Mineralium Deposita (v.53, #5)

In the French Armorican Variscan belt, most of the economically significant hydrothermal U deposits are spatially associated with peraluminous leucogranites emplaced along the south Armorican shear zone (SASZ), a dextral lithospheric scale wrench fault that recorded ductile deformation from ca. 315 to 300 Ma. In the Pontivy-Rostrenen complex, a composite intrusion, the U mineralization is spatially associated with brittle structures related to deformation along the SASZ. In contrast to monzogranite and quartz monzodiorite (3 < U < 9 ppm; Th/U > 3), the leucogranite samples are characterized by highly variable U contents (~ 3 to 27 ppm) and Th/U ratios (~ 0.1 to 5) suggesting that the crystallization of magmatic uranium oxide in the more evolved facies was followed by uranium oxide leaching during hydrothermal alteration and/or surface weathering. U-Pb dating of uranium oxides from the deposits reveals that they mostly formed between ca. 300 and 270 Ma. In monzogranite and quartz monzodiorite, apatite grains display magmatic textures and provide U-Pb ages of ca. 315 Ma reflecting the time of emplacement of the intrusions. In contrast, apatite grains from the leucogranite display textural, geochemical, and geochronological evidences for interaction with U-rich oxidized hydrothermal fluids contemporaneously with U mineralizing events. From 300 to 270 Ma, infiltration of surface-derived oxidized fluids leached magmatic uranium oxide from fertile leucogranite and formed U deposits. This phenomenon was sustained by brittle deformation and by the persistence of thermal anomalies associated with U-rich granitic bodies.
Keywords: Uranium deposits; Syntectonic granites; Apatite geochemistry and U-Pb dating; Fluid-rock interactions; Hercynian; South Armorican shear zone

The Yandong porphyry Cu deposit is located at the south margin of the Dananhu–Tousuquan arc belt in eastern Tianshan, northwest China. The Cu ores comprise mainly disseminations and vein zones in the potassic and phyllic alteration zones, and are predominantly hosted in diorite porphyry, tonalite, and quartz porphyry, which intruded into Carboniferous Qi’eshan Group volcanic rocks. The U–Pb ages indicate that four intrusions were emplaced between 338.6 ± 2.9 and 326.1 ± 2.6 Ma. Five molybdenite samples yield Re–Os model ages of 333.8–329.5 Ma with a weighted average age of 331.8 ± 2.1 Ma. Fourteen pyrite samples have 206Pb/204Pb of 17.776–18.959, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.410–15.534, and 208Pb/204Pb of 37.323–38.127, similar to the age-corrected data of the Yandong tonalite. The tonalite shows adakite-like characteristics (e.g., high Sr/Y ratios and low Y contents), and has positive εNd(t) and εHf(t) values, and low zircon O isotopes (3.7–4.6 ‰), suggesting that the melt was derived from partial melting of a subducted oceanic slab followed by mantle peridotite interaction. The diorite porphyry exhibits high Mg# and low Sr/Y values, slightly negative Eu anomalies, and positive εHf(t) values, indicating a lithospheric mantle source. The quartz porphyry, with stronger negative Eu anomalies, less evolved εHf(t) values, and low δ18O values (4.7–5.5 ‰), was probably derived from mantle melts that experienced mixing with lower crustal materials (melts or assimilation). The new data suggest that the Yandong intrusions formed in an arc setting. As the tonalite is genetically linked to the Cu mineralization, subduction-related slab melts must have played a key role in the formation of the Yandong deposit.
Keywords: Zircon U–Pb age; Molybdenite Re–Os dating; Sr–Nd–Pb–Hf–O isotopes; Yandong porphyry Cu deposit; Eastern Tianshan

The magmatic hydrothermal Pulang Cu deposit (Triassic) and the Beiya Au-Cu deposits (Eocene) are located in the Sanjiang copper porphyry belt, southwest China. Zircon chemistry was used to constrain the magmatic evolution and oxidation state of the porphyries. The results show that porphyries of the Beiya district formed from an early oxidized melt and a later relatively reduced and more evolved magma, whereas Pulang experienced a normal Cu porphyry evolutionary trend. The Pulang porphyries crystallized from more oxidized magma (∆FMQ + 2.9–4.6, average = 4.0 ± 1.0, n = 3) with an average temperature of 709 ± 6 °C compared to the Beiya porphyries (∆FMQ + 0.6–3.5, average = 1.9 ± 1.3, n = 5) with a mean magmatic temperature of 780 ± 22 °C. These data, combined with data from other Cu- and Au-rich porphyries in the Sanjiang belt (i.e., Machangjing Cu, Yao’an Au), are consistent with previous experimental work showing that elevated Cu and Au solubilities in magma require oxidizing conditions. A compilation of existing geochemical data for magmatic zircons from fertile and barren porphyry systems worldwide establishes an optimal diagnostic interval on CeIV/CeIII-TTi-in-zircon and (Eu/Eu*)N plots for generating magmatic hydrothermal Cu-Au deposits.
Keywords: Sanjiang orogenic belt; Porphyry-related Cu-Au deposits; Magma recharge; Magmatic redox state

Multiphase formation of the Obří důl polymetallic skarn deposit, West Sudetes, Bohemian Massif: geochemistry and Re–Os dating of sulfide mineralization by František Veselovský; Lukáš Ackerman; Jan Pašava; Karel Žák; Eva Haluzová; Robert A. Creaser; Petr Dobeš; Vojtěch Erban; Radko Tásler (665-682).
The Obří důl Fe–Cu–As polymetallic sulfide skarn deposit is developed in a metamorphic series in the West Sudetes, Bohemian Massif. It consists of lenses of marble, calc–silicate rocks, and skarns. We studied the Gustav orebody, which is located few hundred meters away from the contact with a large, late-orogenic Variscan Krkonoše–Jizera Plutonic Complex (KJPC) emplaced into shallow crust. Mineralogical and fluid inclusion study evidence indicates that the main sulfide stage, dominated by pyrrhotite, arsenopyrite, and chalcopyrite originated from aqueous hydrothermal fluids with salinity up to 8 wt% NaCl eq. with minimum homogenization temperatures ranging from 324 to 358 °C. These fluids mainly replaced carbonate-rich lithologies. Carbon, oxygen, and strontium isotope data in Ca-rich rocks imply total overprinting by channelized metasomatic fluid flow, which is most probably related to the intrusion of the KJPC, whereas δ34S values of sulfides argue for a magmatic source of sulfur. The Re–Os age of arsenopyrite overlaps published age data for the KJPC and suggests synchronous formation of the main sulfide mineralization and pluton emplacement.
Keywords: Bohemian Massif; Polymetallic skarn deposit; West Sudetes; Arsenopyrite; Re–Os geochronology

Adjacent to the world-class Boliden deposit, fine- to coarse-grained Zn-Pb-Sb-Au-rich sulfide-sulfosalt-bearing horizons occur within the base of a metasedimentary succession that has previously been regarded to stratigraphically overlie the Skellefte Volcanics and Boliden deposit. The metasedimentary succession comprises interbedded mudstone and normal-graded crystal-rich volcanic sandstone-siltstone units, interpreted to be low-density turbidity currents in a subaqueous environment below wave base. The sharp contact between the mineralized intervals and volcanic sandstone is concordant to the bedding planes and compaction foliation. Above and below the mineralization, the wall rocks contain well-preserved plagioclase crystals, partly enclosed by a weak alteration composed of bedding-parallel metamorphic biotite±sericite minerals. These observations are consistent with burial (or tectonic) compaction and diagenetic alteration that was overprinted by metamorphic biotite. The occurrence of biotite in the wall rocks and homogenization recrystallization of the sulfide-sulfosalt assemblage in the mineralized intervals are consistent with peak metamorphic conditions (~ 350–450 °C, < 4 kbars) in the Boliden area. However, preservation of plagioclase and water-rock interaction under rock-dominant conditions suggest that high δ18O values (+ 10.7 to + 13.5‰) acquired during diagenesis were unchanged by the metamorphic overprint. The δ18O values yield low temperatures (< 150 °C), which indicate pre-metamorphic conditions. These data suggest that the Zn-Pb-Sb-Au-rich intervals formed as pre-metamorphic distal syn-volcanic exhalative mineralization during sedimentation of the Vargfors group metasedimentary rocks. This implies that massive sulfide formation continued even during Vargfors group time and, therefore, there is still potential for discovery of gold-rich base-metal ores in this part of the Skellefte field stratigraphy.
Keywords: Boliden; Gold; Sphalerite; Oxygen isotopes; Vargfors; Skellefte district

Granitoid-associated gold mineralization in Egypt: a case study from the Atalla mine by Basem Zoheir; Fatma Deshesh; Curt Broman; Iain Pitcairn; Ahmed El-Metwally; Shabaan Mashaal (701-720).
Gold-bearing sulfide-quartz veins cutting mainly through the Atalla monzogranite intrusion in the Eastern Desert of Egypt are controlled by subparallel NE-trending brittle shear zones. These veins are associated with pervasive sericite-altered, silicified, and ferruginated rocks. The hosting shear zones are presumed as high-order structures of the Najd-style faults in the Central Eastern Desert (~ 615–585 Ma). Ore minerals include an early pyrite-arsenopyrite (±pyrrhotite) mineralization, partly replaced by a late pyrite-galena-sphalerite-chalcopyrite (±gold/electrum ± tetrahedrite ± hessite) assemblage. Gold occurs as small inclusions in pyrite and arsenopyrite, or more commonly as intergrowths with galena and sphalerite/tetrahedrite in microfractures. Arsenopyrite geothermometry suggests formation of the early Fe-As-sulfide mineralization at 380–340 °C, while conditions of deposition of the late base metal-gold assemblage are assumed to be below 300 °C. Rare hessite, electrum, and Bi-galena are associated with sphalerite and gold in the late assemblage. The early and late sulfide minerals show consistently a narrow range of δ34S ‰ (3.4–6.5) that overlaps with sulfur isotopic values in ophiolitic rocks.The Au-quartz veins are characterized by abundant CO2 and H2O ± CO2 ± NaCl inclusions, where three-dimensional clusters of inclusions show variable aqueous/carbonic proportions and broad range of total (bimodal) homogenization temperatures. Heterogeneous entrapment of immiscible fluids is interpreted to be caused by unmixing of an originally homogenous, low salinity (~ 2 eq. mass % NaCl) aqueous-carbonic fluid, during transition from lithostatic to hydrostatic conditions. Gold deposition occurred generally under mesothermal conditions, i.e., 1.3 kbar and ~ 280 °C, and continued during system cooling to < 200 °C and pressure decrease to ~ 0.1 kbar.Based on the vein textures, sulfur isotope values, composition of ore fluids, and conditions of ore formation, we suggest that the Atalla monzogranite intrusion acted only as a competent structural host for ore deposition from shear-related, metal-rich fluids migrated up from depth. This model is also presumed for most granitoid-associated Au deposits in the region, considering the similarity in their structural control, alteration pattern and mineralogy, and chemistry of the ore fluids.
Keywords: Atalla gold deposit; Granitoid-associated Au; Structural control; Fluid inclusions; Sulfur isotopes

The curious occurrence of copper-rich early diagenetic sediment-hosted stratiform copper mineralization in the finest-grained facies of Nonesuch greybeds in northern Michigan has been previously attributed to the warming of cupriferous brines in the footwall Copper Harbor Conglomerate by latent volcanic heat from the subjacent Porcupine Volcanics shield volcano. That anomalous footwall warming is employed here to explain other unique aspects of the White Pine-Presque Isle mineralization: the abrupt downward sulfide zoning from disseminated pyrite to chalcocite across the top of the cupriferous zone; the absence of bornite and chalcopyrite in the cupriferous zone proper; and the essential absence of pseudomorphs after pyrite euhedra and framboidal aggregates within the cupriferous zone proper, as well as the relatively coarse-grained character of disseminated chalcocite in the cupriferous zone.
Keywords: Sediment-hosted copper; Anomalous sulfide zoning; Latent volcanic heat; White Pine, Michigan