Applied Water Science (v.7, #6)

A review of methods for monitoring streamflow for sustainable water resource management by Pariva Dobriyal; Ruchi Badola; Chongpi Tuboi; Syed Ainul Hussain (2617-2628).
Monitoring of streamflow may help to determine the optimum levels of its use for sustainable water management in the face of climate change. We reviewed available methods for monitoring streamflow on the basis of six criteria viz. their applicability across different terrains and size of the streams, operational ease, time effectiveness, accuracy, environmental impact that they may cause and cost involve in it. On the basis of the strengths and weaknesses of each of the methods reviewed, we conclude that the timed volume method is apt for hilly terrain having smaller streams due to its operational ease and accuracy of results. Although comparatively expensive, the weir and flume methods are suitable for long term studies of small hill streams, since once the structure is put in place, it yields accurate results. In flat terrain, the float method is best suited for smaller streams for its operational ease and cost effectiveness, whereas, for larger streams, the particle image velocimetry may be used for its accuracy. Our review suggests that the selection of a method for monitoring streamflow may be based on volume of the stream, accuracy of the method, accessibility of the terrain and financial and physical resources available.
Keywords: Ecosystem services; Water resource management; Streamflow monitoring; Fresh water; Climate change

Green remediation. Tool for safe and sustainable environment: a review by Mamta Singh; Gaurav Pant; Kaizar Hossain; A. K. Bhatia (2629-2635).
Nowadays, the bioremediation of toxic pollutants is a subject of interest in terms of health issues and environmental cleaning. In the present review, an eco-friendly, cost-effective approach is discussed for the detoxification of environmental pollutants by the means of natural purifier, i.e., blue–green algae over the conventional methods. Industrial wastes having toxic pollutants are not able to eliminate completely by existing the conventional techniques; in fact, these methods can only change their form rather than the entire degradation. These pollutants have an adverse effect on aquatic life, such as fauna and flora, and finally harm human life directly or indirectly. Cyanobacterial approach for the removal of this contaminant is an efficient tool for sustainable development and pollution control. Cyanobacteria are the primary consumers of food chain which absorbed complex toxic compounds from environments and convert them to simple nontoxic compounds which finally protect higher food chain consumer and eliminate risk of pollution. In addition, these organisms have capability to solve secondary pollution, as they can remediate radioactive compound, petroleum waste and degrade toxins from pesticides.
Keywords: Toxic pollutants; Bioremediation; Cyanobacteria; Sustainable development

This paper is a comprehensive review of biofouling in reverse osmosis modules where we have discussed the mechanism of biofouling. Water crisis is an issue of pandemic concern because of the steady rise in demand of drinking water. Overcoming biofouling is vital since we need to optimize expenses and quality of potable water production. Various kinds of microorganisms responsible for biofouling have been identified to develop better understanding of their attacking behavior enabling us to encounter the problem. Both primitive and advanced detection techniques have been studied for the monitoring of biofilm development on reverse osmosis membranes. Biofouling has a negative impact on membrane life as well as permeate flux and quality. Thus, a mathematical model has been presented for the calculation of normalized permeate flux for evaluating the extent of biofouling. It is concluded that biofouling can be controlled by the application of several physical and chemical remediation techniques.
Keywords: Biofouling; Reverse osmosis; Mechanism; Control; Consequences; Disinfection; Surface modification

The aim of this study is to design and develop a novel cost effective method for fluoride removal, applicable to rural areas of developing countries. Adsorption is widely considered as one of the appropriate technologies for water defluoridation. This study investigates the feasibility of using low-cost biomass based activated carbon from the bark of Morinda tinctoria coated with aluminum hydroxide (AHAC) for water defluoridation, at neutral pH range. Characterization of AHAC was done through IR, SEM with EDAX studies before and after fluoride treatment. The fluoride adsorption capacity of AHAC as a function of contact time, pH and initial fluoride concentration was investigated. The role of co-existing interfering ions also was studied. The isotherm and kinetic models were used to understand the nature of the fluoride adsorption onto AHAC. Freundlich isotherm and intra-particle diffusion were the best-fitting models for the adsorption of fluoride on AHAC. Fluoride adsorption kinetics well fitted with pseudo-second order model. The results showed excellent fluoride adsorption capacity was found to be 26.03 mg g−1 at neutral pH.
Keywords: Aluminum hydroxide coated activated carbon; Fluoride removal; Morinda tinctoria ; Adsorption isotherm; Adsorption kinetics

Performance of a system of reservoirs on futuristic front by Satabdi Saha; Debasri Roy; Asis Mazumdar (2667-2680).
Application of simulation model HEC-5 to analyze the performance of the DVC Reservoir System (a multipurpose system with a network of five reservoirs and one barrage) on the river Damodar in Eastern India in meeting projected future demand as well as controlling flood for synthetically generated future scenario is addressed here with a view to develop an appropriate strategy for its operation. Thomas-Fiering model (based on Markov autoregressive model) has been adopted for generation of synthetic scenario (monthly streamflow series) and subsequently downscaling of modeled monthly streamflow to daily values was carried out. The performance of the system (analysed on seasonal basis) in terms of ‘Performance Indices’ (viz., both quantity based reliability and time based reliability, mean daily deficit, average failure period, resilience and maximum vulnerability indices) for the projected scenario with enhanced demand turned out to be poor compared to that for historical scenario. However, judicious adoption of resource enhancement (marginal reallocation of reservoir storage capacity) and demand management strategy (curtailment of projected high water requirements and trading off between demands) was found to be a viable option for improvement of the performance of the reservoir system appreciably [improvement being (1–51 %), (2–35 %), (16–96 %), (25–50 %), (8–36 %) and (12–30 %) for the indices viz., quantity based reliability, time based reliability, mean daily deficit, average failure period, resilience and maximum vulnerability, respectively] compared to that with normal storage and projected demand. Again, 100 % reliability for flood control for current as well as future synthetically generated scenarios was noted. The results from the study would assist concerned authority in successful operation of reservoirs in the context of growing demand and dwindling resource.
Keywords: Reservoir performance; HEC-5 model; DVC reservoir system; Thomas-Fiering model

Being agricultural country, different types of pesticides are widely used in Bangladesh to prevent the crop losses due to pest attack which are ultimately drain to the water bodies. The present study was conducted to identify and quantify the organochlorine (DDT, DDE and DDD), organophosphorus (malathion, diazinon and chloropyrifos) and carbamate (carbaryl) residues in water samples of different sources from Dhamrai upazila of Bangladesh using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with ultra violate (UV) detector. Thirty water samples from fish pond, cultivated land and tube-well were collected in winter season to analyze the pesticide residues. Among the organophosphorus pesticides, malathion was present in seven water samples ranging from 42.58 to 922.8 μg/L, whereas diazinon was detected in water sample-8 (WS-8) and the concentration was 31.5 μg/L. None of the tested water samples was found to be contaminated with chlorpyrifos, carbaryl or DDT and its metabolites (DDE and DDD). Except for a tube-well water sample, concentrations of the detected residues are above the acceptable limit for human body as assigned by different organizations. To avoid the possible health hazards, the indiscriminate application of pesticides should be restricted and various substitute products like bio-pesticide should be introduced in a broad scale as soon as possible.
Keywords: Pesticide; Water sample; HPLC; Organochlorine; Organophosphorus; Carbamate

In the present study, TW/MnFe2O4 composite (MTW) was synthesized and estimated as an effective biosorbent for removing As (III) and As(V) from wastewater. Physicochemical analysis of composite was performed through SEM–EDX. 86.615 and 83.478% removal efficiency were obtained by composite dosage of 2 g/L at contact time 120 min at temperature 30 °C and pH 7.0 and 4.0 for As(III) and As(V), respectively. Kinetic results study showed that Brouers–Weron–Sotolongo and Ritchie second-order for As(III) and Brouers–Weron–Sotolongo model for As(V) were capable to describe an accurate explanation of adsorption kinetic. Applicability of mechanistic models in the current study exposed that the rate-controlling step in the biosorption of both As(III) and As(V) on the surface of composite was film diffusion rather than intraparticle diffusion. The estimated thermodynamic parameters ΔG 0, ΔH 0 and ΔS 0 revealed that the biosorption of both As(III) and As(V) on the composite was feasible, spontaneous and exothermic.
Keywords: Arsenic; Biosorption; Kinetic; Mechanistic; Thermodynamic; Modelling

The major objective of this study was to locate the vulnerable areas in terms of fluoride contamination. A total of 34 groundwater samples were collected from major drinking water sources in rural areas of Basara, Telangana, and studied with reference to the distribution and hydrogeochemistry of fluoride. The geochemical trend of groundwater in the study area demonstrates that sodium is the dominant cation (Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+) and chloride is the dominant anion (Cl > HCO3  > SO4 2– > CO3 2– > NO3  > F). The fluoride concentration varied from 0.06 to 4.33 (1.13 ± 0.90) mg L−1 with the highest fluoride level at Karegaon village (4.33 mg L−1). Seven locations showed the presence of fluoride in excess of permissible levels.
Keywords: Groundwater; Fluoride; Granitic terrain; Basara; Telangana State

The efficiency of prepared activated carbon from shea butter seed shells (SB-AC) for the adsorption of formic acid (FA) and acetic acid (AA) from aqueous solution was investigated. The effect of optimization parameters including initial concentration, agitation time, adsorbent dosage and temperature of adsorbate solution on the sorption capacity were studied. The SB-AC was characterized for the following parameters: bulk density, moisture content, ash content, pH, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The optimal conditions for the adsorption were established and the adsorption data for AA fitted Dubinin–Radushkevich (D–R) isotherm well, whereas FA followed Langmuir isotherm. The kinetic data were examined. It was found that pseudo-second-order kinetic model was found to adequately explain the sorption kinetic of AA and FA from aqueous solution. It was again found that intraparticle diffusion was found to explain the adsorption mechanism. Adsorption thermodynamic parameters were estimated and the negative values of ∆G showed that the adsorption process was feasible and spontaneous in nature, while the negative values of ∆H indicate that the adsorption process was exothermic. It is therefore established that SB-AC has good potential for the removal of AA and FA from aqueous solution. Hence, it should find application in the regular treatment of polluted water in aquaculture and fish breeding system.
Keywords: Adsorption; Wastewater; Formic acid; Acetic acid; Activated carbon

The water quality study of Salem district, Tamil Nadu has been carried out to assess the water quality for domestic and irrigation purposes. For this purpose, 59 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), major anions (HCO3 , CO3 , F, Cl, NO2  + NO3 , and SO4 2−), major cations (Ca2+ Mg2+, Na+, and K+), alkalinity (ALK), and hardness (HAR). To assess the water quality, the following chemical parameters were calculated based on the analytical results, such as Piper plot, water quality index (WQI), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), magnesium hazard (MH), Kelly index (KI), and residual sodium carbonate (RSC). Wilcox diagram represents that 23% of the samples are excellent to good, 40% of the samples are good to permissible, 10% of the samples are permissible to doubtful, 24% of the samples are doubtful unsuitable, and only 3% of the samples are unsuitable for irrigation. SAR values shows that 52% of the samples indicate high-to-very high and low-to-medium alkali water. KI values indicate good quality (30%) and not suitable (70%) for irrigation purposes. RSC values indicate that 89% of samples are suitable for irrigation purposes. MH reveals that 17% suitable and 83% samples are not suitable for irrigation purposes and for domestic purposes the excellent (8%), good (48%), and poor (44%). The agricultural waste, fertilizer used, soil leaching, urban runoff, livestock waste, and sewages are the sources of poor water quality. Some samples are not suitable for irrigation purposes due to high salinity, hardness, and magnesium concentration. In general, the groundwater of the Salem district was polluted by agricultural activities, anthropogenic activities, ion exchange, and weathering.
Keywords: Geochemistry; Water quality index; Wilcox diagram; Kelley index; Magnesium hazard; Residual sodium carbonate; USSL diagram

Assessing and simulation of membrane technology for modifying starchy wastewater treatment by Amin Hedayati Moghaddam; Hossein Hazrati; Javad Sargolzaei; Jalal Shayegan (2753-2765).
In this study, a hydrophilic polyethersulfone membrane was used to modify the expensive and low efficient conventional treatment method of wheat starch production that would result in a cleaner starch production process. To achieve a cleaner production, the efficiency of starch production was enhanced and the organic loading rate of wastewater that was discharged into treatment system was decreased, simultaneously. To investigate the membrane performance, the dependency of rejection factor and permeate flux on operative parameters such as temperature, flow rate, concentration, and pH of feed were studied. Response surface methodology (RSM) has been applied to arrange the experimental layout which reduced the number of experiments and also the interactions between the parameters were considered. The maximum achieved rejection factor and permeate flux were 97.5% and 2.42 L min−1 m−2, respectively. Furthermore, a fuzzy inference system was selected to model the non-linear relations between input and output variable which cannot easily explained by physical models. The best agreement between the experimental and predicted data for permeate flux was denoted by correlation coefficient index (R 2) of 0.9752 and mean square error (MSE) of 0.0072 where defuzzification operator was center of rotation (centroid). Similarly, the maximum R 2 for rejection factor was 0.9711 where the defuzzification operator was mean of maxima (mom).
Keywords: Starch; Membrane; FIS; Permeate flux; Rejection factor

Water quality analysis of the Rapur area, Andhra Pradesh, South India using multivariate techniques by A. Nagaraju; Y. Sreedhar; A. Thejaswi; Mohammad Hossein Sayadi (2767-2777).
The groundwater samples from Rapur area were collected from different sites to evaluate the major ion chemistry. The large number of data can lead to difficulties in the integration, interpretation, and representation of the results. Two multivariate statistical methods, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and factor analysis (FA), were applied to evaluate their usefulness to classify and identify geochemical processes controlling groundwater geochemistry. Four statistically significant clusters were obtained from 30 sampling stations. This has resulted two important clusters viz., cluster 1 (pH, Si, CO3, Mg, SO4, Ca, K, HCO3, alkalinity, Na, Na + K, Cl, and hardness) and cluster 2 (EC and TDS) which are released to the study area from different sources. The application of different multivariate statistical techniques, such as principal component analysis (PCA), assists in the interpretation of complex data matrices for a better understanding of water quality of a study area. From PCA, it is clear that the first factor (factor 1), accounted for 36.2% of the total variance, was high positive loading in EC, Mg, Cl, TDS, and hardness. Based on the PCA scores, four significant cluster groups of sampling locations were detected on the basis of similarity of their water quality.
Keywords: Groundwater; Multivariate statistical analysis; Rapur

The present study is an integrated approach to study the potential of Desertifilum tharense MSAK01 for treatment of dairy wastewater (DWW) and enrichment of biomass. The present research includes the experiment designed for treatment of DWW. The physical and chemical parameters of wastewater quality, such as nitrate, phosphate, chloride, sulphur, and hardness, were studied. The level of nitrate and phosphate in water bodies was reduced by 94 and 98% in the effluent, respectively. The level of BOD and COD, measure of organic contaminants, were reduced to 70% (BOD5, initial level of 1840 mg O2 L−1) and 56% (COD, initial level of 2470 mg O2 L−1). The second module of the experiment was designed for biochemical extractions by harvesting the biomass (algal strain) grown in DWW. The result of this study shows that algal strain D. tharense is not only an agent for mitigation of pollutant load, but it can also be used as potential source for lipid, protein and carbohydrate.
Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Dairy wastewater (DWW); Desertifilum tharense ; Phycoremediation; Principal component analysis

Hydrochemical evaluation of groundwater has been conducted in Bankura I and II Blocks to analyze and determining groundwater quality in the area. Thirty-six groundwater samples were analyzed for their physical and chemical properties using standard laboratory methods. The constituents have the following ranges in the water: pH 6.4–8.6, electrical conductivity 80–1900 μS/cm, total hardness 30–730 mg/l, TDS 48–1001 mg/l, Ca2+ 4.2–222.6 mg/l, Na+ 2.33–103.33 mg/l, Mg2+ 1.56–115.36 mg/l, K+ 0.67–14 mg/l and Fe BDL–2.53 mg/l, $$ { ext{HCO}}_{3}^{ - } $$ HCO 3 - 48.8–1000.4 mg/l, Cl 5.6–459.86 mg/l and $$ { ext{SO}}_{4}^{ = } $$ SO 4 = BDL–99.03 mg/l. Results also show that bicarbonate ions ( $$ { ext{HCO}}_{3}^{ - } $$ HCO 3 - ) dominate the other anions (Cl and $$ { ext{SO}}_{4}^{2 - } $$ SO 4 2 - ). Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), soluble sodium percentage (SSP), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), magnesium adsorption ratio (MAR), total hardness (TH), and permeability index (PI) were calculated as derived parameters, to investigate the ionic toxicity. Concerned chemical parameters when plotted in the U.S. Salinity diagram indicate that waters are of C1–S1, C2–S1 and C3–S1 types, i.e., low salinity and low sodium which is good for irrigation. The values of Sodium Adsorption Ratio indicate that the groundwater of the area falls under the category of low sodium hazard. So, there is neither salinity nor toxicity problem of irrigation water, and hence the ground water can safely be used for long-term irrigation. The chemical parameters when plotted in Piper’s trilinear diagram are found to concentrate in the central and west central part of the diamond-shaped field. Based on the analytical results, groundwater in the area is found to be generally fresh and hard to very hard. The abundance of the major ions is as follows: HCO3 > Cl > SO4 and Ca > Na > Mg > K > Fe. Results also show that bicarbonate ions ( $$ { ext{HCO}}_{3}^{ - } $$ HCO 3 - ) dominate the other anions (Cl and $$ { ext{SO}}_{4}^{2 - } $$ SO 4 2 - ). According to Gibbs diagrams samples fall in the rock dominance field and the chemical quality of groundwater is related to the lithology of the area. The alkaline earth elements (Ca and Mg) occur in greater abundance than alkaline elements (Na and K). A comparative study of our analytical results with the WHO standards of drinking water indicate that the present waters are also good for drinking purposes.
Keywords: Hydrochemistry; Water quality; Domestic and irrigation suitability; Spatial distribution; Bankura

Hydrological simulation of a small ungauged agricultural watershed Semrakalwana of Northern India by Himanshu Mishra; Derrick Mario Denis; Shakti Suryavanshi; Mukesh Kumar; Santosh Kumar Srivastava; Anjelo Francis Denis; Rajendra Kumar (2803-2815).
A study was conducted to develop a hydrological model for agriculture dominated Semra watershed (4.31 km2) and Semrakalwana village at Allahabad using a semi distributed Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model. In model evaluation it was found that the SWAT does not require much calibration, and therefore, can be employed in unguaged watershed. A seasonal (Kharif, Rabi and Zaid seasons) and annual water budget analysis was performed to quantify various components of the hydrologic cycle. The average annual surface runoff varied from 379 to 386 mm while the evapotranspiration of the village was in the range of 359–364 mm. The average annual percolation and return flow was found to be 265–272 mm and 147–255 mm, respectively. The initial soil water content of the village was found in the range of 328–335 mm while the final soil water content was 356–362 mm. The study area fall under a rain-fed river basin (Tons River basin) with no contribution from snowmelt, the winter and summer season is highly affected by less water availability for crops and municipal use. Seasonal (Rabi, Kharif and Zaid crop seasons) and annual water budget of Semra watershed and Semrakalwana village evoke the need of conservation structures such as check dams, farm ponds, percolation tank, vegetative barrier, etc. to reduce monsoon runoff and conserve it for basin requirements for winter and summer period.
Keywords: Rural watershed; Water balance; SWAT model; Semrakalwana village

Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan play an important role in living water supply and irrigation of farmlands; thus, the water quality is closely related to public health. Multivariate techniques were applied to check spatial and seasonal trends, and metals contamination sources of the Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan. Grab surface water samples were collected from different sites (5–15 cm water depth) in pre-washed polyethylene containers. Fast Sequential Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Varian FSAA-240) was used to measure the metals concentration. Concentrations of Ni, Cu, and Mn were high in pre-monsoon season than the post-monsoon season. Cluster analysis identified impaired, moderately impaired and least impaired clusters based on water parameters. Discriminant function analysis indicated spatial variability in water was due to temperature, electrical conductivity, nitrates, iron and lead whereas seasonal variations were correlated with 16 physicochemical parameters. Factor analysis identified municipal and poultry waste, automobile activities, surface runoff, and soil weathering as major sources of contamination. Levels of Mn, Cr, Fe, Pb, Cd, Zn and alkalinity were above the WHO and USEPA standards for surface water. The results of present study will help to higher authorities for the management of the Himalayan foothills streams.
Keywords: Multivariate techniques; Heavy metals; Temporal–spatial variations; Water quality; Pakistan

A potential low cost adsorbent for the removal of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions by Md. Tamez Uddin; Md. Arifur Rahman; Md. Rukanuzzaman; Md. Akhtarul Islam (2831-2842).
This study was aimed at using mango leaf powder (MLP) as a potential adsorbent for the removal of methylene blue (MB) from aqueous solutions. Characterization of the adsorbent was carried out with scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nitrogen adsorption–desorption analysis. The pH at the point of zero charge of the adsorbent was determined by titration method and was found a value to be 5.6 ± 0.2. Batch studies were performed to evaluate the influence of various experimental parameters like initial solution pH, contact time, initial concentration of dye and adsorbent dosage on the removal of MB. An adsorption–desorption study was carried out resulting the mechanism of adsorption was carried out by electrostatic force of attraction. The adsorption equilibrium time required for the adsorption of MB on MLP was almost 2 h and 85 ± 5% of the total amount of dye uptake was found to occur in the first rapid phase (30 min). The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were used for modeling the adsorption equilibrium. The experimental equilibrium data could be well interpreted by Langmuir isotherm with maximum adsorption capacity of 156 mg/g. To state the sorption kinetics, the fits of pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic models were investigated. It was obtained that the adsorption process followed the pseudo-second-order rate kinetics. The above findings suggest that MLP can be effectively used for decontamination of dye containing wastewater.
Keywords: Adsorption; Mango leaf powder; Methylene blue; pH; Isotherms; Kinetics

Natural organic matter (NOM) is ubiquitous in aquatic environments and has recently become an issue of worldwide concern in drinking water treatment. The major component of NOM is humic acids (HA). In this study, a natural zeolite (mordenite) was modified employing hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA) to enhance greater efficient sites for sorption of HA. The natural zeolite and surfactant-modified zeolite (SMZ) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), N2 Adsorption–desorption isotherms and BET-specific surface area, thermographic analysis, derivative thermographic analysis (TGA-DTA) and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). A fixed-bed reactor was used for the removal of HA and the effects of different experimental parameters such as HDTMA loading levels, HA solution flow rate, solution pH and eluent concentration were investigated. The results indicated that the SMZ bed with HDTMA loading of 75% of external cation exchange capacity (ECEC) at a flow rate of 2 BV/h and pH of 10 showed the greatest enhanced removal efficiency of HA while ethanol solutions (25%v/v) with feed flow rate of 2 BV/h were sufficient for complete regeneration of SMZ and desorption of HA. Measurements of surface area of SMZ indicated that a monolayer formation of the surfactant at those conditions allowed the optimum removal of HA.
Keywords: Adsorption; Desorption; Humic acid removal; Surfactant-modified zeolite; Fixed-bed reactor

Analysis the water–food–energy nexus is the first step to assess the decision maker in developing and evaluating national strategies that take into account the nexus. The main objective of the current research is providing a method for the decision makers to analysis the water–food–energy nexus of the crop production system at the national level and carrying out a quantitative assessment of it. Through the proposed method, indicators considering the water and energy consumption, mass productivity, and economic productivity were suggested. Based on these indicators a water–food–energy nexus index (WFENI) was performed. The study showed that the calculated WFENI of the Egyptian summer crops have scores that range from 0.21 to 0.79. Comparing to onion (the highest scoring WFENI,i.e., the best score), rice has the lowest WFENI among the summer food crops. Analysis of the water–food–energy nexus of forty-two Egyptian crops in year 2010 was caried out (energy consumed for irrigation represent 7.4% of the total energy footprint). WFENI can be applied to developed strategies for the optimal cropping pattern that minimizing the water and energy consumption and maximizing their productivity. It can be applied as a holistic tool to evaluate the progress in the water and agricultural national strategies. Moreover, WFENI could be applied yearly to evaluate the performance of the water-food-energy nexus managmant.
Keywords: Water; Energy; Food; Nexus; Index; Productivity; Consumption

Hydrogeochemical characteristics and assessment of water quality investigations have been carried out at Abha, located in Saudi Arabia, where Al-Saad Lake represents a rare example of natural endorheic lake. The ecosystem within and around the Al-Saad Lake including catchment area is of great social, cultural, aesthetic, environmental and economic values to Abha. Sampling and experiments of lake water has been carried out with the aim of characterizing the main physico-chemical parameters, such as DO, EC, TDS, Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, K+, SO4 2−, Cl, HCO3, NO3 and F concentration. The ordinary kriging (OK) method was used to produce the spatial patterns of water quality. The Result of DO (mean 5.38 mg/L) trend in Al-Saad Lake is not very encouraging as majority of the lake area is under DO stress or marginally above it. So, proper management strategies are needed to be formulated to protect flora and fauna of the lake. Furthermore, the chemical analysis results show the abundance of the major cations in the order Mg2+ > Ca2+ > Na+ > K+ whereas the abundance of anions are in the order SO4 2− > Cl > HCO3 > NO3  > F. The result obtained in this investigation inferred that the cations in water i.e. sodium and iron are within the permissible limits but magnesium and potassium have exceeded the permissible limit. Whereas anions such as nitrate and fluoride are within the permissible range but chloride and sulphate have exceeded the permissible limits. The concentration of cation, magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K) in the lake water has exceeded the desirable range (30, 10 mg/L, respectively). This may be due to weathering and transported from rocks and particularly from sulphate deposits such as gypsum and anhydride and subsequently ends up in water. The concentration of anion, Sulphate (SO4) and chloride are above the desirable limit. The major source of bicarbonate are the carbonate rocks containing calcite (CaCO3) and dolomite (CaMg (CO3)2), Calcium (Ca) and Magnesium (Mg) can also be transported from Ca-silicates and Mg-silicates. The piper trilinear plot suggests the increase of Ca and SO4 contents is attributed to dissolution of gypsum and anhydrite, which are commonly found in the quaternary formations of watershed (wadi). Ion exchange, dissolution of calcite, semi-arid climate, alkaline condition and weathering are responsible for high concentration of ions exceeding the desirable limit of the study area.
Keywords: Physico-geochemical analysis and modelling; Geoinformation technology; Al-Saad Lake

Origin and mechanisms of high salinity in Hombolo Dam and groundwater in Dodoma municipality Tanzania, revealed by Ceven Shemsanga; Alfred Nzibavuga Nyarubakula Muzuka; Lawrance Martz; Hans Charles Komakech; Eliapenda Elisante; Marry Kisaka; Cosmas Ntuza (2883-2905).
The Hombolo dam (HD), in central Tanzania, is a shallow reservoir characterized by high salinity that limits its use for human activities. The origin of the salinity, mechanisms of reaching and concentrating in the dam remain unclear. These were assessed using hydrogeochemical facies, water type evolutions and mapping. The source of HD salinity was identified to be shallow groundwater (SG) and runoff from a seasonal floodplain with NaCl-rich lithological materails, along Little Kinyasungwe River that feeds the dam. The NaCl-rich lithological units, about 5–7 km upstream of the dam, were highly concentrated with NaCl to the extent that the local community was commercially separating table salt from them. The physicochemical parameters from these NaCl-rich lithological materials were well represented in HD and nearby groundwater sources, which suggests active water interactions. Water type evolution and surface hydrology assessments clearly showed that SG in the salty-floodplain was influenced by evaporation (ET) and was periodically carried to the HD. Clearly; HD water had high chemical similarity with the nearby SG. This agrees with previous studies that HD is partly fed by the local aquifer. However, this is the first attempt at mapping its physical origin. The origin of HD salinity was further supported by the spatial distribution of electrical conductivity (EC), where very high EC (up to 21,230 μScm−1) was recorded in SG within the NaCl-rich lithological unit while water sources far away from the NaCl-rich materials had much lower EC values. Thus, the study disagrees with previous conclusions that HD salinity was sorely due to high dam surface ET but is primarily due to geological reasons. Comparisons of HD with a nearby Matumbulu dam (MD), another earthen dam in climatologically similar settings, reveals that MD water was less saline/mineralised. This further shows that HD high salinity is most likely a geologic phenomenon, but local climatic factors, namely high ET, decreasing rainfall and warming trends are likely to have concentrated the salts further. Although HD is widely/ideally used for grape vine irrigation, it was clearly revealed that its prolonged usage would potentially affect the soil and grape productivity due to high salinity.
Keywords: Keywords; Hombolo dam; salinity; groundwater; origin; livelihood

Development of a water quality index (WQI) for the Loktak Lake in India by Rajiv Das Kangabam; Sarojini Devi Bhoominathan; Suganthi Kanagaraj; Munisamy Govindaraju (2907-2918).
The present work was carried out to assess a water quality index (WQI) of the Loktak Lake, an important wetland which has been under pressure due to the increasing anthropogenic activities. Physicochemical parameters like temperature (Tem), potential hydrogen (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity (T), dissolved oxygen (DO), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca), chloride (Cl), fluoride (F), sulphate ( $${ ext{SO}}_{4}^{2-}$$ SO 4 2 - ), magnesium (Mg), phosphate ( $${ ext{PO}}_{4}^{3-}$$ PO 4 3 - ), sodium (Na), potassium (K), nitrite (NO2), nitrate (NO3), total dissolved solids (TDS), total carbon (TC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were analyzed using standard procedures. The values obtained were compared with the guidelines for drinking purpose suggested by the World Health Organization and Bureau of Indian Standard. The result shows the higher concentration of nitrite in all the location which is beyond the permissible limit. Eleven parameters were selected to derive the WQI for the estimation of water potential for five sampling sites. A relative weight was assigned to each parameter range from 1.46 to 4.09 based on its importance. The WQI values range from 64 to 77 indicating that the Loktak Lake water is not fit for drinking, including both human and animals, even though the people living inside the Lake are using it for drinking purposes. The implementation of WQI is necessary for proper management of the Loktak Lake and it will be a very helpful tool for the public and decision makers to evaluate the water quality of the Loktak Lake for sustainable management.
Keywords: Physicochemical parameters; Water quality index; Pearson’s correlation matrix; Floating island; Loktak Lake

Relationships among geomorphology, hydrostratigraphy, and groundwater quality with special emphasis on arsenic and salinity have been analyzed in the Bangladesh part of the Western Ganges Delta (WGD). On the basis of the presence of characteristic geomorphic features, the study area is divided into two geomorphic units: fluvial deltaic plain (FDP) and fluvio-tidal deltaic plain (FTDP). Lithostratigraphic sections demonstrate that FDP is composed predominately of sandy material whereas FTDP is characterized by alternation of sand and clay/silty clay material. Hydrostratigraphically, FDP is characterized as a single aquifer system, whereas FTDP is a complex multi-aquifer system. Spatial distributions of arsenic concentrations in groundwater reveal that elevated arsenic (>0.01 mg/l) occurs mostly in the FDP. Occurrences of high arsenic in deeper part of the aquifer system (>100 m) in the FDP, particularly in the south-western part, is probably due to the absence of any prominent impermeable layer between the shallow and deeper part of the aquifer system. Distributions of chloride concentrations show an increasing trend in groundwater salinity from north to south, i.e., from FDP to FTDP.
Keywords: Geomorphology; Hydrostratigraphy; Groundwater; Arsenic; Salinity; Western Ganges Delta

Biocompatible water softening system using cationic protein from moringa oleifera extract by R. R. Nisha; P. Jegathambal; K. Parameswari; K. Kirupa (2933-2941).
In developing countries like India, the deciding factors for the selection of the specific water purification system are the flow rate, cost of implementation and maintenance, availability of materials for fabrication or assembling, technical manpower, energy requirement and reliability. But most of them are energy and cost intensive which necessitate the development of cost-effective water purification system. In this study, the feasibility of development of an efficient and cost-effective water purifier using Moringa oleifera cationic protein coated sand column to treat drinking water is presented. Moringa oleifera seeds contain cationic antimicrobial protein which acts as biocoagulant in the removal of turbidity and also aids in water softening. The main disadvantage of using Moringa seeds in water purification is that the dissolved organic matter (DOM) which is left over in the water contributes to growth of any pathogens that come into contact with the stored water. To overcome this limitation, the Moringa oleifera cationic protein coated sand (MOCP c-sand) is prepared in which the flocculant and antimicrobial properties of the MOCP are maintained and the DOM to be rinsed away. The efficiency of MOCP c-sand in removing suspended particles and reducing total hardness (TH), chloride, total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC) was also studied. Also, it is shown that the functionalized sand showed the same treatment efficiency even after being stored dry and in dehydrated condition for 3 months. This confirms MOCP c-sand’s potential as a locally sustainable water treatment option for developing countries since other chemicals used in water purification are expensive.
Keywords: Moringa oleifera cation protein; Water purification; c-Sand; XRD; Column; SEM

The present study demonstrates a GIS-based spatial evaluation of fluoride contamination (FC) in groundwater vis-a-vis geology and geomorphology of the area using analytical hierarchy process and weighted sum method in Palamu district of Jharkhand. The integration and analyses of the various thematic databases along with the field sampled fluoride data proved useful in delineating the FC zones. The FC index ranged between 141 and 707, and was classified into four zones, viz., low, moderate, high, and very high zones of FC. The FC index map showed that a total of 49.75% of the study area lies between high to very high FC zone. The very high FC zone is found in the moderately weathered plateau with granitic terrain, whereas the high and moderately FC zones covering 49.31 and 36.41% of the study area are dominated by plateau weathered shallow, pediment–inselberg complex, pediplain moderately weathered, pediplain shallow weathered, and inselberg which have high fluoride. The lowest FC zone covers an area of 193.27 sq. km (13.84%). The spatial analysis of geology with fluoride showed that groundwater within granitic gneiss exhibits high FC followed by granitoid gneiss and alluvium. Geomorphologically highest FC was recorded in plateau weathered moderate (91.67%) followed by plateau weathered shallow (71.43%), flood plain (41.76%), inselberg (27.27%), and pediment (25%). The spatial analysis of groundwater yield with fluoride showed that regions having good yield exhibit maximum FC thereby accelerating the vulnerability of the population to fluorosis.
Keywords: Fluoride; Geology; Groundwater; GIS; Hardrock

An account of seasonal water quality variability has been taken as a proxy for the changes of environmental setting occurring in the catchment areas and helps to illustrate the ecological system processes associated with it. The present study in Meenachil River (L = 78 km, A = 1272 km2) comprising of stations from upstream to downstream for pre monsoon (PRM), monsoon (MON) and post monsoon (POM). Ca2+ and SO4 2− show an erratic trend while extreme deviations were observed at S6 and S7 stations. Na+, K+, Cl, DIC and DOC showed a similar trend in most stations, i.e. (PRM > POM > MON). Significant rise of DIC and DOC at S7 during POM and PRM could explicate changes ensued in adjacent Vembanad lake system. Strong correlations of DIC and DOC for Na+, K+ and Cl ions were noted in the study. HCA dendrogram reveals that ion chemistry in S6 and S7 was strictly controlled by neighbouring lake water dynamics. The results demonstrate high F1 variance of 73, 68 and 72% followed by F2 comprising of 17, 19 and 21% for PRM, MON and POM, respectively. General understanding into the autochthonous process associated within the river lake interface region was evident from the nutrient variability scenario.
Keywords: Seasonal water quality; Tropical river; Multivariate analysis

This study was carried out to investigate Arsenic (As) contamination in the alluvial aquifers of the lower Jia Bharali catchment and adjoining areas in Sonitpur district of Assam. Samples were collected twice a year (July and February) for three consecutive years from 50 monitoring wells spread into both older and younger alluvium between the Brahmaputra River towards south and Arunachal foothills towards north. The analytical results show that dissolved As content [both As(III) and As(V)] varies from below detection level (BDL) to 7.39 µg/L with a mean value of 1.92 µg/L and standard deviation of 1.37 µg/L during wet season (July). Thus, it remains within the WHO (2004) prescribed limit (10 µg/L) in the study area in the wet season. During the dry season, the range of variation is higher, from BDL to as much as 13.8 µg/L with a mean value of 2.57 µg/Land standard deviation of 2.23 µg/L. About 78% of the wells show a concentration between 1 and 10 µg/L in both the seasons. However, only one of the wells present in foothills of Arunachal Himalaya was found to have As content higher than the WHO limit in the dry season. Along with total As, examination of concentration levels of other key parameters, viz., Fe, Mn, Ca, Na, K, and Mg with pH and SO4 2− was also carried out. Most of the wells (~92%) showed Fe concentration much higher than the WHO (2004) permissible limit of (0.3 mg/L) particularly during the dry season and it is likely that high Fe concentration was responsible for keeping total As concentration at comparatively low levels. 34% of the samples in the wet seasons and 86% of the samples in the dry seasons have Mn above the permissible limit of 0.1 mg/L.
Keywords: Arsenic; Brahmaputra plain; Jia Bharali river basin; Iron; Alluvial aquifer

Green infrastructure (GI) has attracted city planners and watershed management professional as a new approach to control urban stormwater runoff. Several regulatory enforcements of GI implementation created an urgent need for quantitative information on GI practice effectiveness, namely for sediment and stream erosion. This study aims at investigating the capability and performance of GI in reducing stream bank erosion in the Blackland Prairie ecosystem. To achieve the goal of this study, we developed a methodology to represent two types of GI (bioretention and permeable pavement) into the Soil Water Assessment Tool, we also evaluated the shear stress and excess shear stress for stream flows in conjunction with different levels of adoption of GI, and estimated potential stream bank erosion for different median soil particle sizes using real and design storms. The results provided various configurations of GI schemes in reducing the negative impact of urban stormwater runoff on stream banks. Results showed that combining permeable pavement and bioretention resulted in the greatest reduction in runoff volumes, peak flows, and excess shear stress under both real and design storms. Bioretention as a stand-alone resulted in the second greatest reduction, while the installation of detention pond only had the least reduction percentages. Lastly, results showed that the soil particle with median diameter equals to 64 mm (small cobbles) had the least excess shear stress across all design storms, while 0.5 mm (medium sand) soil particle size had the largest magnitude of excess shear stress. The current study provides several insights into a watershed scale for GI planning and watershed management to effectively reduce the negative impact of urban stormwater runoff and control streambank erosion.
Keywords: Erosion; Green infrastructure; Sub-hourly; SWAT

Hydrogeologic characterization of Owo and its environs using remote sensing and GIS by Adeniyi JohnPaul Adewumi; Yekeen Biodun Anifowose (2987-3000).
The application of remote sensing and GIS in groundwater potential characterization has been internationally acclaimed. Owo and its environment lack sufficient groundwater data that will aid proper planning and management of the resource. For this reason, the groundwater potential study of Owo and its environment within the Basement Complex was carried out using remote sensing and GIS. LANDSAT ETM + (Bands 1–8) was acquired and the acquired imageries were processed using image processing software. For drainage mapping, bands 4-3-2 were combined in a RGB (123) format. For lineament extraction, the Digital terrain model (DTM) was generated from the SRTM data. The DTM was used in extracting lineaments in the study area. Groundwater potential of the area was calculated using score values assigned to each parameter studied. Results show that the lineament distribution in the study area is polymodal with peaks between 80°–100°. The East–West fractures are most prominent, with the broad, positive correlation in frequency and length of the lineament, suggesting that they are of geological origin. Lineament density of the area shows that Owo has higher lineament density of about 0.85 km/km2 when compared other part of the study area. The density of lineament in the study area is attributable to the high fracturing that affected the Basement Complex area during the Pan-African Orogeny. In addition, the study further revealed that there are more lineament intersection around the southeastern part of Owo Township and Iyere. These areas are more favourable sites for groundwater accumulation. The drainage density map generated for the study area reveals that there are more rivers around Emure-Owo than other parts of the study area. In conclusion, the groundwater potential of the study area is from low to high.
Keywords: Hydrogeology; Remote Sensing; GIS; Groundwater; Lineaments

Hydrogeochemical characterization of groundwater of peninsular Indian region using multivariate statistical techniques by T. German Amali Jacintha; Kishan Singh Rawat; Anoop Mishra; Sudhir Kumar Singh (3001-3013).
Groundwater quality of Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India) has been assessed during different seasons of year 2012. Three physical (pH, EC, and TDS) and four chemical parameters (Ca2+, Cl, TH, Mg2+ and SO4 2−) from 18 bore wells were assessed. The results showed that pH of majority of groundwater samples indicates a slightly basic condition (7.99post-monsoon and 8.35pre-monsoon). TH was slightly hard [322.11 mg/lpre-monsoon, 299.37 mg/lpost-monsoon but lies under World Health Organization (WHO) upper limit]. EC, TDS, Ca2+ and Mg2+ concentrations were under WHO permissible limit during post-monsoon (1503.42 μS/cm, 1009.37, 66.58 and 32.42 mg/l respectively) and pre-monsoon (1371.58 μS/cm, 946.84, 71.79 and 34.79 mg/l, respectively). EC shows a good correlation with SO4 2− (R 2 = 0.59pre-monsoon, 0.77post-monsoon) which indicates that SO4 2− plays a major role in EC of ground water of bore wells. SO4 2− has also showed positive correlations with TDS (R 2 = 0.84pre-monsoon, 0.95post-monsoon) and TH (R 2 = 0.70pre-monsoon, 0.75post-monsoon). The principal component analysis (PCA)/factor analysis (FA) was carried out; Factor1 explains 59.154 and 69.278 % of the total variance during pre- and post-monsoon, respectively, with a strong positive loading on Ca2+, Mg2+, SO4 2−, TDS and a negative loading on pH. Factor2 accounts for 13.94 and 14.22 % of the total variance during pre- and post-monsoon, respectively, and was characterized by strong positive loading of only pH and poor/negative loading of EC, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO4 2−, TDS and TH during pre- and post-monsoon. We recommend routine monitoring and thorough treatment before consumption. Further, this study has demonstrated the effectiveness of PCA/FA to assess the hydrogeochemical processes governing the groundwater chemistry in the area.
Keywords: Multivariate analysis; Correlation coefficient matrix; PCA; Peninsular India

Biosorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by Macadamia nutshell powder by Vusumzi Emmanuel Pakade; Themba Dominic Ntuli; Augustine Enakpodia Ofomaja (3015-3030).
Macadamia nutshell biosorbents treated in three different activating agents [raw Macadamia nutshell powder (RMN), acid-treated Macadamia nutshell (ATMN) and base-treated Macadamia nutshell (BTMN)] were investigated for the adsorption of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] from aqueous solutions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectra of free and Cr(VI)-loaded sorbents as well as thermogravimetric analysis revealed that the acid and base treatments modified the surface properties of the sorbent. Surface characteristics were also evaluated by the scanning electron microscopy and surface area analyzer. The optimum conditions for the adsorption of Cr(VI) by sorbents were pH 2, contact time 10 h, adsorbent mass 0.2 g and concentration 100 mg L−1. The equilibrium data were fitted into the Langmuir, Freundlich, Redlich–Peterson and Sips isotherms, and no single model could clearly explain the sorption mechanism. Maximum binding capacities of 45.23, 44.83 and 42.44 mg g−1 for RMN, ATMN and BTMN, respectively, were obtained. The kinetic data were analyzed using the pseudo-first, pseudo-second and Elovich kinetic models, and it was observed that the pseudo-second-order model produced the best fit for the experimental data. Macadamia nutshell sorbents showed potential as low-cost adsorbent for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution.
Keywords: Macadamia ; Chromium(VI); Reduction; Biosorption; Treatment; Isotherms

Removal of ibuprofen, naproxen and carbamazepine in aqueous solution onto natural clay: equilibrium, kinetics, and thermodynamic study by Hassen Khazri; Ibtissem Ghorbel-Abid; Rafik Kalfat; Malika Trabelsi-Ayadi (3031-3040).
This study aimed to describe the adsorption of three pharmaceuticals compounds (ibuprofen, naproxen and carbamazepine) onto natural clay on the basis of equilibrium parameters such as a function of time, effect of pH, varying of the concentration and the temperature. Adsorption kinetic data were modeled using the Lagergren’s first-order and the pseudo-second-order kinetic equations. The kinetic results of adsorption are described better using the pseudo-second order model. The isotherm results were tested in the Langmuir, Freundlich and Dubinin–Radushkevich models. The thermodynamic parameters obtained indicate that the adsorption of pharmaceuticals on the clay is a spontaneous and endothermic process.
Keywords: Drugs; Clay; Characterization; Adsorption; Kinetics; Isotherms ; Thermodynamics

Biosorption of Azo dyes by spent Rhizopus arrhizus biomass by Neeta A. Salvi; S. Chattopadhyay (3041-3054).
In the present study, spent Rhizopus arrhizus biomass was used for the removal of six azo dyes from aqueous solutions. The dye removal capacity of the biomass was evaluated by conducting batch tests as a function of contact time, biomass dosage, pH and initial dye concentrations. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted well with the experimental data with correlation coefficients greater than 0.999, suggesting that chemisorptions might be the rate limiting step. The equilibrium sorption data showed good fit to the Langmuir isotherm model. Among the six dyes tested, the maximum monolayer adsorption capacity for fast red A and metanil yellow was found to be 108.8 and 128.5 mg/g, respectively. These encouraging results suggest that dead Rhizopus arrhizus biomass could be a potential biomaterial for the removal of azo dyes from aqueous dye solution.
Keywords: Rhizopus arrhizus ; Spent biomass; Biosorption; Azo dyes; Adsorption isotherms

In the recirculation aquaponic system (RAS), fish farming waste was utilized as a nutrient for plant, minimizing the water need, reducing the waste disposal into the environment, and producing the fish and plant as well. The study aimed to examine the growth of romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. Longifolia) in aquaponic system without the addition of artificial nutrient. The nutrient relies solely on wastewater of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) cultivation circulated continuously on the aquaponic system. The results showed that tilapia weight reached 48.49 ± 3.92 g of T3 (tilapia, romaine lettuce, and inoculated bacteria), followed by T2 (tilapia and romaine lettuce) and T1 (tilapia) of 47.80 ± 1.97 and 45.89 ± 1.10 g after 35 days of experiment. Tilapia best performance in terms of growth and production occurred at T3 of 3.96 ± 0.44 g/day, 12.10 ± 0.63 %/day, 96.11 ± 1.44 % and 1.60 ± 0.07 for GR, SGR, SR, and FCR, respectively. It is also indicated by better water quality characteristic in this treatment. Romaine lettuce harvests of T2 and T3 showed no significant difference, with the final weight of 61.87 ± 5.59 and 57.74 ± 4.35 g. Overall, the integration of tilapia fish farming and romaine lettuce is potentially a promising aquaponic system for sustainable fish and horticulture plant production.
Keywords: Aquaponic; Growth; Production; Romaine lettuce; Tilapia

The sugar cane industry is one of the most water demanding industries. Sugar industries consume and generate excess amount of water. The generated water contains organic compounds, which would cause pollution. The aim of this research work is to study the effectiveness of metal compound for treatment of sugar industry waste water by thermolysis and electrolysis process. The result shows ferrous metal catalyst shows 80 and 85 % chemical oxygen demand and color removal at pH 6, optimum mass loading 4 kg/m3, treatment temperature 85 °C and treatment time 9 h. When ferrous material was used as electrode, maximum 81 % chemical oxygen demand and 84 % color removal at pH 6, current density 156 Am−2, treatment time 120 min and anode consumption 0.7 g for 1.5 L wastewater were obtained.
Keywords: Catalyst; Electrolysis; Oxidation; Metal; Sludge; Thermal treatment

The reservoir hedging rule curves are used to avoid severe water shortage during drought periods. In this method reservoir storage is divided into several zones, wherein the rationing factors are changed immediately when water storage level moves from one zone to another. In the present study, a hedging rule with fuzzy rationing factors was applied for creating a transition zone in up and down each rule curve, and then the rationing factor will be changed in this zone gradually. For this propose, a monthly simulation model was developed and linked to the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm for calculation of the modified shortage index of two objective functions involving water supply of minimum flow and agriculture demands in a long-term simulation period. Zohre multi-reservoir system in south Iran has been considered as a case study. The results of the proposed hedging rule have improved the long-term system performance from 10 till 27 percent in comparison with the simple hedging rule, where these results demonstrate that the fuzzification of hedging factors increase the applicability and the efficiency of the new hedging rule in comparison to the conventional rule curve for mitigating the water shortage problem.
Keywords: Multi-reservoir; Hedging; Fuzzy; NSGA-II

Abu Zenima synthetic zeolite for removing iron and manganese from Assiut governorate groundwater, Egypt by Abd El Hay Ali Farrag; Th. Abdel Moghny; Atef Mohamed Gad Mohamed; Saleem Sayed Saleem; Mahmoud Fathy (3087-3094).
Groundwater in Upper Egypt especially in Assiut Governorate is considered the second source of fresh water and used for drinking, agriculture, domestic and industrial purposes. Unfortunately, it is characterized by high concentrations of iron and manganese ions. The study aimed at synthesizing zeolite-4A from kaolinite for removing the excess iron and manganese ions from Assiut Governorate groundwater wells. Therefor, the kaolinite was hydrothermally treated through the metakaolinization and zeolitization processes to produce crystalline zeolite-4A. The chemical composition of crystalline zeolite-4A and its morphology were then characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Then the column experiments were conducted to study the performance of crystalline salt-4A as ion exchange and investigate their operating parameters and regeneration conditions. Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models were applied to predict adsorption capacity and the time required for 50 % breakthrough curves. The effects of initial concentrations of 600 and 1000 mg L−1 for Fe2+ and Mn2+, feed flow rate of 10–30 ml/min, and height range of 0.4–1.5 cm on the breakthrough behavior of the adsorption system were determined. The obtained results indicated that the synthesized zeolite-A4 can remove iron and manganese ions from groundwater to the permissible limit according to the standards drinking water law.
Keywords: Groundwater; Abu Zenima kaolin; Synthetic zeolite; Metakaolinitization; Zeolitization; Assiut; Egypt

Redox potential of shallow groundwater by 1-month continuous in situ potentiometric measurements by Seiichiro Ioka; Hirofumi Muraoka; Yota Suzuki (3095-3101).
One-month continuous in situ potentiometric measurements of redox potential (Eh) were used to investigate the dominant redox processes in the shallow groundwater (i.e., <10 m) of a Holocene aquifer, Aomori City, northern Japan. The Eh values, which were determined using a platinum electrode, were −163, −169 and −173 mV, respectively, for three monitoring campaigns. The temperatures and pH values of shallow groundwater during all three periods were approximately 12 °C and 6.6, respectively. Dissolved oxygen and sulfide ion concentrations were not detected. Chemical analyses showed that the shallow groundwater is Na–Fe-HCO3 type, and contains over 40 mg/L of Fe (the dominant cation) and over 200 mg/L of HCO3 (the dominant anion). A good fit was found between measured Eh values and Eh values calculated using thermodynamic data of fine-grained goethite. This suggests that Fe redox system is related to the Eh values of shallow groundwater in the Aomori City aquifer.
Keywords: In situ potentiometric measurement; Redox potential; Shallow groundwater; Aomori City; Northern Japan

Degradation of trifluralin, as a wide used pesticide, was investigated by advance oxidation process comprising O3/UV/H2O2 in a concentric tube airlift photoreactor. Main and interactive effects of three independent factors including pH (5–9), superficial gas velocity (0.05–0.15 cm/s) and time (20–60 min) on the removal efficiency were assessed using central composite face-centered design and response surface method (RSM). The RSM allows to solve multivariable equations and to estimate simultaneously the relative importance of several contributing parameters even in the presence of complex interaction. Airlift photoreactor imposed a synergistic effect combining good mixing intensity merit with high ozone transfer rate. Mixing in the airlift photoreactor enhanced the UV light usage efficiency and its availability. Complete degradation of trifluralin was achieved under optimum conditions of pH 9 and superficial gas velocity 0.15 cm/s after 60 min of reaction time. Under these conditions, degradation of trifluralin was performed in a bubble column photoreactor of similar volume and a lower efficiency was observed.
Keywords: Advanced oxidation process; Airlift photoreactor; Ozone; Response surface method; Trifluralin; Ultraviolet irradiation

In this research, groundwater balance in Dehgolan plain, Kurdistan, Iran was carried out to assess changes in the level and volume of groundwater and water resources management. For this purpose, water resources supplies and consumption data, amount of charging and discharge and water level data recorded from wells and piezometers from 2010 to 2011 water year were gathered and analyzed. Rainfall and water losses of the study area were determined and required maps, including Iso-maps of the temperature, the evaporation, the groundwater level and the aquifer conductivity, were drawn by GIS software. Using the information and drawn maps and the equality of inputs and outputs data, the aquifer water balance was calculated. The results of balance equations showed that the balance is negative indicated a notably decline of groundwater equal to 15.029 million cubic meter (MCM). Such rate of decline is due to the large number of agricultural wells in the region, without considering the hydrological potential of the aquifer.
Keywords: Water balance; GIS; Groundwater; Water management

The Kolong River of Nagaon district, Assam has been facing serious degradation leading to its current moribund condition due to a drastic human intervention in the form of an embankment put across it near its take-off point from the Brahmaputra River in the year 1964. The blockage of the river flow was adopted as a flood control measure to protect its riparian areas, especially the Nagaon town, from flood hazard. The river, once a blooming distributary of the mighty Brahmaputra, had high navigability and rich riparian biodiversity with a well established agriculturally productive watershed. However, the present status of Kolong River is highly wretched as a consequence of the post-dam effects thus leaving it as stagnant pools of polluted water with negligible socio-economic and ecological value. The Central Pollution Control Board, in one of its report has placed the Kolong River among 275 most polluted rivers of India. Thus, this study is conducted to analyze the seasonal water quality status of the Kolong River in terms of water quality index (WQI). The WQI scores shows very poor to unsuitable quality of water samples in almost all the seven sampling sites along the Kolong River. The water quality is found to be most deteriorated during monsoon season with an average WQI value of 122.47 as compared to pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season having average WQI value of 85.73 and 80.75, respectively. Out of the seven sampling sites, Hatimura site (S1) and Nagaon Town site (S4) are observed to be the most polluted sites.
Keywords: Kolong River; Embankment; Post-dam effects; Pollution; Water quality index (WQI)

Groundwater samples from alluvial aquifers of Bathinda district, southwest Punjab were measured for physicochemical parameters as well as major ion chemistry to evaluate the groundwater suitability for drinking and irrigation purposes and to present the current hydrochemical status of groundwater of this district. Temporal variations were analyzed by comparing the pre- and post-monsoon groundwater chemistry. Most of the samples showed contamination: F (72 %), Mg2+ (22 %), SO4 2− (28 %), TH (25 %), NO3 (22 %), HCO3 (22 %) and TDS (11 %) during pre-monsoon and F (50 %), Mg2+ (39 %), SO4 2− (22 %), TH (28 %), NO3 (22 %) and TDS (28 %) during post-monsoon above permissible limits for drinking, while rest of the parameters fall within the limits. Irrigation suitability was checked using sodium absorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), percent sodium (Na%) and permeability index (PI). Most of the samples fall under good to suitable category during pre-monsoon period, but fall under doubtful to unsuitable category during post-monsoon period. Presence of high salt content in groundwater during post-monsoon season reflects leaching of salts present in the unsaturated zone by infiltrating precipitation. Hydrochemical data was interpreted using Piper’s trilinear plot and Chadha’s plot to understand the various geochemical processes affecting the groundwater quality. The results indicate that the order of cation dominance is Na+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+, while anion dominance is in the order Cl > HCO3  > SO4 2−. The geochemistry of groundwater of this district is mainly controlled by the carbonate and silicate mineral dissolution and ion exchange during pre-monsoon and leaching from the salts deposited in vadose zone during post-monsoon. The main sources of contamination are soluble fertilizers and livestock wastes. This study is significant as the surface water resources are limited and the quality and quantity of groundwater are deteriorating with time due to anthropogenic inputs.
Keywords: Geochemistry; Temporal variation; Potability; SAR; Groundwater quality; Semi-arid; Bathinda

This study details the removal of heavy metals; Cadmium, Copper, Nickel, and Lead from wastewater effluent using an activated carbon produced from African palm fruit. The effluent was obtained from Old Panteka market; a metal scrap Market located in Kaduna State, Nigeria, which has several components that constitute high level of pollution in the environment. The effect of temperature and contact time on the removal of these heavy metals using the activated carbon produced was investigated. The activated carbon showed a significant ability in removing heavy metals; Cadmium, Copper, Nickel, and Lead from the wastewater. Higher percentage removal was observed at a temperature of 80 °C (93.23 ± 0.035, 96.71 ± 0.097, 92.01 ± 0.018, and 95.42 ± 0.067 % for Cadmium, Copper, Nickel, and Lead, respectively) and at an optimum contact time of 60 min (99.235 ± 0.148, 96.711 ± 0.083, 95.34 ± 0.015, and 97.750 ± 0.166 % for Cadmium, Copper, Nickel, and Lead, respectively) after which the percentage removal decreases. This work, therefore, suggests that African palm fruit can be successfully applied to solve this environmental pollution.
Keywords: African palm fruit; Wastewater effluent; Adsorption; Temperature; Contact time; Activated carbon; Heavy metals

The present study determined aquifer parameters in hard-rock aquifer system of Ahar River catchment, Udaipur, India by conducting 19 pumping tests in large-diameter wells. Spreadsheet programs were developed for analyzing pumping test data, and their accuracy was evaluated by root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (R). Histograms and Shapiro–Wilk test indicated non-normality (p value <0.01) of pre- and post-monsoon groundwater levels at 50 sites for years 2006–2008, and hence, logarithmic transformations were done. Furthermore, recharge was estimated using GIS-based water table fluctuation method. The groundwater levels were found to be influenced by the topography, presence of structural hills, density of pumping wells, and seasonal recharge. The results of the pumping tests revealed that the transmissivity (T) ranges from 68–2239 m2/day, and the specific yield (S y) varies from 0.211 to 0.51 × 10−5. The T and S y values were found reasonable for the hard-rock formations in the area, and the spreadsheet programs were found reliable (RMSE ~0.017–0.339 m; R > 0.95). Distribution of the aquifer parameters and recharge indicated that the northern portion with high ground elevations (575–700 m MSL), and high S y (0.08–0.25) and T (>600 m2/day) values may act as recharge zone. The T and S y values revealed significant spatial variability, which suggests strong heterogeneity of the hard-rock aquifer system. Overall, the findings of this study are useful to formulate appropriate strategies for managing water resources in the area. Also, the developed spreadsheet programs may be used to analyze the pumping test data of large-diameter wells in other hard-rock regions of the world.
Keywords: GIS; Groundwater recharge; Large-diameter well; Pumping test; Water table fluctuation

The present investigation has dealt with the biosorption of copper and zinc ions on the surface of egg-shell particles in the liquid phase. Various rate models were evaluated to elucidate the kinetics of copper and zinc biosorptions, and the results indicated that the pseudo-second-order model was more appropriate than the pseudo-first-order model. The curve of the initial sorption rate versus the initial concentration of copper and zinc ions also complemented the results of the pseudo-second-order model. Models used for the mechanistic modeling were the intra-particle model of pore diffusion and Bangham’s model of film diffusion. The results of the mechanistic modeling together with the values of pore and film diffusivities indicated that the preferential mode of the biosorption of copper and zinc ions on the surface of egg-shell particles in the liquid phase was film diffusion. The results of the intra-particle model showed that the biosorption of the copper and zinc ions was not dominated by the pore diffusion, which was due to macro-pores with open-void spaces present on the surface of egg-shell particles. The thermodynamic modeling reproduced the fact that the sorption of copper and zinc was spontaneous, exothermic with the increased order of the randomness at the solid–liquid interface.
Keywords: Egg-shell particles; Copper and zinc ions; Film diffusion; Pseudo-second-order model; Spontaneous and exothermic

The groundwater of Dammam aquifer in Rahaliya–Ekhedhur area, West Razzaza, Iraq, was studied to identify the main hydrogeochemical processes and the groundwater–rock interaction. The results indicated that Na+ and SO4 2− are the dominant ions in the groundwater. The average contribution of cations in the aquifer is Na+ + K+ (24.7 %), Ca2+ (13.9 %), and Mg2+ (11.4 %), while anions contribution is SO4 2− (23.0 %), Cl (20.7 %), and HCO3 (6.3 %). The groundwater characterized by neutral to slightly alkaline hard water, excessively mineralized, and slightly brackish water type. Rock–water interaction processes are identified to include dissolution of carbonates, sulfates, halite, and clay minerals, leaching, and cation exchanges, with little impact of evaporation.
Keywords: Hydrogeochemistry; Dammam aquifer; West Razzaza; Iraq

Critical analysis of adsorption data statistically by Achla Kaushal; S. K. Singh (3191-3196).
Experimental data can be presented, computed, and critically analysed in a different way using statistics. A variety of statistical tests are used to make decisions about the significance and validity of the experimental data. In the present study, adsorption was carried out to remove zinc ions from contaminated aqueous solution using mango leaf powder. The experimental data was analysed statistically by hypothesis testing applying t test, paired t test and Chi-square test to (a) test the optimum value of the process pH, (b) verify the success of experiment and (c) study the effect of adsorbent dose in zinc ion removal from aqueous solutions. Comparison of calculated and tabulated values of t and χ 2 showed the results in favour of the data collected from the experiment and this has been shown on probability charts. K value for Langmuir isotherm was 0.8582 and m value for Freundlich adsorption isotherm obtained was 0.725, both are <1, indicating favourable isotherms. Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient values for Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms were obtained as 0.99 and 0.95 respectively, which show higher degree of correlation between the variables. This validates the data obtained for adsorption of zinc ions from the contaminated aqueous solution with the help of mango leaf powder.
Keywords: Adsorption; Hypothesis testing; Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient; Probability charts; Statistical analysis

Spatial variability and long-term analysis of groundwater quality of Faisalabad industrial zone by Muhammad Salman Nasir; Abdul Nasir; Haroon Rashid; Syed Hamid Hussain Shah (3197-3205).
Water is the basic necessity of life and is essential for healthy society. In this study, groundwater quality analysis was carried out for the industrial zone of Faisalabad city. Sixty samples of groundwater were collected from the study area. The quality maps of deliberately analyzed results were prepared in GIS. The collected samples were analyzed for chemical parameters and heavy metals, such as total hardness, alkalinity, cadmium, arsenic, nickel, lead, and fluoride, and then, the results were compared with the WHO guidelines. The values of these results were represented by a mapping of quality parameters using the ArcView GIS v9.3, and IDW was used for raster interpolation. The long-term analysis of these parameters has been carried out using the ‘R Statistical’ software. It was concluded that water is partially not fit for drinking, and direct use of this groundwater may cause health issues.
Keywords: Groundwater; Parameters; GIS; IDW; Contamination; Interpolation

Removal of Cd (II) from water using the waste of jatropha fruit (Jatropha curcas L.) by Herbert Nacke; Affonso Celso Gonçalves Jr.; Gustavo Ferreira Coelho; Daniel Schwantes; Marcelo Angelo Campagnolo; Eduardo Ariel Völz Leismann; Élio Conradi Junior; Alisson Junior Miola (3207-3222).
The aim of this work was to evaluate the removal of Cd (II) from water using three biosorbents originated from the biomass of jatropha (bark, endosperm, and endosperm + tegument). For that, batch tests were performed to verify the effect of solution pH, adsorbent mass, contact time, initial concentration of Cd (II), and the temperature of the process. The adsorption process was evaluated by the studies of kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamics. The ideal conditions of solution pH were 5.5 and 8 g L−1 of adsorbent mass of biosorbents by solution volume, with an equilibrium time of 60 min. According to the Langmuir model, the maximum adsorption capacity for bark, endosperm, and bark + endosperm of jatropha was, respectively, 29.665, 19.562, and 34.674 mg g−1, predominating chemisorption in monolayers. The biosorbents presented potential for the remediation of waters contaminated with Cd (II).
Keywords: Agro-industrial waste; Natural adsorbents; Remediation of water resources; Cadmium

The research aimed to investigate a new approach for spatiotemporal groundwater monitoring network optimization using hydrogeological modeling to improve monitoring strategies. Unmonitored concentrations were incorporated at different potential monitoring locations into the groundwater monitoring optimization method. The proposed method was applied in the contaminated megasite, Bitterfeld/Wolfen, Germany. Based on an existing 3-D geological model, 3-D groundwater flow was obtained from flow velocity simulation using initial and boundary conditions. The 3-D groundwater transport model was used to simulate transport of α-HCH with an initial ideal concentration of 100 mg/L injected at various hydrogeological layers in the model. Particle tracking for contaminant and groundwater flow velocity realizations were made. The spatial optimization result suggested that 30 out of 462 wells in the Quaternary aquifer (6.49 %) and 14 out of 357 wells in the Tertiary aquifer (3.92 %) were redundant. With a gradual increase in the width of the particle track path line, from 0 to 100 m, the number of redundant wells remarkably increased, in both aquifers. The results of temporal optimization showed different sampling frequencies for monitoring wells. The groundwater and contaminant flow direction resulting from particle tracks obtained from hydrogeological modeling was verified by the variogram modeling through α-HCH data from 2003 to 2009. Groundwater monitoring strategies can be substantially improved by removing the existing spatio-temporal redundancy as well as incorporating unmonitored network along with sampling at recommended interval of time. However, the use of this model-based method is only recommended in the areas along with site-specific experts’ knowledge.
Keywords: Monitoring network optimization; Hydrogeological model; Flow model; Particle track; Redundant wells

In this study, simultaneous removal of phenol and cyanide by a microorganism S. odorifera (MTCC 5700) immobilized onto coconut shell activated carbon surface (CSAC) was studied in batch reactor from mono and binary component aqueous solution. Activated carbon was derived from coconut shell by chemical activation method. Ferric chloride (Fecl3), used as surface modification agents was applied to biomass. Optimum biosorption conditions were obtained as a function of biosorbent dosage, pH, temperature, contact time and initial phenol and cyanide concentration. To define the equilibrium isotherms, experimental data were analyzed by five mono component isotherm and six binary component isotherm models. The higher uptake capacity of phenol and cyanide onto CSAC biosorbent surface was 450.02 and 2.58 mg/g, respectively. Nonlinear regression analysis was used for determining the best fit model on the basis of error functions and also for calculating the parameters involved in kinetic and isotherm models. The kinetic study results revealed that Fractal-like mixed first second order model and Brouser–Weron–Sototlongo models for phenol and cyanide were capable to offer accurate explanation of biosorption kinetic. According to the experimental data results, CSAC with immobilization of bacterium S. odorifera (MTCC 5700) seems to be an alternative and effective biosorbent for the elimination of phenol and cyanide from binary component aqueous solution.
Keywords: Cyanide; Impregnation; Phenol; Kinetic; Microorganism; Multicomponent modeling

Epicarp of Raphia hookerie, a bioresource material, was modified with urea (UMRH) to adsorb Rhodamine B (RhB) from aqueous solution. Adsorbent morphology and surface chemistry were established by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area determination, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), as well as the pH point of zero charge (pHpzc) determination. Prepared material was subsequently utilized for the uptake of Rhodamine B (RhB). Operational parameters, such as adsorbent dosage, concentration, time, and temperature, were investigated. Evidence of effective urea modification was confirmed by vivid absorption bands at 1670  and 1472 cm−1 corresponding to C=O and C–N stretching vibrations, respectively. Optimum adsorption was obtained at pH 3. Freundlich adsorption isotherm best fits the equilibrium adsorption data, while evidence of adsorbate–adsorbate interaction was revealed by Temkin isotherm model. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity (q max) was 434.78 mg/g. Kinetics of the adsorption process was best described by the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. Desorption efficiency was less than or equal to 25 % for all the eluents, and it follows the order HCl > H2O > CH3COOH.
Keywords: Raphia hookerie ; Biomass; Rhodamine B; Kinetics

Human exposure risk to heavy metals through groundwater used for drinking in an intensively irrigated river delta by E. Vetrimurugan; K. Brindha; L. Elango; Osman Muzi Ndwandwe (3267-3280).
Drinking water containing heavy metals above the maximum permissible limits cause potential risk to human health. The aim of this study was to determine the groundwater suitability for drinking use based on heavy metal concentration and the associated human exposure risk in an intensively irrigated part of the Cauvery river basin, Tamil Nadu, India. Sixteen heavy metals analysed were in the order of dominance of chromium < zinc < copper < cadmium < cobalt < iron < aluminium < nickel < titanium < zirconium < boron < silver < manganese < lead < lithium < silicon in groundwater. Chromium and zinc were within permissible limits of the Bureau of Indian Standards for drinking water quality, and silver, lead and nickel were above limits in all the groundwater samples. In less than 50 % of the groundwater samples, aluminium, boron, cadmium, copper, iron and manganese exceeded their individual permissible limits. Heavy metal pollution index based on 11 heavy metals indicated that groundwater quality of this area is poor-to-unsuitable. Non-carcinogenic risk for humans due to ingestion of groundwater through drinking water pathway was very high for infants, children and adults. Silver, lead, nickel, cadmium and manganese largely contributed to the health hazard. Sources of heavy metals were identified to be geological and from human activities, i.e., application of fertilizers in agricultural fields, seawater intrusion due to intensive pumping for agriculture and wastewater from industries. Groundwater and surface water in this area pose large threat due to high levels of heavy metals, and it is necessary to avoid this water for drinking due to potential risk of health hazard. This study also demonstrated the application of HPI and human exposure hazard index to study the groundwater quality based on heavy metals’ concentration.
Keywords: Heavy metal pollution index; Factor analysis; Hazard index; Groundwater; Surface water; Coastal area; Cauvery river basin; India

Pretreatment of feed water to improve membrane flux during filtration of agriculture field water containing substituted phenyl urea pesticide diuron has been reported. Laboratory-made reverse osmosis membrane was used for filtration. Preliminary experiments were conducted with model solution containing natural organic matter extracted from commercial humic acids, divalent ions Ca2+, Mg2+. Membrane fouling was characterized by pure water flux decline, change in membrane hydrophilicity and infrared spectroscopy. Natural organic matter present in field water causes severe membrane fouling. The presence of divalent cations further aggravated fouling. Use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and polyacrylic acids (PAA) in feed resulted in the decrease in membrane fouling. Pretreatment of field water is a must if it is contaminated with micro-organism having membrane fouling potential. Feed water pretreatment and use of PAA restricted membrane fouling to 16 % after 60 h of filtration. Membrane permeate flux decline was maximum at the first 12 h and thereafter remained steady at around 45–46 lm−2h−1 till the end of 60 h. Diuron rejection remained consistently greater than 93 % throughout the experiment. Diuron rejection was found to be unaffected by membrane fouling.
Keywords: Fouling; Pesticide; Pretreatment; Reverse osmosis; Natural organic matter

A key challenge of our society is improving schools through the sustainable use of resources especially in countries at risk of desertification. The estimation of water consumption is the starting point for the correct dimensioning of water recovery systems. To date, unlike the energy sector, there is a lack of scientific information regarding water consumption in school buildings. Available data refer roughly to indirect estimates by means of utility bills and therefore no information on the role of water leakage in the internal network of the school is provided. In this context, the aim of the work was to define and implement an on-line monitoring system for the assessment of water consumptions in a small Mediterranean island primary school to achieve the following sub-goals: (1) definition of water consumption profile considering teaching activities and secretarial work; (2) direct assessment of water consumptions and leakages and, (3) quantification of the behaviour parameters. The installed monitoring system consisted of 33 water metres (3.24 persons per water metre) equipped with sensors set on 1-L impulse signal and connected to a data logging system. Results showed consumptions in the range 13.6–14.2 L/student/day and leakage equal to 54.8 % of the total water consumptions. Considering the behavioural parameters, the consumptions related to toilet flushing, personal, and building cleaning were, respectively, 54, 43 and 3 % of the total water ones. Finally, the obtained results could be used for dimensioning the most suitable water recovery strategies at school level such as grey water or rainwater recovery systems.
Keywords: Online monitoring system; Primary school; Sustainable use of resources; User behaviour; Water consumption; Water leakage

Deterioration of groundwater quality due to anthropogenic activities is increasing at an alarming rate in most parts of the Punjab, but limited work has been carried out on groundwater quality and monitoring. This paper highlights the groundwater quality and compares its suitability for drinking and irrigation purpose in Malwa region, a southwestern part of Punjab. The Malwa region makes up the most cultivated area of Punjab with high consumption of pesticides and fertilizers. Twenty-four water samples representing groundwater sources were collected and analyzed for almost all major cations, anions and other physicochemical parameters. Analytical results of physicochemical analysis showed majority of the samples above the permissible limits of the Indian standards. The groundwater of the study area was very hard and the relative abundance of major cations and anions was Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+ and HCO3  > SO4 2− > Cl. Fluoride content was higher than permissible limit in 75 % of the samples. The mean concentration of arsenic in groundwater was 9.37 and 11.01µg/L during summer and winter season, respectively. The parameters like sodium adsorption ratio and sodium percentage (Na%) revealed good quality of groundwater for irrigation purposes, whereas magnesium ratio and corrosivity ratio values showed that water is not suitable for agriculture and domestic use. The dominant hydrochemical facies of groundwater was Ca–Mg–HCO3 and Ca–Mg–SO4–Cl. Chloro alkaline indices 1 and 2 indicated that reverse ion exchange is dominant in the region. The samples fall in rock dominance and evaporation dominance fields as indicated by Gibbs diagram. The saturation index shows that all the water samples were supersaturated with respect to carbonate minerals. This work thus concludes that groundwater in the study area is chemically unsuitable for domestic and agricultural uses. It is recommended to carry out a continuous water quality monitoring program and development of effective management practices for utilization of water resources.
Keywords: Groundwater; Arsenic; Drinking and irrigation water quality; Malwa region; Punjab; India

Reuse the pulp and paper industry wastewater by using fashionable technology by K. Sudarshan; K. Maruthaiya; P. Kotteeswaran; A. Murugan (3317-3322).
This proposed method is a promising way, which can be implemented in pulp and paper industries by effective removal of the color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the resulting treated water may surely reuse to the other streams. Fourier Transformer Infra Red spectra confirmed the presence of the respective functional groups in the removed pollutants from the wastewater. The efficiency of Non-ferric Alum (NF Alum) and cationic polyacrylamide (C-PAM) with and without power boiler fly ash was also studied. The reduction efficiency of color and chemical oxygen demand (COD) is evaluated at the optimum dosage of NF Alum, fly ash, and C-PAM. At the optimized pH attained from these coagulants using to treat the wastewater, the flocs formation/settling and the pollutant removal efficiency are encouraging and the resulting color of the wastewater is to 40 PtCo units from 330 PtCo units and COD to 66 mg/L from 218 mg/L. While using NF Alum alone with C-PAM for the treatment of wastewater, the highest reduction efficiency of COD is 97 mg/L from 218 mg/L and the color is 60 from 330 PtCo units at pH 4.8 was noted. From these observations, NF Alum and power boiler fly ash with C-PAM can effectively remove the pollutants from the pulp and paper mill wastewater and the water can be reused for other streams.
Keywords: Cationic polyacrylamide; Chemical oxygen demand; Color; Fly ash; Non-ferric alum

Estimating hydrologic budgets for six Persian Gulf watersheds, Iran by Majid Hosseini; Mohammad Ghafouri; MahmoudReza Tabatabaei; Masoud Goodarzi; Zeinab Mokarian (3323-3332).
Estimation of the major components of the hydrologic budget is important for determining the impacts on the water supply and quality of either planned or proposed land management projects, vegetative changes, groundwater withdrawals, and reservoir management practices and plans. As acquisition of field data is costly and time consuming, models have been created to test various land use practices and their concomitant effects on the hydrologic budget of watersheds. To simulate such management scenarios realistically, a model should be able to simulate the individual components of the hydrologic budget. The main objective of this study is to perform the SWAT2012 model for estimation of hydrological budget in six subbasin of Persian Gulf watershed; Golgol, Baghan, Marghab Shekastian, Tangebirim and Daragah, which are located in south and south west of Iran during 1991–2009. In order to evaluate the performance of the model, hydrological data, soil map, land use map and digital elevation model (DEM) are obtained and prepared for each catchment to run the model. SWAT-CUP with SUFI2 program was used for simulation, uncertainty and validation with 95 Percent Prediction Uncertainty. Coefficient of determination (R 2) and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NS) were used for evaluation of the model simulation results. Comparison of measured and predicted values demonstrated that each component of the model gave reasonable output and that the interaction among components was realistic. The study has produced a technique with reliable capability for annual and monthly water budget components in Persian Gulf watershed.
Keywords: Iran; Persian Gulf; SWAT model; Water budget

The aim of the present work was to study the impact of dumpsite leachate on ground-water quality of Jawaharnagar village. Leachate and ground-water samples were investigated for various physico-chemical parameters viz., pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness (TH), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl), carbonates (CO3 2−), bicarbonates (HCO3 ), nitrates (NO3 ), and sulphates (SO4 2−) during dry and wet seasons in 2015 and were reported. The groundwater was hard to very hard in nature, and the concentrations of total dissolved solids, chlorides, and nitrates were found to be exceeding the permissible levels of WHO drinking water quality standards. Piper plots revealed that the dominant hydrochemical facies of the groundwater were of calcium chloride (CaCl2) type and alkaline earths (Ca2+ and Mg2+) exceed the alkali (Na+ and SO4 2−), while the strong acids (Cl and SO4 2−) exceed the weak acids (CO3 2− and HCO3 ). According to USSL diagram, all the ground-water samples belong to high salinity and low-sodium type (C3S1). Overall, the ground-water samples collected around the dumpsite were found to be polluted and are unfit for human consumption but can be used for irrigation purpose with heavy drainage and irrigation patterns to control the salinity.
Keywords: Groundwater; Hydrochemical analysis; Piper; Irrigation; Jawaharnagar dumpsite; Rangareddy

Application of RBFN network and GM (1, 1) for groundwater level simulation by Zijun Li; Qingchun Yang; Luchen Wang; Jordi Delgado Martín (3345-3353).
Groundwater is a prominent resource of drinking and domestic water in the world. In this context, a feasible water resources management plan necessitates acceptable predictions of groundwater table depth fluctuations, which can help ensure the sustainable use of a watershed’s aquifers for urban and rural water supply. Due to the difficulties of identifying non-linear model structure and estimating the associated parameters, in this study radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) and GM (1, 1) models are used for the prediction of monthly groundwater level fluctuations in the city of Longyan, Fujian Province (South China). The monthly groundwater level data monitored from January 2003 to December 2011 are used in both models. The error criteria are estimated using the coefficient of determination (R 2), mean absolute error (E) and root mean squared error (RMSE). The results show that both the models can forecast the groundwater level with fairly high accuracy, but the RBFN network model can be a promising tool to simulate and forecast groundwater level since it has a relatively smaller RMSE and MAE.
Keywords: Radial basis function neural network model; GM (1, 1) model; Groundwater level

It is of high importance to determine the flood discharge of different basins, in studies on water resources. However, it is necessary to use new models to determine flood hydrograph parameters. Therefore, it will be beneficial to conduct studies to calibrate the models, keeping in mind the local conditions of different regions. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the peak flood discharge of a basin located in Southwest Iran, using the TR-20, TR55, and HEC-1 methods of the WMS model (watershed modeling system). The obtained results were compared with empirical values, as well as those of the soil conservation service (SCS) approach. Based on the results obtained, the TR55 method of the WMS model recorded the highest agreement with empirical values in Southwest Iran.
Keywords: Peak flood discharge; Flood routing; WMS

Sustainability of a membrane process depends on many factors of which fouling mitigation is the most central. Because membrane fouling phenomenon is very complex, extent of fouling potential of a feedwater with respect to a membrane has to be identified right from the design stage. This will acquaint engineers with the proper fouling mitigation measures during operation. This study presents a preliminary fouling data from the ultrafiltration of biotreated palm oil mill effluent (POME) after an upstream adsorption process. The flux decline is studied in a typical constant-pressure experiments with a cross-flow ultrafiltration of biotreated POME through Sartocon® polyethersulfone membranes (MWCOs 1, 5 and 10 kDa) at applied pressures of 40, 80 and 120 kPa. Results are examined, within the frame of the common blocking mechanisms and it was found that the blocking index η decreased from 2 to 0. Pore blocking phenomenon was successively observed from complete blocking (η = 2) down to cake filtration (η = 0), and the early blockage of the pores and a formation of a cake resulted in a limiting cake height. Thus, cake filtration could be best used to explain the fouling mechanisms of biotreated POME on the ultrafiltration membranes based on the R 2 values at all applied pressures. This demonstrates that the fouling was as a result of gradual reversible cake deposition which could easily be removed by less onerous cleaning methods. In addition, it could be concluded that the upstream adsorption reduced the particulate deposition on the membrane surface.
Keywords: UF membranes; Hermia’s blocking models; Fouling; Sustainability; Pore blocking index; Cake filtration; Biotreated POME

The present study was undertaken to determine the relationship between fluoride in water, urine and serum and dental fluorosis. The fluoride level in water and urine were measured spectrophotometrically by using acid zirconyl and SPADNS reagents, while the fluoride level in serum was determined by ion selective electrode meter. Dental fluorosis survey was conducted with the help of Performa prescribed by Rajiv Gandhi Drinking Water Mission and the use of Tooth Surface Index for Fluorosis. Mean fluoride values in water samples of Jhajjar City and Dadanpur and Dariyapur villages of Jhajjar District were measured to be 2.17 (range from 1.92 to 2.60 mg/L), 2.81 (range from 2.53 to 3.14 mg/L) and 2.22 mg/L (range from 1.63 to 3.33 mg/L), respectively. The mean fluoride values in the urine samples of children were found to be 1.51 (range from 0.05 to 2.64 mg/L), 1.71 (range from 0.69 to 2.80 mg/L) and 1.45 mg/L (range from 0.31 to 2.50 mg/L) at Jhajjar City and Dadanpur and Dariyapur sites, respectively. Serum fluoride was detected in the blood samples of children, who have high urinary fluoride at these three sites. The mean serum fluoride level was reported to be 0.15, 0.34 and 0.17 mg/L, respectively. A total of 842 children were also analyzed for dental fluorosis. The mean values of fluorosis-affected children in Jhajjar, Dadanpur and Dariyapur were 51.90, 94.63 and 36.84 %, respectively. A significantly positive correlation between water, urine, serum fluoride concentration and fluorosis was seen.
Keywords: Fluorosis; Jhajjar District; Serum fluoride; Urinary fluoride; Water fluoride

Stable isotopes of 2H and 18O in precipitation are different globally and carry all information about water molecules movement in hydrosphere cycles. Isotopic composition is a function of temperature, relative humidity, and speed of evaporation at different latitudes, longitudes, and altitudes. On the basis of this, we observe local meteoric water line measurements in the plot of δ2H versus δ18O. It will be interesting to know the original isotopic composition (without any modification) in a transition from cloud down to earth in different environmental conditions. This had been done by plotting of slope versus intercept of Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL) at different altitudes in different years of observations. Intercept of LMWL with Global Meteoric Water Line (GMWL) data taken from the hydrology frame work of Corsica was plotted and it was found that the isotopic composition of water in precipitation by all these methods is same.
Keywords: Original isotopic composition; Hydrology; GMWL