Applied Water Science (v.3, #2)

Assessment and management of water resources in Northeastern Algeria: case of watersheds Kebir West Safsaf and Guebli rivers, Skikda by Titi Benrabah Samia; Kherici Bousnoubra Houria; Kherici Nacer; Cote Marc (351-357).
In Algeria, as in many other parts of the world, population growth, rapid urbanization, and economic development weigh heavily on water resources. In order to better manage these resources, this paper reports a detailed estimate of groundwater and superficial water of Skikda region, for an appropriate management and adequate use of this resource. Located in north east of Algeria, the study area is composed of three watersheds, covering an area of approximately 4,138 km2. The groundwater is abundant in the region, represented mainly by the alluvial deposits water. This accumulated reserve is yearly renewed thanks to the efficient infiltration of rain water. Moreover, the superficial resources are an important part of water heritage of the region catchment, with a permanent flow of various streams that carry a considerable volume, with important hydraulic structures allowing the mobilization of a certain volume. Water needs are increasing in the same direction as the development of industry and agriculture sectors in the area of study.
Keywords: Skikda; Assessment; Water resources; Reservoir; Watershed management

Removal of COD, ammoniacal nitrogen and colour from stabilized landfill leachate by anaerobic organism by Mohamad Anuar Kamaruddin; Mohd Suffian Yusoff; Hamidi Abdul Aziz; Nur Khairiyah Basri (359-366).
This study was conducted to investigate the treatment performance of anaerobic organism for stabilized leachate under ambient air condition. The treatability of landfill leachate was tested under various influences including pH, dosage of anaerobic organism and contact time. Laboratory experiment revealed that anaerobic organism was in progressive state when the leachate in neutral condition. At this phase, the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3–N) and colour of 76.84, 59.44 and 46.2 %, were experimentally attained. The experimental results also showed that the the optimum variables condition was established at pH 7 of leachate sample, dosage of 100 mL of anaerobic organism and required 14 days to reduce the COD, NH3–N and colour pollutants to 65.5, 60.2 and 46.3 %, respectively. The preliminary investigation shows that the anaerobic organisms were able to remediate leachate pollutants by the microbial activity in the leachate sample under ambient air condition.
Keywords: Landfill leachate; Anaerobic organism; COD; NH3–N; Colour

Removal of methyl orange by activated carbon modified by silver nanoparticles by Jolly Pal; Manas Kanti Deb; Dhananjay Kumar Deshmukh; Devsharan Verma (367-374).
In this work, the removal of methyl orange (MO) dye by adsorption on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) coated activated carbon (AC) has been studied. The effect of various process parameters has been investigated by the column adsorption technique. Equilibrium adsorption data of MO were carried out at room temperature. Using AgNPs-coated AC, 72.5 % of MO was removed, whereas only 50.0 % when using AC after reacting for 16 h with an initial MO concentration of 2 mg/L (pH = 7). The equilibrium time is independent of the initial dye concentration and the percentage removal of MO increased with increase in contact time. The adsorption data were analyzed using adsorption isotherm. The characteristic parameters for isotherm and related correlation coefficients were determined from graphs of their linear equations. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption of MO followed pseudo-second-order kinetics. AgNPs-coated AC is found to be suitable adsorbent for the adsorption of MO. Desorption studies were made to elucidate recovery of the adsorbate and adsorbent for the economic competitiveness of the removal system. The AgNPs-coated AC was successfully recycled for 10 successive adsorption–desorption cycles indicating its high reusability.
Keywords: Silver nanoparticles; Activated carbon; Microwave irradiation; Methyl orange; Polyvinylpyrrolidone

Optimal design of an activated sludge plant: theoretical analysis by M. A. Islam; M. S. A. Amin; J. Hoinkis (375-386).
The design procedure of an activated sludge plant consisting of an activated sludge reactor and settling tank has been theoretically analyzed assuming that (1) the Monod equation completely describes the growth kinetics of microorganisms causing the degradation of biodegradable pollutants and (2) the settling characteristics are fully described by a power law. For a given reactor height, the design parameter of the reactor (reactor volume) is reduced to the reactor area. Then the sum total area of the reactor and the settling tank is expressed as a function of activated sludge concentration X and the recycled ratio α. A procedure has been developed to calculate Xopt, for which the total required area of the plant is minimum for given microbiological system and recycled ratio. Mathematical relations have been derived to calculate the α-range in which Xopt meets the requirements of F/M ratio. Results of the analysis have been illustrated for varying X and α. Mathematical formulae have been proposed to recalculate the recycled ratio in the events, when the influent parameters differ from those assumed in the design.
Keywords: Activated sludge reactor; Optimal design; Optimal operation; Sludge recycled ratio; Settling tank

In this study, the characterization of solid waste and the effect of the leachate from an open dumping site in Ariyamangalam, Tiruchirappalli District, Tamil Nadu, on groundwater is investigated. A total of 14 groundwater samples and 20 leachate samples were collected for monitoring purpose. All the samples were analyzed for various physical and chemical parameters according to standard methods: this includes pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness, and total alkalinity, major cations such as Ca2+, Mg2+, and Fe2+, major anions such as NO3, Cl, and SO42− and heavy metals such as Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn. The results indicated that, very few parameters such as pH, sulfates and nitrates concentration in the groundwater samples are within the recommended maximum admissible limits approved by WHO (World Health Organization 940–949, 2002) and Bureau of Indian standards (IS 10500:1991). The TDS (range between 740 and 14,200 mg/L) in groundwater reveal the saline behavior of water and was found to be very high according to standards. The range of chlorides in all the locations under investigation is 215.15–4,098.73 mg/L. The contour plots also indicated that the groundwater was rigorously contaminated with various heavy metals. The presence of high concentration of Pb (0.59 mg/L) in groundwater samples nearby dumping site implies that groundwater samples were contaminated by leachate migration from an open dumping site.
Keywords: Groundwater; Leachate; Pollution; Solid waste

The benefits of partial source zone treatment of non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL)-contaminated sites (not fully removing the entrapped free-phase NAPL sources) with respect to achieving cleanup goals and reducing concentrations of dissolved constituents in downstream plumes are being debated. Uncertainty associated with the removal of NAPLs from source zones could be attributed to a number of factors including lack of information on the extent or timing of spills, complex entrapment configurations created by unstable behavior (fingering), geologic heterogeneity, and unavailability of accurate techniques for characterizing these heterogeneities, and uncertainty in locating source zone and estimating NAPL mass. Data for the resolution of issues related to benefits of partial source zone treatment are not expected to come from field sites. Laboratory studies in intermediate-scale test tanks can provide accurate data sets to investigate this issue, as it is possible to conduct controlled experiments under known conditions of aquifer heterogeneity. At this scale, source depletion and downstream concentrations in dissolved plumes can be monitored during remediation. The data generated in controlled experiments are used to validate numerical models to conduct theoretical analysis. This paper discusses this approach and presents results from such a study where the benefits of partial source zone treatment using surfactants were evaluated using intermediate-scale testing and numerical modeling. Results from both experiment and numerical simulations agreed conceptually where they suggested that a very large fraction of NAPL has to be removed from the entrapment zone to significantly reduce downstream plume concentrations.
Keywords: Dissolution; DNAPL; Heterogeneity; Numerical modeling; Surfactants

Hydrochemical and geoelectrical investigation of Marine Jeffara Aquifer, southeastern Tunisia by Belgacem Agoubi; Adel Kharroubi; Tarek Abichou; Habib Abida (415-429).
Hydrogeochemical and geophysical investigation were carried out to assess the geochemical water composition and processes governing groundwater hydrochemistry in Marine Jeffara Aquifer, southeastern Tunisia. A total of 74 groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for various parameters such as pH, electrical conductivity and major ions. Statistical and geochemical modeling were performed to understand the processes controlling groundwater geochemistry. According to their dominance, major ions are classified as follows Cl > Na > SO4 > Ca > Mg > HCO3. Hydrochemical, Na–Ca–Cl–SO4, Ca–Na–Mg–Cl–SO4 and Mg–Ca–Cl–SO4 are the dominant forms in groundwater, mainly as a result of rock–water interaction and saltwater intrusion. Ten vertical electrical resistivity tests were performed in three profiles. The measured low values of electrical resistivity in the coastal areas indicate saltwater mixing with groundwater, as a result of saltwater intrusion.
Keywords: Hydrogeochemistry; Saltwater intrusion; Kriging; Marine Jeffara; Tunisia

Removal of Remazol Blue 19 from wastewater by zinc–aluminium–chloride-layered double hydroxides by El Hassan Elkhattabi; Mohamed Lakraimi; Mohamed Badreddine; Ahmed Legrouri; Omar Cherkaoui; Moha Berraho (431-438).
Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), also called anionic clays, consist of cationic brucite-like layers and exchangeable interlayer anions. These hydrotalcite-like compounds, with Zn and Al in the layers and chloride in the interlayer space, were prepared following the coprecipitation method at constant pH. The affinity of this material for Remazol Blue 19, RB19 [2-(3-(4-Amino-9,10-dihydro-3-sulpho-9,10-dioxoanthracen-4-yl) aminobenzenesulphonyl) vinyl) disodiumsulphate], was studied as a function of contact time, pH of the solutions LDH dose and the RB19/[Zn–Al–Cl] mass ratio. It was found that 48 h is enough time for the equilibrium state to be reached with maximum RB19 retention at pH of 9 for an LDH dose equal to 100 mg and with an RB19/[Zn–Al–Cl] mass ratio higher than 3. The adsorption isotherm, described by the Langmuir model, is of L-type. The results demonstrate that RB19 retention on LDHs occurs by adsorption on external surface when RB19/[Zn–Al–Cl] mass ratio is equal or <3 and by both adsorption and interlayer ion exchange for ratios higher than 3. A mechanism for removal of RB19 anion has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy and TG analysis (TG and DTG curves).
Keywords: Layered double hydroxides; Anionic clays; Remazol Blue 19; Dye; Adsorption; Anion exchange; Intercalation; Retention

Assessment of water resources in some drainage basins, northwestern coast, Egypt by Mohamed Yousif; El Sayed El Abd; Ahmed Baraka (439-452).
The main objective of this research paper is to monitor the current situation of water resources in some of the drainage basins in the northwestern coast of Egypt and reach to a plan for the development of these resources. The selected basins were chosen for the present study according to their special conditions, where they have a shortage of water for human and agriculture proposes. However, the area of study has a population growth and agricultural activities, which require necessary development of groundwater. The study area has two aquifers: Pleistocene, and Middle Miocene aquifers. The recharge to these aquifers comes either from the direct infiltration of the rainfall, and/or from the surface runoff. The groundwater in the area of study is evaluated for drinking, domestic, livestock and agricultural purposes. The present study reaches out for some recommendations to develop the surface and groundwater in the study area.
Keywords: Egypt; Surface water; Groundwater; Geomorphology; Geology; Drainage basin

For an effective planning of activities aimed at recovering aquifer depletion and maintaining health of groundwater ecosystem, estimates of spatial distribution in groundwater storage volume would be useful. The estimated volume, if analyzed together with other hydrogeologic characteristics, may help delineate potential areas for groundwater development. This study proposes a GIS-based ARC model to delineate potential areas for groundwater development; where ‘A’ stands for groundwater availability, ‘R’ for groundwater release potential of soil matrix, and ‘C’ for cost for groundwater development. The model is illustrated with a case of the Kathmandu Valley in Central Nepal, where active discussions are going on to develop and implement groundwater management strategies. The study results show that shallow aquifers have high groundwater storage potential (compared to the deep) and favorable areas for groundwater development are concentrated at some particular areas in shallow and deep aquifers. The distribution of groundwater storage and potential areas for groundwater development are then mapped using GIS.
Keywords: GIS; Groundwater storage; Groundwater management; Kathmandu Valley; Nepal

Geographical information system-based morphometric analysis of Bharathapuzha river basin, Kerala, India by N. S. Magesh; K. V. Jitheshlal; N. Chandrasekar; K. V. Jini (467-477).
A morphometric analysis of Bharathapuzha river basin has been carried out using geoprocessing techniques in GIS. This technique is found relevant for the extraction of river basin and its drainage networks. The extracted drainage network was classified according to Strahler’s system of classification and it reveals that the terrain exhibits dendritic to sub-dendritic drainage pattern. The Bharathapuzha drainage basin is sprawled over an area of 5,988.56 km2. The study area was designated as seventh-order basin and lower order streams mostly dominate the basin with the drainage density value of 1.07 km/km2. The slope of basin varied from 0° to 70° and the slope variation is chiefly controlled by the local geology and erosion cycles. The elongation ratio of the basin is 0.57 indicating that the study area is elongated with moderate relief and steep slopes. The drainage texture of the basin is 7.78 which indicates an intermediate texture that exists over the region. Hence, from the study, it can be concluded that remote sensing data (SRTM–DEM) coupled with geoprocessing techniques prove to be a competent tool in morphometric analysis and the data can be used for basin management and other hydrological studies in future.
Keywords: Morphometric analysis; Bharathapuzha river basin; GIS; Geoprocessing; Kerala; India

The chemical analysis of 21 water wells in Sahand area, NW of Iran has been evaluated to determine the hydrogeochemical processes and ion, heavy and trace metal concentration background in the region. The dominated hydrochemical types are Ca–Mg–HCO3, Ca–SO4 and Na–Cl that vary in different group sample. The pH and Eh of the groundwater in the study area indicating an acidic to alkaline nature of the samples in group II, acidic nature in group I and neutral in group III. Also in Group III than Group I and II, the oxidizing condition is dominant, while in the other groups relative reducing conditions prevail. Due to Cu and other metal mineralization in I and II site, Cu, As, Au and other metal concentration in this water groups is higher than group III.
Keywords: Hydrogeochemical; Sahand; Groundwater; Metal concentration; Water groups; Oxide condition

Geophysical borehole logging for control of driller’s records: hydrogeological case study from Voltaian sedimentary rocks in northern Ghana by William Agyekum; Kurt Klitten; Thomas Armah; Bruce Banoeng-Yakubo; Edmund Okoe Amartey (491-500).
The low borehole yielding potential and the high drilling failure rate of the Voltaian sedimentary rocks of Northern Ghana have been of concern to many local hydrogeologists and international donors. Consequently, several donor-supported projects have been instituted within the last few years with the view to study the hydrogeological characteristics of this ‘difficult’ rock system. One such project is the geophysical borehole logging of 13 boreholes drilled into the Voltaian sedimentary rocks of Northern Ghana to enhance detailed hydrogeological assessment. Natural gamma detectors embedded in the five exploratory logging tools employed for the study ensured depth control by comparing their individual gamma log signatures. The combined gamma and formation resistivity/conductivity response logs provided more detailed lithological information than were shown in the driller’s/geologist’s logs. Significant discrepancies between the logging results and the reported drilled depths, construction depths, and screen settings were observed in seven of the thirteen investigated boreholes. Thus, the reliability of driller’s borehole records seems questionable, which will hamper hydrogeological studies and the mapping of groundwater resources. Further, it may be supposed that the productivity of most wells in Ghana is compromised by poor depth control of screen placement.
Keywords: Groundwater; Borehole logging; Driller’s records; Reliability; Voltaian rocks; Ghana

The water quality of a river that received pharmaceutical industrial effluents is evaluated through the analysis of two indices to describe the level of pollution of the river, in this paper. The indices have been computed from December 2009 to June 2011 at four sampling stations—outlet, outfall, upstream, and downstream in the Uppanar River located at Cuddalore (South east coast of India). The results were compared with the guidelines of Bureau of Indian standards for drinking water specifications (BIS 10500).The study also identifies the pollutants of pharmaceutical industrial effluents before and after treatment that affects the river water quality. Data on spatial and temporal changes in dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, pH, temperature, color, electrical conductance, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids, calcium, magnesium, hardness, sodium, and chloride were collected. The water quality indices used, Bascarón (1979) adapted Water Quality Index (WQIBA) and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment-Water Quality Index 1.0 (CCME WQI), which is a well-accepted and universally applicable computer model for evaluating the water quality index. Both the indices presented similar trends, and were considered adequate for evaluating the impacts of industrial effluent on the river water bodies.
Keywords: Water quality indices; River; Pharmaceutical industrial effluents; Anthropogenic impact

The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of phenol-acclimated activated sludge in the presence of various phenolic compounds in the separated batch reactors. The phenol-acclimated activated sludge was observed to be capable of completely removing phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol, and 4-chlorophenol. Nevertheless, in the presence of 2-chlorophenol and 3-chlorophenol merely at 50 mg/L, incomplete removal of these phenolic compounds were noticed. The specific oxygen uptake rate patterns obtained for phenol, o-cresol, m-cresol, and 4-chlorophenol could be used to approximate the end point of these phenolic compounds removal as well as to monitor the growth of biomass. As the 2-chlorophenol and 3-chlorophenol were only partially removed in the mixed liquor, the patterns of specific oxygen uptake rate attained for these phenolic compounds were not feasible for the similar estimation. The calculated toxicity percentages show the toxicity effects of phenolic compounds on the phenol-acclimated activated sludge followed the order of 2-chlorophenol  3-chlorophenol > 4-chlorophenol > o-cresol m-cresol > phenol.
Keywords: Phenol-acclimated activated sludge; Phenolic compound removal; Biomass growth; Specific oxygen uptake rate; Toxicity percentage

Selective removal of mercury from aqueous solutions using thiolated cross-linked polyethylenimine by Dalia M. Saad; Ewa M. Cukrowska; Hlanganani Tutu (527-534).
A successful approach to develop an insoluble form of polyethylenimine with a thiol-based functional group for selective removal of Hg(II) from aqueous solutions is reported. The selectivity of the modified polymer for Hg(II) as well as its ability to be regenerated for re-use has been studied. The synthesised polymer exhibited high selectivity for Hg(II) with high removal efficiency of up to 97 %, even in the presence of competing ions. The Freundlich isotherm was found to best fit and describe the experimental data. The pseudo-second-order equation explains the adsorption kinetics most effectively implying chemisorption. The thermodynamic study of the adsorption process revealed high activation energies >41 kJ mol−1, further confirming chemisorption as the mechanism of interaction between mercury ions and the polymer surface. The polymer exhibited good potential for re-use after many cycles of regeneration, giving good removal efficiency up to the fifth cycle.
Keywords: Adsorption; Mercury; Thiolation; Selective removal

Drinking water quality from two major treatment plants in Ghana; Kpong and Weija Plants, and distribution networks in the Accra-Tema Metropolis were monitored monthly for a year at fifteen different locations. The study determined the relationship between chlorine residual, other physico-chemical qualities of the treated water, and, bacteria regrowth. Results indicated that the treated water at the Kpong and Weija Treatment Plants conformed to WHO guidelines for potable water. However, the water quality deteriorated bacteriologically, from the plants to the delivery points with high numbers of indicator and opportunistic pathogens. This could be due to inadequate disinfection residual, biofilms or accidental point source contamination by broken pipes, installation and repair works. The mean turbidity ranged from 1.6 to 2.4 NTU; pH varied from 6.8 to 7.4; conductivity fluctuated from 71.1 to 293 μS/cm. Chlorine residual ranged from 0.13 to 1.35 mg/l. High residual chlorine was observed at the treatment plants, which decreased further from the plants. Results showed that additional chlorination does not take place at the booster stations. Chlorine showed inverse relationship with microbial counts. Total coliform bacteria ranged from 0 to 248 cfu/100 ml, and faecal coliform values varied from 0 to 128 cfu/100 ml. Other microorganisms observed in the treated water included Aeromonas spp., Clostridium spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Boiling water in the household before consumption will reduce water-related health risks.
Keywords: Chlorine residual; Coliform bacteria; Distribution network; Physico-chemical; Kpong; Weija

This study investigates the applicability of global public domain data versus local detailed data for distributed hydrological modelling using a case study approach. Major hydrological characteristics in Gin river basin are simulated in the study by applying the distributed hydrological model, YHyM/BTOPMC (University of Yamanashi Distributed Hydrological Model with Block-wise use of TOPMODEL and Muskingum-Cunge method) utilizing the global public domain data sets (Case 1) and local detailed data sets (Case 2). Evaluation of the model outputs for Case 1 and Case 2 shows that the overall hydrological behavior of the Gin river basin is adequately simulated by the model for both Case 1 and Case 2. The simulated average annual discharge volumes in Case 1 and Case 2 at Agaliya during 2002–2006, vary from the observed average annual discharge volume by +4.25 and +1.31 %, respectively. In general, simulated daily discharge in Case 1 shows slightly higher value than that of Case 2 resulting a difference of 0.9 m3/s during 2002–2006, on average. The relative differences between the simulated daily discharges in Case 1 and Case 2 become higher during the recession limbs of the flow hydrographs at Agaliya. Reasons for these variations are being discussed in the study. The results of the study give motivation towards the use of global public domain data for hydrologic simulations in data-poor (limited availability of local data) basins.
Keywords: Distributed hydrological modelling; YHyM/BTOPMC; Gin river; Global public domain data; Local detailed data