiter plates (96 wells) using poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) as glue. The analyte was selectively adsorbed on the MIP microspheres. After washing, the bound fraction was quantified based on peroxyoxalate chemiluminescence (PO-CL) analysis. In the presence of dansyl-Phe, bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)oxalate (TCPO) reacted with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to emit chemiluminescence. The signal was detected and quantified with a highly sensitive cooled charge-coupled device (CCD). Influencing factors were investigated and optimized in detail. Control experiments using capillary electrophoresis showed that there was no significant difference between the proposed method and the control method at a confidence level of 95%. The method can perform 96 independent measurements simultaneously in 30 min and the limits of detection (LODs) for dansyl-l-Phe and dansyl-d-Phe were 0.025 μmol L−1 and 0.075 μmol L−1 (3σ), respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for 11 parallel measurements of dansyl-l-Phe (0.78 μmol L−1) was 8%. The results show that MIP-based CL imaging can become a useful analytical technology for quick chiral recognition.
Keywords: Molecularly imprinted polymer; Precipitation polymerization; Chemiluminescence imaging; Dansyl-phenylalanine