Applied Water Science (v.3, #4)

In this study, fixed-bed column experiments were performed to investigate the biosorption potential of two agricultural wastes, Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus to remove Crystal violet (CV) from aqueous solution. The experiments were conducted to study the effects of important parameters such as bed depth (10–30 cm), flow rate (10–20 mL min−1) and initial dye concentration (10–25 mg L−1). Different models like Bed Depth Service Time (BDST) model, Thomas model and Yoon-Nelson model were applied to the experimental sorption data. In the biosorption of Crystal violet by both the sorbents, the BDST model fitted well with the experimental data in the initial region of the breakthrough curve. Also, Yoon–Nelson model was found to show good agreement with the experimental kinetic results as compared to the Thomas model. The sorbents were found to be very potential, as it showed good sorption capacities of 46.68 and 54.24 mg g−1 for CV biosorption by Citrullus lanatus rind and Cyperus rotundus. Recovery of dye was made by eluting 1 N CH3COOH through the exhausted column in downward direction.
Keywords: Biosorption; Crystal violet; Fixed-bed column; BDST; Thomas model; Yoon–Nelson model

Review of domestic water conservation practices in Saudi Arabia by Omar K. M. Ouda; Ahmad Shawesh; Tareq Al-Olabi; Firas Younes; Rafat Al-Waked (689-699).
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabian (KSA) has a substantial water shortage problem where water demand far exceeds water resources sustainable yields. This fact has motivated the Ministry of Water and Electricity (MOWE) to launch a massive water conservation awareness program to enhance water-using efficiency in the country. The MOWE among other water awareness activities has introduced a four-stage program of free distribution of water conservation tools. This research reviewed the domestic water conservation awareness program in Saudi Arabia and assessed the program performance through conducting questionnaire surveys. The latter was designed and implemented in Al-Khobar city in the Eastern Province to measure public awareness regarding water issues. The survey started on April 28, 2012, and continued for 3 weeks. A total of 197 questionnaires were completed. The survey results showed a relatively low awareness among respondents about water shortage problem in the Kingdom. A low percentage of respondents have water conservation tools installed in their houses, but a high percentage is willing to buy and install water conservation tools. The majority of respondents consider the water price low and are willing to pay more for water. The respondents’ feedback highlighted the need to improve the current water conservation awareness program.
Keywords: Saudi Arabia; Water shortage; Water conservation program; Questionnaire survey

Management of groundwater resources is very important for regions where freshwater supply is naturally limited. Long-term planning of groundwater usage requires method-based new decision support tools. These tools must be able to predict the change in the groundwater storage with sufficient accuracy and must allow exploring management scenarios with respect to different criteria such as sustainability and cost. So, a multi-objective optimization algorithm is used for groundwater management problem. In this paper, a genetic algorithm (GA) with two additional techniques, Pareto optimality ranking and fitness sharing, was applied to simultaneously maximize the pumping rate and minimize pumping cost. The methodology proposed herein has more Pareto optimal solutions, however, it is desirable to find the ones scattered uniformly over the Pareto frontier to provide a variety of compromise solutions to the decision maker. A groundwater resources management model is performed through a combined simulation–optimization model. This model is called the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) for optimization which combines the MODFLOW and GA. MOGA model applied in Wadi El-Farigh, Egypt, to develop the maximum pumping rate and minimum operation cost as well as to predict the future changes in both pumping rate and pumping operation cost. Model makes a feasible solution in groundwater management. Finally a compromise solution is presented from a set of Pareto optimal solutions to help the decision maker.
Keywords: Groundwater management; Multi-objective optimization; Fitness sharing; Genetic algorithm; Wadi El-Farigh; Egypt

Monitoring of phenolic compounds and surfactants in water of Ganga Canal, Haridwar (India) by Richa Seth; Prashant Singh; Manindra Mohan; Rakesh Singh; Ravinder Singh Aswal (717-720).
The Ganga Canal emerging out from Ganga River has great ritual importance among pilgrims and tourists at Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India. The Canal is being polluted due to mass bathing, washing, disposal of sewage, industrial waste and these human activities are deteriorating its water quality. To determine the impact of these activities, Ganga Canal water quality at five sites between Haridwar and Roorkee namely Pantdweep, Har Ki Pauri, Singhdwar, Piran Kaliyar and Old Bridge, Roorkee has been analyzed for organic pollutants phenolic compounds and surfactants, which have rarely been assessed and reported so far. The results of analysis show that phenolic compounds are not present in water samples of selected five sites during bi-monthly monitoring from January 2012 to November 2012. The Har Ki Pauri, Singhdwar, Piran Kaliyar and Old Bridge, Roorkee sites have been detected with surfactant concentrations (1.18, 1.63, 3.2 and 2.5 mg/l) more than permissible limit (1.00 mg/l). Also at most of the sites, surfactants’ concentration crossed the desirable limit of BIS during the period of analysis. This distribution of surfactants in water has potential risk for skin diseases and cancer and requires regular monitoring with appropriate measures.
Keywords: Ganga Canal; Haridwar; Water quality; Phenolic compounds; Surfactants

Groundwater is an essential and vital component of our life support system where it is used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Wadi Sayyah is one of the most important wadis in the western part of Saudi Arabia to the northeast of Jeddah city. A total of 42 groundwater samples are collected from hand dug wells in this area and they are analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters. The sequence of the abundance of the major ion is in the following order: Ca2+ > Na+ > Mg2+ > K+ and Cl > SO42− > HCO3 > NO3. The dominated hydrochemical facieses of groundwater are: CaCl, and mixed CaMgCl, and the alkaline earths(Ca2+, Mg2+) and strong acids (SO42−, Cl) are dominating over alkalis (Na+, K+) and weak acids (HCO3, CO 3 ). Statistical analysis indicates positive correlation among most of the chemical parameters. Based on the analytical results, groundwater in the study area is generally hard to very hard, fresh to brackish and alkaline in nature. The rock weathering and evaporation are among the most dominant processes in controlling water quality. The chloro-alkali indices illustrate that 80 % of the water samples have positive indicating exchange of Na+ and K+ from water with Mg2+ and Ca2+ from the rock. The suitability of water for drinking and irrigation is determined using WHO standards for drinking; some indices for irrigation purposes and it indicate that the groundwater in the study area can be used for drinking purposes in most of the locations (31 wells), while it is suitable for irrigation uses.
Keywords: Groundwater; Chemical classification; Hydrochemical analysis; Wadi Sayyah; Saudi Arabia

Two water treatment plants (Edfina and Kom-Hamada) in El-Beheira Governorate were selected to monitor disinfection by-products (DBPs) concentrations. A 12-month monitoring program from October 2011 to September 2012 was established for measuring some DBPs and some water quality parameters such as temperature, pH, turbidity, total organic carbon (TOC), ammonia and bromide. The concentrations of DBPs were determined by gas chromatography with ECD (GC-ECD). Trihalomethanes (THMs) and chloral hydrate (CH) were commonly seen in all samples collected from Plant 1 (Edfina) and Plant 2 (Kom-Hamada). THMs mean concentrations ranged from 34.5 to 64.6 μg/L and from 28.2 to 52.8 μg/L for Plant 1 and Plant 2. CH mean concentrations ranged from 3.3 to 6.76 μg/L and from 2.8 to 3.9 μg/L for Plant 1 and Plant 2, respectively. Dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) mean concentrations ranged from 1.1 to 2.0 μg/L and from 1.2 to 2.1 μg/L for Plant 1 and Plant 2, respectively. Chloropicrin (CP) was detected in Plant 1 only with mean concentration ranging from 0.91 to 1.1 μg/L. Trichloroacetonitrile (TCAN) and dibromoacetonitrile (DBAN) were below the limit of quantification (LOQ) in all samples. Higher concentrations of THMs were measured in summer and spring as compared to winter. DBPs concentrations were higher in Plant 1 than in Plant 2. The DBPs levels in all samples collected from Edfina and Kom-Hamada were generally below the guideline values set by the Egyptian Health Minister in 2007.
Keywords: Disinfection by-products; Drinking water; Water quality; Treatment plant; Trihalomethanes; Egypt

A study on the defluoridation in water by using natural soil by S. Chidambaram; S. Manikandan; AL. Ramanathan; M. V. Prasanna; C. Thivya; U. Karmegam; R. Thilagavathi; K. Rajkumar (741-751).
Removal of excess fluoride (F) from the water has been attempted by several authors by using different materials both natural and artificial. The main aim of this paper was to attempt the fluoride removal by using the locally available red soil adopting column method. The red soil was mixed in different proportion with sand in order to increase the porosity and permeability property of the medium. It was optimized for 4:1 ratio of red soil to sand and it was used for the following experiment. The experiment was conducted in 11 batches for a period of about 9,213 min. Fresh standard solution of F was used in each batch, prepared from Orion 1,000 ppm solution. The samples were collected and analyzed for pH, EC (Electrical Conductivity) and HCO3. Rate of flow of water and efficiency of adsorption were calculated and compared with the fluoride removal capacities of the medium. The medium used for the fluoride removal was subjected to FTIR analysis before and after the experiment. The variation of IR spectrum before and after treatment signifies the changes in the OH bonding between Al and Fe ions present in the soil. The variation in pH decreased during the course of defluoridation. Higher F removal was noted when flow rate was lesser. An attempt on the regeneration of the fluoride adsorbed soil was also made and found to be effective.
Keywords: Defluoridation; Adsorption capacity; FTIR spectrum; Removal efficiency; Natural soil

There are a number of different parameters like discharge which affect water quality and conditions. Typically, water quality is expected to improve by the increase in discharge and significantly influenced by the runoff water quality entering the river system. As a result this research subjected to address the increase of salinity in the wet season. To reach this point, a multivariate statistical technique, namely factor analysis (FA), has been used to assess the spatial variability of water quality parameters and conditions in the Karoon River basin located in southwest Iran. The various water quality parameters (10 variables) and discharge were incorporated to FA to better interpret the processes (natural) and specific source of water quality deterioration. The results revealed that water quality variations are affected mostly by dissolved mineral salts along the entire Karoon River. Furthermore, major contamination threat is caused by geological situation for over the year which is defined as nonpoint pollution source and may explain most part of the observed variances (50 %) in the data. Then as a general result of this study it can be claimed that spatially and temporally management of water use in different parts can be carried out effectively by FA technique.
Keywords: Water quality; Factor analysis; Water chemical composition; Karoon River; Geological situation

Assessment of groundwater quality for irrigation use in Alathur Block, Perambalur District, Tamilnadu, South India by A. Jafar Ahamed; S. Ananthakrishnan; K. Loganathan; K. Manikandan (763-771).
The suitability of groundwater for irrigation uses was assessed in Alathur Block located in Perambalur District of the state of Tamil Nadu. Groundwater samples from ten villages were analyzed in two seasons for major cations, anions and other parameters such as electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, Kelly’s ratio, sodium absorption ratio (SAR), magnesium ratio, % sodium, chloro-alkaline indices, residual sodium carbonate and permeability index to know the suitability of groundwater for irrigation purpose. Piper trilinear diagram interpretations were made to know the suitability of chemical type of the groundwater. It reveals that the subsurface water is alkaline (Na + K) than the alkaline earth (Ca + Mg) type. According to the SAR values plotted in the USSL Staff diagram, most of the groundwater samples belong to class high-salinity hazard and low-sodium hazard (C3−S1) and high-salinity hazard and medium-sodium hazard (C3−S2), which indicate that the groundwater of most stations require a special type of irrigation method.
Keywords: Alathur; Correlation matrix; Groundwater; Irrigation water; Perambalur

Color removal from wastewater has been a matter of concern, both in the aesthetic sense and health point of view. Color removal from textile effluents on a continuous industrial scale has been given much attention in the last few years, not only because of its potential toxicity, but also mainly due to its visibility problem. There have been various promising techniques for the removal of dyes from wastewater. However, the effectiveness of adsorption for dye removal from wastewater has made it an ideal alternative to other expensive treatment methods. In this review, an extensive list of sorbent literature has been compiled. The review evaluates different agricultural waste materials as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of dyes from wastewater. The review also outlines some of the fundamental principles of dye adsorption on to adsorbents.
Keywords: Dyes; Low-cost adsorbents; Adsorption; Wastewater treatment