Applied Water Science (v.8, #3)

Physicochemical characteristics of organophilic clays prepared using two organo-modifiers: alkylammonium cation arrangement models by Ismail Ltifi; Fadhila Ayari; Dalila Ben Hassen Chehimi; Malika Trabelsi Ayadi (1-8).
The clay was modified by an ion exchange reaction with cetylpyridinium chloride CPC and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide HDTMA. The modified samples were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The basal spacing of unmodified clay determined by XRD was 12.72 Å and, after modification, increased with increasing concentration; expressed as a function of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the clay; to reach 21.08 and 26 Å for clays modified with CPC and HDTMA successively for an equal concentration of 3CEC. FTIR studies revealed structural differences between modified and unmodified clay samples. Modified clay spectra showed C–N functional bands (1480 cm−1) and C–H vibrations (near 2936 and 2871 cm−1). The results of the SEM study reveal a difference between natural and modified clays. The purified clay has massive and curved plates. However, the modified clays show numerous small aggregate particles and plaques that become relatively flat. The arrangement of surfactants in clay is rather complicated. It depends on the nature of the surfactant molecules, the CEC of the clay and the method of preparation. According to these parameters, the inserted surfactants may be arranged in monolayer, paraffinic or admicelles structures.
Keywords: Tunisian clay; HDTMA; HDPyridine; Arrangements

Contamination of underground water with fluoride (F) is a tremendous health hazard. Excessive F (> 1.5 mg/L) in drinking water can cause both dental and skeletal fluorosis. A fixed-bed column experiments were carried out with the operating variables such as different initial F concentrations, bed depths, pH and flow rates. Results revealed that the breakthrough time and exhaustion time decrease with increasing flow rate, decreasing bed depth and increasing influent fluoride concentration. The optimized conditions are: 10 mg/L initial fluoride concentration; flow rate 3.4 mL/min, bed depth 3.5 and pH 5. The bed depth service time model and the Thomas model were applied to the experimental results. Both the models were in good agreement with the experimental data for all the process parameters studied except flow rate, indicating that the models were appropriate for removal of F by natural banana peel dust in fix-bed design. Moreover, column adsorption was reversible and the regeneration was accomplished by pumping of 0.1 M NaOH through the loaded banana peel dust column. On the other hand, field water sample analysis data revealed that 86.5% fluoride can be removed under such optimized conditions. From the experimental results, it may be inferred that natural banana peel dust is an effective adsorbent for defluoridation of water.
Keywords: Banana peel; Fluoride; Column study; Dental and skeletal fluorosis; Regeneration

This study investigates the hydrogeochemical and anthropogenic factors that control groundwater quality in an Upper Precambrian sedimentary aquifer in the northwestern Burkina Faso. The raw data and statistical and geochemical modeling results were used to identify the sources of major ions in dug well, private borewell and tap water samples. Tap waters were classified as Ca–HCO3 and Ca–Mg–HCO3 types, reflecting the weathering of the local dolomitic limestones and silicate minerals. Dug well waters, with a direct contact with various sources of contamination, were classified as Ca–Na–K–HCO3 type. Two factors that explain 94% of the total variance suggested that water–rock interaction was the most important factor controlling the groundwater chemistry. Factor 1 had high loadings on pH, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3 , SO4 2− and TDS. These variables were also strongly correlated indicating their common geogenic sources. Based on the HCO3 /(HCO3  + SO4 2−) ratios (0.8–0.99), carbonic acid weathering appeared to control Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3 and SO4 2− acquisition in the groundwater. With relatively lower Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations, the majority of dug well and borewell waters were soft to moderately hard, whereas tap waters were considered very hard. Thus, the dug well and, to a lesser extent, borewell waters are likely to have a low buffering capacity. Factor 2 had high loadings on Na+, NO3 and Cl. The strong correlation between Na+ and NO3 and Cl implied that factor 2 represented the anthropogenic contribution to the groundwater chemistry. In contrast, K+ had moderate loadings on factors 1 and 2, consistent with its geogenic and anthropogenic sources. The study demonstrated that waters from dug wells and borewells were bacteriologically unsafe for human consumption, and their low buffering capacity may favor mobility of potentially toxic heavy metals in the aquifer. Not only very hard tap waters have aesthetic inconvenient, but their consumption may also pose health problems.
Keywords: Sedimentary aquifer; Tap water; Dug wells; Borewells; Water–rock interaction

Porous media’s porosity value is commonly taken as a constant for a given granular texture free from any type of imposed loads. Although such definition holds for those media at hydrostatic equilibrium, it might not be hydrodynamically true for media subjected to the flow of fluids. This article casts light on an alternative vision describing porosity as a function of fluid velocity, though the media’s solid skeleton does not undergo any changes and remain essentially intact. Carefully planned laboratory experiments support such as hypothesis and may help reducing reported disagreements between observed and actual behaviors of nonlinear flow regimes. Findings indicate that the so-called Stephenson relationship that enables estimating actual flow velocity is a case that holds true only for the Darcian conditions. In order to investigate the relationship, an accurate permeability should be measured. An alternative relationship, therefore, has been proposed to estimate actual pore flow velocity. On the other hand, with introducing the novel concept of effective porosity, that should be determined not only based on geotechnical parameters, but also it has to be regarded as a function of the flow regime. Such a porosity may be affected by the flow regime through variations in the effective pore volume and effective shape factor. In a numerical justification of findings, it is shown that unsatisfactory results, obtained from nonlinear mathematical models of unsteady flow, may be due to unreliable porosity estimates.
Keywords: Porosity function; Granular porous media; Non-Darcy flow; Boundary layer

Freshwater resources are continually decreasing in quality and quantity. Approximately, 1% of this freshwater is accessible in lakes, river channels and underground for domestic use. The study reviewed literature on water resources with focus on freshwater, the quality of our freshwater in terms of physical, chemical and biological variables, the main mechanisms of management, and the challenges associated with these mechanisms as well as blending integrated water management with the indigenous or traditional management of water resources for sustainable development and peaceful co-existence. Also the review offered potent recommendations for policy makers to consider sustainable management of freshwater resources. A total of 95 articles were downloaded from Google scholar in water-related issues. The search took place from June to September 2017, and research articles from 1998 to 2018 were reviewed. Basically Ghana is made up of three discharge or outlet systems, namely the Coastal River Systems which is the least and Volta constituting the largest and with the South-Western been the intermediate. Also, freshwater resources usage can be put into two main categories, namely ex situ (withdrawal use) and in situ or in-stream use, and could also be referred to as the consumptive and non-consumptive use, respectively. With the exception of localised pollution engineered by illegal mining and other nuisance perpetuated by indigenes, the quality of water (surface and groundwater) in Ghana is generally better. The review outlined high microbial contamination of water as almost all surface waters are contaminated with either E. coli, faecal coliforms or total coliforms or all. However, these contaminations were more prevalent in surface water than groundwater.
Keywords: Freshwater; Ghana; IWRM; Water quality; Water use

Removal of Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cr(III) from water using modified residues of Anacardium occidentale L. by Gustavo Ferreira Coelho; Affonso Celso Gonçalves Jr.; Daniel Schwantes; Esperanza Álvarez Rodríguez; César Ricardo Teixeira Tarley; Douglas Dragunski; Élio Conradi Junior (1-21).
The pollution of water has been one of the greatest problems faced by the modern society, due to industrialization and urban growth. Rivers, lakes and seas have been continually suffering from the rising concentration of various pollutants, especially toxic elements. This study aimed to evaluate the use of cashew nut shell (Anacardium occidentale) (CNS), after chemical modification with H2O2, H2SO4 and NaOH, as an new and renewable adsorbent material, for the removal of metals Cd2+, Pb2+ and Cr3+ in aqueous medium. The adsorbents were characterized by its chemical constitution, structure, infrared spectroscopy, morphology, by means of scanning electron microscopy, determination of the point of zero charge, thermogravimetrical analysis and porosimetry assessments. Tests were conducted to determine the optimal conditions (pH vs. adsorbent mass) for adsorption, by means of multivariate analysis using a central composite design. The adsorption kinetics was evaluated by models of pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion, while adsorption isotherms were linearized by Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich. The effect of initial concentration, temperature and desorption was also performed. The adsorbents exhibited irregular, spongy and heterogeneous structure. FTIR analysis confirms the presence of hydroxyl, aliphatic, phenolic and carboxylic acid groups, which are favorable adsorption characteristics. The pHPZC of adsorbent is 4.35, 2.50 e 6.92, respectively, for CNS H2O2, H2SO4 and NaOH. The optimum adsorption conditions were as follows: pH 5.0; relation of adsorbent mass/volume of water: 4 g L−1; 40 min of contact time for reaching the equilibration. Results suggest the predominance of chemisorption of Cd2+ and Cr3+. Most of biosorbents exhibited good fit by Langmuir and Freundlich, suggesting the occurrence of adsorption on mono- and multilayers. The adsorbents of cashew nut shell exhibited high removal efficiency of Cd, Pb and Cr from waters.
Keywords: Biosorbent; Biosorption; Metal adsorption; Remediation; Water pollution

A total of 22 water quality parameters were selected for the analysis of groundwater samples with reference to arsenic contamination. Samples were collected in the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons of the year 2013. The maximum arsenic concentration in both the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons was approximately the same, i.e., the maximum arsenic concentration being 75.60 and 74.46 µg/L in pre-monsoon and monsoon, respectively. Out of 72 collected samples, three were below the WHO guideline value of 10 µg/L for arsenic concentration. In 95.83% of the groundwater samples, the arsenic concentration was above the permissible limit. Nickel, manganese, and chromium concentrations were above the permissible limits in nearly all samples except for chromium concentration in a few pre-monsoon samples. However, the total iron concentrations in 23 samples (31.94%) were above the permissible limit. A total of six and seven principal components (PCs) were extracted using principal component analysis during the pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons, respectively, accounting for 76.25 and 78.52% of the total variation during two consecutive seasons. Correlation statistics revealed that the arsenic concentration was positively correlated with phosphate, iron, ammonium, bicarbonate, and manganese concentrations but negatively correlated with oxidation reduction potential (ORP), sulfate concentration, electrical conductivity, and total dissolved solids concentration. The negative correlation of arsenic with ORP suggested reducing conditions prevailing in the groundwater. The trilinear Piper diagram revealed calcium and magnesium enrichment of groundwater with an abundance of chloride ions but no predominance of bicarbonate ions. Thus, the groundwater fell into Ca2+ − Mg2+ − Cl − SO4 2− category.
Keywords: Groundwater; Arsenic contamination; Oxidation reduction potential; Piper diagram

The pattern of N/P/Si stoichiometry, although an important driver regulating river ecology, has received limited research attention for Ganga River. We investigated shifts in N/P/Si stoichiometry and ecological nutrient limitation as influenced by Varanasi urban core along a 37-km-long stretch of Ganga River. We also assessed the trophic status of the river in relation to shifting elemental stoichiometry. Together with point sources, atmospheric deposition coupled surface runoff appeared important factors leading to N/P/Si stoichiometric imbalances along the study stretch. The N/P and Si/P ratios declined downstream from 15.5 to 6.5 and 15.7 to 4.4, respectively, whereas N/Si increased from 1.01 to 1.6. Significant negative correlation of N/Si with biogenic silica to chlorophyll a (Chl a) ratios, and biogenic silica to phycocyanin ratios indicated increased growth of non-siliceous algae downstream signifying N and Si limitation with possible implications on food-web dynamics and feedback processes in the river in long run.
Keywords: Atmospheric deposition; N/P/Si stoichiometry; Ganga River; Phytoplankton; BSi; Autotrophic index

The present study involved the use of 82 geo-electric soundings, and the measurement of well inventory and conduct of yield tests in 19 wells across the various bedrock terrains of Ibarapa region of southwestern Nigeria. The aim is to proffer solution to the unsustainable yield of the available boreholes in order to effectively exploit the existing groundwater resource in the area. From the geological reports, the area is underlain by four principal crystalline rocks that include porphyritic granite, gneisses, amphibolite and migmatite. The geo-electric studies revealed that the degree and extent of development of the weathered–fractured component varied, leading to diversity in groundwater yield and in aquifer vulnerability to contamination. The thickness of the weathered layer is greater than 18 m in areas underlain by amphibolite and gneisses and less than 13 m within migmatite and porphyritic granite terrains. High groundwater yield greater than 70 m3/day was recorded in wells within the zones of rock contacts and in areas with large concentration of bedrock fractures and elevated locations across the various bedrock terrains. Aquifer vulnerability is low in amphibolite, high in granitic terrains, low to moderate in gneisses and high to moderate in migmatite. Also, wells’ depths and terrain elevation have a moderate to strong indirect relationship with groundwater yield in most bedrock terrains, except in high topographic areas underlain by porphyritic granite. Therefore, there is need for modification of well depth in accordance with the terrain elevation and hydrogeological complexity of the weathered–fractured components of the variuos bedrock terrains, so as to ensure a sustainable groundwater yield.
Keywords: Geo-electric studies; Borehole topography and depth; Groundwater yield; Basement aquifers

Treatment of crude oil-contaminated water with chemically modified natural fiber by Jude Chinedu Onwuka; Edith Bolanle Agbaji; Victor Olatunji Ajibola; Friday Godwin Okibe (1-10).
The dependence of Nigerian Government on foreign technology for oil spill cleanup in its water bodies does not add local content value in the development of the Nation’s economy. Acetylation of natural cellulose gives a material with high sorption capacity for oil in water. This research investigates crude oil sorption from water using acetylated and unacetylated lignocellulose. Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) and cocoa pod (CP) were acetylated under mild conditions. The acetylated (modified) and unacetylated (unmodified) sorbents were used to sorb oil from water, and their sorption capacities and mechanisms were compared. Paired t test showed there was significant difference in the sorption capacities of modified and unmodified sorbents. Sorption of oil from water was found to be time and concentration dependent. Equilibrium studies showed that CP has higher sorption capacity than OPEFB and acetylation enhanced the crude sorption capacities of the sorbents. Crude oil sorption from water is a monolayer process that might have progressed from multilayer processes. Kinetic studies showed that sorption of crude oil by the sorbents was diffusion-controlled with the aid of physisorption and chemisorption mechanisms. Fourier transform infrared and scanning electron microscope analyses showed clear evidence of successful acetylation and oil sorption.
Keywords: Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB); Cocoa pod; Acetylation; Adsorption; Isotherm; Kinetics

Determining suitability and vulnerability of groundwater quality for irrigation use is a key alarm and first aid for careful management of groundwater resources to diminish the impacts on irrigation. This study was conducted to determine the overall suitability of groundwater quality for irrigation use and to generate their spatial distribution maps in Elala catchment, Northern Ethiopia. Thirty-nine groundwater samples were collected to analyze and map the water quality variables. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer, ultraviolet spectrophotometer, titration and calculation methods were used for laboratory groundwater quality analysis. Arc GIS, geospatial analysis tools, semivariogram model types and interpolation methods were used to generate geospatial distribution maps. Twelve and eight water quality variables were used to produce weighted overlay and irrigation water quality index models, respectively. Root-mean-square error, mean square error, absolute square error, mean error, root-mean-square standardized error, measured values versus predicted values were used for cross-validation. The overall weighted overlay model result showed that 146 km2 areas are highly suitable, 135 km2 moderately suitable and 60 km2 area unsuitable for irrigation use. The result of irrigation water quality index confirms 10.26% with no restriction, 23.08% with low restriction, 20.51% with moderate restriction, 15.38% with high restriction and 30.76% with the severe restriction for irrigation use. GIS and irrigation water quality index are better methods for irrigation water resources management to achieve a full yield irrigation production to improve food security and to sustain it for a long period, to avoid the possibility of increasing environmental problems for the future generation.
Keywords: Elala; GIS; WQI; Maps; Water quality

Evaluation of dripper clogging using magnetic water in drip irrigation by Mojtaba Khoshravesh; Sayyed Mohammad Javad Mirzaei; Pooya Shirazi; Reza Norooz Valashedi (1-8).
This study was performed to investigate the uniformity of distribution of water and discharge variations in drip irrigation using magnetic water. Magnetic water was achieved by transition of water using a robust permanent magnet connected to a feed pipeline. Two main factors including magnetic and non-magnetic water and three sub-factor of salt concentration including well water, addition of 150 and 300 mg L−1 calcium carbonate to irrigation water with three replications were applied. The result of magnetic water on average dripper discharge was significant at (P ≤ 0.05). At the final irrigation, the average dripper discharge and distribution uniformity were higher for the magnetic water compared to the non-magnetic water. The magnetic water showed a significant effect (P ≤ 0.01) on distribution uniformity of drippers. At the first irrigation, the water distribution uniformity was almost the same for both the magnetic water and the non-magnetic water. The use of magnetic water for drip irrigation is recommended to achieve higher uniformity.
Keywords: Calcium carbonate; Discharge; Distribution uniformity; Dripper clogging; Agricultural

Water samples, sediments and free floating macrophytic plant, Lemna minor specimens were collected from five designated sites in Anchar lake (Srinagar, J&K, India) to assess its heavy metal (Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, Cd, Pb) load and changes on seasonal basis. The concentration of heavy metals was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Most of the samples were found within limits of maximum permissible concentrations as recommended by WHO (Guidelines for drinking water quality, pp 491–493, 2006). During all the seasons, highest concentration of all heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, Cd, Pb) was recorded at highly polluted sites of the lake viz. near agricultural fields (S1), near settlements (S3) and SKIMS (S4). These sites received huge agrochemical run-off from the surrounding agricultural fields, solid and liquid wastes from the nearby catchment areas and effluents from Sher-e-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences (SKIMS) compared to control site lake centre (S5). Furthermore, most of the metals in water and sediment were found with highest concentration during autumn (Viz., Cu-1.5 ppm; Zn-0.38 ppm; Ni-1.89 ppm; Pb-0.84 ppm in water and Cu-26.9 ppm; Zn-13.6 ppm; Pb-4.33 ppm in sediment) and summer (Viz., Cr-0.68 ppm in water and Ni-4.8 ppm; Cd-2.6 ppm; Cr-8.01 ppm in sediment) seasons. Also in Lemna minor plant highest concentration was observed during summer season (Cu-29.09 ppm; Zn-19.11 ppm; Ni-5.7 ppm; Cd-1.34 ppm; Cr-9.18 ppm and Pb-9.77 ppm). From these observations, it was found that the sources of heavy metals in Anchar lake were both natural and anthropogenic ones. This study recommended that continuous monitoring of heavy metals (Viz; Cu, Cr, Zn, Ni, Cd and Pb) in water, sediment and other aquatic biota of Anchar lake should be directed to protection of ecological status of the lake and its surrounding area.
Keywords: Heavy metal; Macrophyte; Agro-chemicals; Anchar lake

River flow simulation using a multilayer perceptron-firefly algorithm model by Sabereh Darbandi; Fatemeh Akhoni Pourhosseini (1-9).
River flow estimation using records of past time series is importance in water resources engineering and management and is required in hydrologic studies. In the past two decades, the approaches based on the artificial neural networks (ANN) were developed. River flow modeling is a non-linear process and highly affected by the inputs to the modeling. In this study, the best input combination of the models was identified using the Gamma test then MLP–ANN and hybrid multilayer perceptron (MLP–FFA) is used to forecast monthly river flow for a set of time intervals using observed data. The measurements from three gauge at Ajichay watershed, East Azerbaijani, were used to train and test the models approach for the period from January 2004 to July 2016. Calibration and validation were performed within the same period for MLP–ANN and MLP–FFA models after the preparation of the required data. Statistics, the root mean square error and determination coefficient, are used to verify outputs from MLP–ANN to MLP–FFA models. The results show that MLP–FFA model is satisfactory for monthly river flow simulation in study area.
Keywords: Ajichay watershed; Estimation; Firefly algorithm; Multilayer perceptron; River flow

The present limnological investigation is conducted to study the relationship between phytoplankton abundance and five important physicochemical factors in urban wastewater-fed seven fish ponds of Chota Nagpur Plateau area. A total number of 43 phytoplankton taxa representing four classes, namely Cyanophyceae (7), Chlorophyceae (29), Bacillariophyceae (5) and Euglenophyceae (2), are thriving in these ponds which may suggest that different nutrient-rich wastewater supports the diversity and abundance of the phytoplankton. Different values of diversity indices, results of post hoc analysis and rarefaction curve are depicted spatial variations of phytoplankton abundance and physicochemical factors. From the Principal Component Analysis, out of 43 phytoplankton species, 23 important species are extracted. The canonical correspondence analysis presents that most of the phytoplankton species densities are associated with higher values of the physicochemical variables in these ponds. Correspondingly, in the present study, Algal Genus Pollution Index (AGPI) is employed to study the water quality of seven sites. From the AGPI score, it is revealed that Site 4 has probable high organic pollution and Site 2 and Site 3 have moderate organic pollution. Therefore, long-term intensive studies and proper management are necessary to protect these ponds toward eutrophication and degradation, because these ponds not only act as a safeguard of livelihoods but also contribute significantly at local level food and water security and economic prosperity.
Keywords: Phytoplankton; Physicochemical factors; Diversity indices; Principle component; Post hoc analysis; Canonical correspondence analysis

Environmental assessment of heavy metal pollution of Diyala River within Baghdad City by Safaa Nasser Hassan Al-Hussaini; Abdul Hameed M. Jawad Al-Obaidy; Athmar Abdul Majeed Al-Mashhady (1-6).
Water quality index (WQI), pollution index (PI), and metal index (MI) were applied in the last reach of Diyala River, Baghdad, Iraq with regard to ten heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Mn, Fe, Zn, Ag, and Cn). These indices were applied to historical data along with the data obtained from the present study in order to acquire a historical heavy metal assessment of the river reach. The results of WQI showed that the water quality of the reach of interest declined from excellent in the year of 1999 to unsuitable in 2007 then good in 2008 to unsuitable once again in the years of 2009–2015. The PI indicated that Cd, Cr, and Pb were the most affecting elements all over the years. The MI was found to be a threshold of warning during all years but with different levels. The impact of Al-Rustimiyah Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs) on the water quality was evident due to the lack of heavy metal treatment units within the plants. It is recommended to add such units to the WWTPs and to reduce the local electricity generators that contribute with great amounts of contaminants.
Keywords: Water quality index; Pollution index; Metal index; Heavy metals; Diyala River

Physicochemical assessment of industrial textile effluents of Punjab (India) by Deepika Bhatia; Neeta Raj Sharma; Ramesh Kanwar; Joginder Singh (1-12).
Urbanization and industrialization are generating huge quantities of untreated wastewater leading to increased water pollution and human diseases in India. The textile industry is one of the leading polluters of surface water and consumes about 200–270 tons of water to produce 1 ton of textile product. The primary objective of the present study was to investigate the pollution potential of textile industry effluent draining into Buddha Nallah stream located in Ludhiana, Punjab (India), and determine the seasonal variation in physicochemical parameters (pH, water temperature, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of Buddha Nallah water. During summer months, for Site 1 and Site 2, the value of pH was in the alkaline range of 8.78 ± 0.47 and 8.51 ± 0.41, respectively. The values of pH in the rainy season were found to be in the range of 7.38 ± 0.58 and 7.11 ± 0.59 for Site 1 and Site 2, respectively. In the autumn and winter seasons, the average pH values were found to be in the range of 8.58 ± 1.40 and 8.33 ± 0.970, respectively. The maximum mean temperature in summer was recorded as 41.16 ± 4.99 °C, and lowest mean temperature in winter was recorded as 39.25 ± 2.25 °C at Site 2. The suspended solids were found to be highest (143.5 ± 75.01 and 139.66 ± 71.87 mg/L) in autumn for both the sites and lowest (86.50 + 15.10 mg/L) in the rainy season for Site 1. The values of BOD and COD of the textile effluent of both sites during all the seasons ranged from 121–580 to 240–990 mg/L, respectively, much higher than WHO water quality standard of 30 mg/L for BOD and 250 mg/L for COD. The present study deals with the collection of textile industry effluent and its characterization to find out the physicochemical load being drained by the effluent generated from textile industries, on the natural wastewater streams.
Keywords: Wastewater; Textile effluent; Physicochemical parameters; Pollution

This research modeled geological and hydrogeological controls on groundwater occurrence in Oban Massif and environs southeastern Nigeria. Topographical, hydrogeological, and structural maps, including lithology samples from drilled bores, well completion, and pumping test data in the study area were procured. Collection of coordinates of rock sample locations and structural data on strike and dip of rock exposures was collected. Geological and structural information collected was overlaid on the topographical, hydrogeological and structural map and digitized to produce the geological map of the study area. Thematic map on geological groundwater prospect map of the study was prepared using multicriteria evaluation. Relative weights were assigned to various rock types based on their relative contribution to groundwater occurrence and the map was reclassified using geographic information system (ArcGIS10.1) analysis. Depth ranges of the various lithologic units from drilled boreholes were used to construct lithologic correlation section of the boreholes across the study area using RockWorks16 Program software. Hydrogeological parameters such as storativity, specific capacity, transmissivity, drawdown, pumping rate, static water level, total depth, and well yield were computed from well completion reports and aquifer test. Results shows that the geologic groundwater prospect map was categorized into very good (28.73 m2), good (9.66 m2), moderate (35.08 m2), fair (49.38 m2), and poor (77.63 m2) zones. Aquifer parameters showed ranges such as (specific capacity (1.81–31.16 m2/day/m), transmissivity (0.0033–12 m2/day), storativity (9.4 × 10−3–2.3), drawdown (2.2–17.65 m), pumping rate (0.75–3.57 l/s), static water level (0–20.5 m), and total depth (3.3–61 m). Borehole depths obtained in the basement are shallower than those in the sedimentary area. Aquifer test parameters obtained from boreholes across the study indicate better correspondence with zones identified as good water prospect in the study. It was evident that well yield is not a very reliable aquifer performance indicator, because it depends largely on the efficiency of the pump installed. Therefore, other aquifer parameters must be employed in aquifer performance assessment. The geologic formation is paramount in determining aquifer performance. The result of this groundwater occurrence is useful as a guide for groundwater developers, which engineers in water resource management and land-use planners to select suitable areas to implement development schemes and also government agencies.
Keywords: Oban Massif; Multicriteria evaluation; Lithologic correlation; Hydrogeological parameters; Groundwater occurrence