Applied Water Science (v.5, #1)

Runoff water is an important transporting medium for various pollutants from land to surface water. Several mobiles and stationary sources such as vehicles, steel cement and thermal power plants, cooking, street, construction debris, etc. are emitting effluents in the environment of the central India. The rain runoff water washes out the air as well as land pollutants and flushes out into water bodies. Therefore, rain runoff water pollution in most urbanized and industrialized city of central India, i.e., Raipur during rainy season (May–September 2012) is analyzed statistically using cluster and principal component analysis to assess sources. The cluster analysis grouped runoff water samples into two clusters based on the similarity of runoff water quality characteristics of the total variance. The factor analysis differentiated the diffused sources of runoff water contaminants. The enrichment factors and runoff fluxes of the contaminants are discussed.
Keywords: Runoff water quality; Cluster analysis; Factor analysis; Removal fluxes; Central India

Study was conducted in Ranchi Urban Agglomeration (RUA) to assess the surface water quality of major rivers and reservoirs during pre- and post-monsoon periods. Study indicated increase in chemical contaminants and decrease in biological contaminants during monsoon periods and a positive correlation with built-up land within the catchment of surface water sources. The remote sensing-based approach indicated Swarnrekha river and tributaries as more encroached by built-up land (0.73 km2 within 50 m buffer) than Jumar river and its tributaries (0.21 km2). For the proper management of the surface water sources in RUA, government attention and interventions are required to minimize the contamination and safeguard the health of local residents.
Keywords: Surface water quality; Land use/land cover; Built-up encroachment; Remote sensing; GIS

To achieve a better understanding of the nature of the factors influencing groundwater composition as well as to specify them quantitatively, conventional graphical and multivariate statistical analysis (principal component analysis) were applied on hydrochemical data consisting of 51 groundwater samples collected from domestic boreholes in Yenagoa city, Bayelsa State, Nigeria. The mode of study includes analysis of major ion contents and other chemical parameters such as pH, total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity of the groundwater samples. The PCA yielded three principal components explaining 78.38 % of the total variance of the 11 parameters. The three components are interpreted as controlled by the natural weathering of existing silicate rocks, reverse ion-exchange processes and oxidation reactions which are further supported by the scatter diagrams, ionic signatures and mechanisms controlling the water chemistry diagrams as the common factors influencing the groundwater hydrogeochemical character. Limited anthropogenic influence on the groundwater composition has also been noticed in the study area. The groundwater poses no threat to human health because the concentrations of physico-chemical parameters that can be used to evaluate drinking water quality are within World Health Organisation standard specification. The groundwater in the area is fresh, high salinity and low sodium in nature.
Keywords: Multivariate statistical analysis; R-mode factor analysis; Groundwater quality; Hydrogeochemistry; Yenagoa

Accessing groundwater quality in lower part of Nagapattinam district, Southern India: using hydrogeochemistry and GIS interpolation techniques by G. Gnanachandrasamy; T. Ramkumar; S. Venkatramanan; S. Vasudevan; S. Y. Chung; M. Bagyaraj (39-55).
The aim of this present study was to evaluate groundwater quality in the lower part of Nagapattinam district, Tamil Nadu, Southern India. A detailed geochemical study of groundwater region is described, and the origin of the chemical composition of groundwater has been qualitatively evaluated, using observations over a period of two seasons premonsoon (June) and monsoon (November) in the year of 2010. To attempt this goal, samples were analysed for various physico-chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, salinity, Na+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Cl, HCO3 and SO42−. The abundance of major cations concentration in groundwater is as Na > Ca > Mg > K, while that of anions is Cl > SO4 > HCO3. The Piper trilinear diagram indicates Ca–Cl2 facies, and according to USSL diagram, most of the sample exhibits high salinity hazard (C3S1) type in both seasons. It indicates that high salinity (C3) and low sodium (S1) are moderately suitable for irrigation purposes. Gibbs boomerang exhibits most of the samples mainly controlled by evaporation and weathering process sector in both seasons. Irrigation status of the groundwater samples indicates that it was moderately suitable for agricultural purpose. ArcGIS 9.3 software was used for the generation of various thematic maps and the final groundwater quality map. An interpolation technique inverse distance weighting was used to obtain the spatial distribution of groundwater quality parameters. The final map classified the ground quality in the study area. The results of this research show that the development of the management strategies for the aquifer system is vitally necessary.
Keywords: GIS; Interpolation; Groundwater quality; IDW; Nagapattinam; Hydrogeochemistry

A continuous fixed-bed adsorption study was carried out by using phosphonated cross-linked polyethylenimine as an adsorbent for the removal of uranium (U) from aqueous solutions. The effect of inlet metal ion concentration (40, 70, and 100 mg L−1), feed flow rate (1, 2, and 3 mL min−1), and polymer bed height (2.5, 3.2 and 4.5 cm) on the breakthrough characteristics of the fixed-bed adsorption system at pH 2 were studied. The results showed that the breakthrough time appeared to increase with increase of bed height but decreased with increase of both influent U concentration and flow rate. Modelling of the dynamics of the fixed-bed adsorption process was studied and the application of different models to describe the breakthrough curves showed that the Thomas and Yoon–Nelson model gave better results for the operating conditions.
Keywords: Uranium removal; Breakthrough curves; Fixed-bed columns

Chemical geothermometry using silica was employed in the present study to estimate the sub-surface groundwater temperature and the corresponding depth of the groundwater in parts of Kali watershed in Bulandshahr and Aligarh district. 42 groundwater samples each were collected from borewells during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon season 2012 and analysed for all major ions and silica. Silica values in the area range from 18.72 to 50.64 mg/l in May 2012 and from 18.89 to 52.23 mg/l in November 2012. Chalcedony temperature >60 °C was deduced for five different locations in each season, which corresponds to a depth of more than 1,000 metres. Spatial variation of silica shows high values along a considerable stretch of River Kali, during pre-monsoon season. Relationship of silica with Total Dissolved Solids and Chloride was established to infer the role of geogenic and anthropogenic processes in solute acquisition. It was found that both water–rock interaction and anthropogenic influences are responsible for the observed water chemistry.
Keywords: Groundwater; Chemistry; Silica geothermometry; Chalcedony; River Kali

Acid-treated montmorillonite-rich clay and amines (methylamine, morpholine, and aniline)-modified clay adsorbents were investigated and their abilities to remove chromate from aqueous solution were studied. For the later purpose, kinetic studies were carried out under different operating conditions (chromate concentration, adsorbent content, and temperature), and adsorption isotherm measurements were performed. It was found that the kinetic of adsorption was fast and the data followed the pseudo-second rate equation. The rate of adsorption was controlled by the intra-particle diffusion and mass transfer through the liquid film, and the relative importance of these limiting steps depended on the operating conditions. Chromate adsorption was an endothermic process and took place spontaneously by physisorption. The free energy at 25 ≤ T ≤ 40 °C varied from −1.5 to −46 kJ/mol. Adsorption isotherms of Na+-saturated clay (AN), acid-treated clay (AA), and methylamine–clay and morpholine–clay (A–Me, A–Mo) were type V, whereas those of aniline–clay (A–An) were type III. The estimated maximum uptakes were 105, 29, 15, 11, and 10 mmol/kg for A–An, AN, A–Mo, AA, and A–Me, respectively. The mechanism of chromate adsorption was discussed based on the shape of the isotherms. Considering for instance the most efficient absorbent (A-An), the isotherm followed the Freundlich equation and hydrogen chromate (the main stable form at working pH) adsorbed to solid particles once aniline species were entirely desorbed.
Keywords: Chromate; Amine-modified clay; Adsorption; Kinetics; Isotherms

Agricultural adsorbents are reported to have a remarkable performance for adsorption of dyes. In the present study, formaldehyde and sulphuric acid treated two agricultural adsorbents; potato peel and neem bark are used to adsorb methylene blue. On the whole, the acid-treated adsorbents are investigated to have high sorption efficiency compared to HCHO treated adsorbents. The percentage removal efficiency of H2SO4 treated potato peel (APP) increases considerably high from 75 to 100 % with increase in adsorbent dose, whereas the removal efficiency of H2SO4 treated neem bark (ANB) is found to be 98 % after adding the first dose only. The monolayer sorption behaviour of HCHO treated potato peel (PP) and APP is well defined by Langmuir, whereas the chemisorptions behaviour of HCHO treated neem bark (NB) and ANB is suggested by Temkin’s isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity measured is highest in ANB followed by NB, PP and APP with the values of 1000, 90, 47.62 and 40.0 mg/g, respectively. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted well with the observed data of all the four adsorbents. The results obtained reveal that NB and ANB both are good adsorbents compared to PP and APP.
Keywords: HCHO treated potato peel (PP); HCHO treated neem bark (NB); H2SO4 treated potato peel (APP); H2SO4 treated neem bark (ANB); Methylene blue (MB); Percentage removal

Principal component analysis has been applied to 13 dimensionless geomorphic parameters on 8 sub-watersheds of Kanhiya Nala watershed tributary of Tons River located in Part of Panna and Satna district of Madhya Pradesh, India, to group the parameters under different components based on significant correlations. Results of principal component analysis of 13 geomorphic parameters clearly reveal that some of these parameters are strongly correlated with the components but texture ratio and hypsometric integral do not show correlation with any of the component. So they have been screened out of analysis. The principal component loading matrix obtained using correlation matrix of eleven parameters reveals that first three components together account for 93.71 % of the total explained variance. Therefore, principal component loading is applied to get better correlation and clearly group the parameters in physically significant components. Based on the properties of the geomorphic parameters, three principal components were defined as drainage, slope or steepness and shape components. One parameter each from the significant components may form a set of independent parameters at a time in modeling the hydrologic responses such as runoff and sediment yield from small watersheds.
Keywords: Geomorphic parameters; Principal component analysis; GIS

Geochemical analysis is a useful tool in hydrogeological assessment, particularly in constructing a conceptual model of a hydrogeological system. In this study, major ion concentrations of 53 groundwater samples from the coal-bearing aquifer in the Qidong coal mine, northern Anhui Province of China have been processed by statistical analysis for understanding either hydro-chemical characteristics or hydrological evolution, which will be useful for the safety of coal mining. The results suggest that most of the samples are Na–SO4 and Na–HCO3 types, and their hydro-chemical compositions are mainly controlled by dissolution of more soluble minerals (e.g. calcite) and weathering of silicate minerals (e.g. plagioclase). Two groups of samples have been subdivided by quantile and scatter plots of factor scores, one is related to different degrees of water–rock interactions and another is related to groundwater mixing. Moreover, four end members have been identified and the mixing calculation suggests that the groundwater samples affected by mixing have 20–100 % contribution from the loose layer aquifer (LA), and therefore, groundwater from the LA in the coal mine should be taken seriously during coal mining. The study demonstrated that statistical analysis is useful for connecting the hydrochemistry of groundwater with hydrological evolution of the aquifer.
Keywords: Groundwater; Hydrochemistry; Statistical analysis; Water–rock interaction; Mixing; Coal mine