Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology (v.184, #1)

Weissella cibaria RBA12 produced a maximum of 9 mg/ml dextran (with 90% efficiency) using shake flask culture under the optimized concentration of medium components viz. 2% (w/v) of each sucrose, yeast extract, and K2HPO4 after incubation at optimized conditions of 20 °C and 180 rpm for 24 h. The optimized medium and conditions were used for scale-up of dextran production from Weissella cibaria RBA12 in 2.5-l working volume under batch fermentation in a bioreactor that yielded a maximum of 9.3 mg/ml dextran (with 93% efficiency) at 14 h. After 14 h, dextran produced was utilized by the bacterium till 18 h in its stationary phase under sucrose depleted conditions. Dextran utilization was further studied by fed-batch fermentation using sucrose feed. Dextran on production under fed-batch fermentation in bioreactor gave 35.8 mg/ml after 32 h. In fed-batch mode, there was no decrease in dextran concentration as observed in the batch mode. This showed that the utilization of dextran by Weissella cibaria RBA12 is initiated when there is sucrose depletion and therefore the presence of sucrose can possibly overcome the dextran hydrolysis. This is the first report of utilization of dextran, post-sucrose depletion by Weissella sp. studied in bioreactor.
Keywords: Weissella cibaria ; Dextran; Sucrose; Bioreactor

Cloning, Site-Directed Mutagenesis, and Functional Analysis of Active Residues in Lymantria dispar Chitinase by Xiao-Jun Fan; Chun Yang; Chang Zhang; Hui Ren; Jian-Dong Zhang (12-24).
Chitinases are glycosyl hydrolases that catalyze the hydrolysis of β-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds in chitin, the major structural polysaccharide presented in the cuticle and gut peritrophic matrix of insects. Two aspartate residues (D143, D145) and one tryptophan (W146) in the Lymantria dispar chitinase are highly conserved residues observed within the second conserved motif of the family 18 chitinase catalytic region. In this study, a chitinase cDNA, LdCht5, was cloned from L. dispar, and the roles of the three residues were investigated using site-directed mutagenesis and substituting them with three other amino acids. Seven mutant proteins, D143E, D145E, W146G, D143E/D145E, D143E/W146G, D145E/W146G, and D143E/D145E/W146G, as well as the wild-type enzyme, were produced using the baculovirus-insect cell line expression system. The enzymatic and kinetic properties of these mutant enzymes were measured using the oligosaccharide substrate MU-(GlcNAc)3. Among the seven mutants, the D145E, D143E/D145E, and D145E/W146G mutations kept some extant catalytic activity toward MU-(GlcNAc)3, while the D143E, W146G, D143E/W146G, and D143E/D145E/W146G mutant enzymes were inactivated. Compared with the mutant enzymes, the wild-type enzyme had higher values of k cat and k cat / K m . A study of the multiple point mutations in the second conserved catalytic region would help to elucidate the role of the critical residues and their relationships.
Keywords: Lymantria dispar chitinase; cDNA; Site-directed mutagenesis; Catalytic activity; k cat/K m

Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Agavins to Generate Branched Fructooligosaccharides (a-FOS) by Alicia Huazano-García; Mercedes G. López (25-34).
Recently, agavins (branched neo-fructans) of short degree of polymerization have shown beneficial effects on the health of both healthy and overweight individuals. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to investigate the potential use of Agave angustifolia agavins on the generation of branched fructooligosacharides (a-FOS). A. angustifolia agavins were hydrolyzed using exo-, endo-inulinase, and a mixture of both (25 and 75%, respectively). Exo- and the inulinase mixture degraded quickly the agavins in relation to endo-inulinase treatment. Only endo-inulinase and the inulinase mixture generated a-FOS formation. Endo-inulinase degraded 31% of agavins, yielding approximately 20% of a-FOS after 48 h, whereas the inulinase mixture hydrolyzed 33% of agavins in just 90 min, but only yielded 10% of a-FOS. These results suggest that agave plants could be an abundant raw material for a-FOS production, which might have a huge prebiotic potential as new branched fructooligosaccharides with many applications in the alimentary and pharmaceutical industry.
Keywords: Agavins; Branched fructooligosaccharides (a-FOS); Agave angustifolia ; Enzymatic hydrolysis

Increased awareness regarding the harmful effects of ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation has led to the search for new sources of natural UV-B protecting compounds. Mycosporine-like amino acids are one of such promising compounds found in several organisms. Cyanobacteria are ideal organisms for isolation of these compounds due to their compatibility and adaptability to thrive under harsh environmental conditions. In the following investigation, we report the production of shinorine in Leptolyngbya sp. isolated from the intertidal region. Based on the spectral characteristics and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, the UV-absorbing compound was identified as shinorine. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the occurrence of shinorine in Leptolyngbya sp. We also investigated the effect of artificial UV-B radiation and periodic desiccation on chlorophyll-a, total carotenoids, and mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) production. The UV-B radiation had a negative effect on growth and chlorophyll concentration, whereas it showed an inductive effect on the production of total carotenoids and MAAs. Desiccation along with UV-B radiation led to an increase in the concentration of photoprotective compounds. These results indicate that carotenoids and MAAs thus facilitate cyanobacteria to avoid and protect themselves from the deleterious effects of UV-B and desiccation.
Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Desiccation; Mycosporine-like amino acids; Photoprotection; UV radiation

Integrated Process for Ethanol, Biogas, and Edible Filamentous Fungi-Based Animal Feed Production from Dilute Phosphoric Acid-Pretreated Wheat Straw by Ramkumar B. Nair; Maryam M. Kabir; Patrik R. Lennartsson; Mohammad J. Taherzadeh; Ilona Sárvári Horváth (48-62).
Integration of wheat straw for a biorefinery-based energy generation process by producing ethanol and biogas together with the production of high-protein fungal biomass (suitable for feed application) was the main focus of the present study. An edible ascomycete fungal strain Neurospora intermedia was used for the ethanol fermentation and subsequent biomass production from dilute phosphoric acid (0.7 to 1.2% w/v) pretreated wheat straw. At optimum pretreatment conditions, an ethanol yield of 84 to 90% of the theoretical maximum, based on glucan content of substrate straw, was observed from fungal fermentation post the enzymatic hydrolysis process. The biogas production from the pretreated straw slurry showed an improved methane yield potential up to 162% increase, as compared to that of the untreated straw. Additional biogas production, using the syrup, a waste stream obtained post the ethanol fermentation, resulted in a combined total energy output of 15.8 MJ/kg wheat straw. Moreover, using thin stillage (a waste stream from the first-generation wheat-based ethanol process) as a co-substrate to the biogas process resulted in an additional increase by about 14 to 27% in the total energy output as compared to using only wheat straw-based substrates. ᅟ
Keywords: Wheat straw; Dilute acid pretreatment; Filamentous fungi; Bioethanol; Biogas; Integration; N. intermedia

Cherry is an important fruit tree with delicious taste and high economic value, which have been planted worldwide. However, this species cannot withstand the presence of excessive amount of water; submergence injury sometimes occurs during cultivation of cherry and results in severe economic losses. By using a submergence-tolerant germplasm Prunus serrulata “Yimeng” and a submergence-sensitive germplasm Prunus pseudocerasus “Aihua” as test materials, this study cloned PsERF and PsCIPK, which are related to submergence tolerance in cherry, and analyzed the expression of PsERF and PsCIPK in submergence-tolerant and submergence-sensitive germplasms under submergence stress; moreover, the consistency and correlation of such expression with carbohydrate metabolism and plant growth-related genes (PsPDC, PsSUS, PsRAMY, and PsEXP) were analyzed. The results showed that PsERF and PsCIPK influence the expression of PsPDC, PsSUS, PsRAMY, and PsEXP at different extents under submergence and during recovery to systematically improve the submergence resistance of P. serrulata “Yimeng”. This study lays the important theoretical and practical foundation for molecular improvement and germplasm innovation in submergence tolerance in cherry through genetic engineering.
Keywords: Cherry; Submergence tolerance; Gene; Carbohydrate metabolism; Plant growth

Overexpression of DnaJ-Like Chaperone Enhances Carotenoid Synthesis in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Tateki Morikawa; Yusuke Uraguchi; Shohei Sanda; Satoshi Nakagawa; Shigeki Sawayama (80-91).
Production of functional carotenoids using microalgae may facilitate the commercialization of anti-aging nutritional supplements. The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii uses a non-mevalonate (MEP) pathway for isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) synthesis. Two enzymes thought to play important roles in this MEP pathway to IPP synthesis are 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase (DXS) and reductase (DXR). DnaJ-like chaperone (Orange protein) is thought to support phytoene synthase, a key enzyme in plant carotenoid synthesis. Genes for Orange (OR), DXS, and DXR were overexpressed via nuclear transformation into C. reinhardtii. CDS of OR, DXS, and DXR were amplified and connected with dual promoters of heat-shock protein 70A and ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small chain 2. Compared with the parental strain, transformant CrOR#2 produced increased lutein and β-carotene (1.9-fold and 1.7-fold per cell, respectively). Transformant CrDXS#1 produced lutein and β-carotene at lower per-cell abundances than those for the parental strain. CrDXR#2 transformant produced lutein and β-carotene at higher per-cell abundances than their parental counterpart; however, these transformants produced lutein and β-carotene at lower per-medium abundances than their parental counterparts. These results suggest that OR protein supports phytoene synthase in C. reinhardtii and that the phytoene synthesis step is rate-limiting in carotenoid synthesis.
Keywords: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ; Carotenoid; Orange protein; DXS; DXR; Chaperone

Exploring the Bioelectrochemical Characteristics of Activated Sludge Using Cyclic Voltammetry by Dena Z. Khater; K. M. El-khatib; Rabeay Y. A. Hassan (92-101).
Due to the potential interest, bioelectrochemical responses of activated sludge using the three-electrode system are tested. From the cyclic voltammograms, the oxidation current output is increasing due to incubation time increase, whereas 5, 25 and 39.33 μA are obtained after 3, 72 and 96 h, respectively. Changing the working electrode from glassy carbon to carbon paste led to the increase in the electrochemical signal from 0.3 to be 3.72 μA. On the other hand, the use of the lipophilic redox mediator (2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCIP)) amplified the oxidation current to reach 19.9 μA instead of 2.1 μA. Based on these findings, the mixed microbial community of the activated sludge is exploited as a catalyst for the bio-oxidation of the degradable organic substrates, while DCIP is used as a mobile electron carrier from the intracellular matrix of the metabolically active cells to the carbon paste electrode which served as the final electron acceptor. Therefore, the extracellular electron transfer from the formed active biofilm at the electrode surface is assisted by the existence of DCIP.
Keywords: Microbial fuel cells (MFCs); Activated sludge; Electroactive biofilm formation; Electron mediator (DCIP)

Expression and Purification of Cytochrome P450 55B1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Its Application in Nitric Oxide Biosensing by Bin Gong; Xiaosheng Liang; Yong Li; Qian Xiao; Panchun Yang; Yunhua Wu (102-112).
Cytochrome P450 55B1 from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is reported to function as a nitric oxide reductase (NOR). Here, we expressed the cytochrome P450 55B1 gene with an HIS-tag in E scherichia coli using a pET28a vector. The native protein was produced at a level of 1.59 μmol/g of total protein, with approximately 85% of the P450 being soluble. The CYP55B1 protein was characterized spectrally and purified by a HIS-trap column. This procedure allowed recovery of 45% of the expressed protein and CYP55B1 with a specific content of 0.70 μmol/g of the total protein, which showed a single band on a SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The direct electrochemistry of CYP55B1 in dihexadecylphosphate (DHP) film was realized with an electric potential at −0.47 V at the scan rate of 1 V s−1. We studied the in vitro interaction between P450 55B1 and NO by the fluorescence spectrometric method. The results show that the fluorescence intensity of iron-porphyrin in P450 55B1 changes gradually with the addition of NO. The fluorescence intensity change values against NO concentrations were plotted, and it showed a linear range of NO from 0 to 22.5 μM with a sensitivity of 0.15 μM/AU and a detection limit of 0.15 μM.
Keywords: Cytochrome P450 55B1; Rhine Chlamydomonas reinhardtii ; E.coli ; Nitric oxide; Fluorescence biosensing

Efficient Conversion of Fructose-Based Biomass into Lipids with Trichosporon fermentans Under Phosphate-Limited Conditions by Ruiqi Bao; Xiangying Wu; Sasa Liu; Tongzhou Xie; Chenxu Yu; Xinping Lin (113-123).
Limiting nitrogen supply has been routinely used as the master regulator to direct lipid biosynthesis. However, this strategy does not work with nitrogen-rich substrates, such as Jerusalem artichoke (JA), a fructose-based biomass, while it is difficult to obtain a high carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) molar ratio. In this study, an alternative strategy to promote lipid accumulation by the oleaginous yeast Trichosporon fermentans CICC 1368 was developed by limiting phosphorous supply, and this strategy was implemented with JA hydrolysate as substrate. We showed that lipid accumulation was directly correlated with the C/P ratio of the culture media for T. fermentans. The time course of cell growth and lipid production was analyzed in a media with an initial C/P ratio of 6342, and the cellular lipid content could reach up to 48.5% of dry biomass. Moreover, JA hydrolysates were used as substrate for microbial lipid accumulation, under high C/P molar ratio condition, lipid yield, lipid content, and lipid coefficient increased by 10, 30, and 34%, respectively. It showed that by limiting phosphorus, the conversion of sugar into lipids can be improved effectively. Limiting phosphorus provides a promising solution to the problem of microbial lipid production with nitrogen-rich natural materials.
Keywords: Microbial lipid; Phosphate limitation; Trichosporon fermentans ; Fructose; Jerusalem artichoke hydrolysates

In Vitro Biotransformation, Safety, and Chemopreventive Action of Novel 8-Methoxy-Purine-2,6-Dione Derivatives by Małgorzata Anna Marć; Enrique Domínguez-Álvarez; Karolina Słoczyńska; Paweł Żmudzki; Grażyna Chłoń-Rzepa; Elżbieta Pękala (124-139).
Metabolic stability, mutagenicity, antimutagenicity, and the ability to scavenge free radicals of four novel 8-methoxy-purine-2,6-dione derivatives (compounds 1–4) demonstrating analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties were determined. Metabolic stability was evaluated in Cunninghamella and microsomal models, mutagenic and antimutagenic properties were assessed using the Ames and the Vibrio harveyi tests, and free radical scavenging activity was evaluated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. In the Cunninghamella model, compound 2 did not undergo any biotransformation; whereas 3 and 4 showed less metabolic stability: 1–9 and 53–88% of the parental compound, respectively, underwent biotransformation reactions in different Cunninghamella strains. The metabolites detected after the biotransformation of 3 and 4 were aromatic hydroxylation and N-dealkylation products. On the other hand, the N-dealkylation product was the only metabolite formed in microsome assay. Additionally, these derivatives do not possess mutagenic potential in microbiological models (Vibrio harveyi and Salmonella typhimurium) considered. Moreover, all compounds showed a strong chemopreventive activity in the modified Vibrio harveyi strains BB7X and BB7M. However, radical scavenging activity was not the mechanism which explained the observed chemopreventive activity.
Keywords: Alternative test; Ames test; Cunninghamella assay; DPPH assay; Microsomal stability

A Study on the Expression of Genes Involved in Carotenoids and Anthocyanins During Ripening in Fruit Peel of Green, Yellow, and Red Colored Mango Cultivars by G. R. Karanjalker; K.V. Ravishankar; K.S. Shivashankara; M.R. Dinesh; T. K. Roy; D. V. Sudhakar Rao (140-154).
Mango (Mangiferaindica L.) fruits are generally classified based on peel color into green, yellow, and red types. Mango peel turns from green to yellow or red or retain green colors during ripening. The carotenoids and anthocyanins are the important pigments responsible for the colors of fruits. In the present study, peels of different colored cultivars at three ripening stages were characterized for pigments, colors, and gene expression analysis. The yellow colored cultivar “Arka Anmol” showed higher carotenoid content, wherein β-carotene followed by violaxanthin were the major carotenoid compounds that increased during ripening. The red colored cultivars were characterized with higher anthocyanins with cyanidin-3-O-monoglucosides and peonidin-3-O-glucosides as the major anthocyanins. The gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR showed the higher expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes viz. lycopene-β-cyclase and violaxanthin-de-epoxidase in yellow colored cv. Arka Anmol, and the expression was found to increase during ripening. However, in red colored cv. “Janardhan Pasand,” there is increased regulation of all anthocyanin biosynthetic genes including transcription factors MYB and basic helix loop. This indicated the regulation of the anthocyanins by these genes in red mango peel. The results showed that the accumulation pattern of particular pigments and higher expression of specific biosynthetic genes in mango peel impart different colors.
Keywords: Mango; Peel color; Pigments; Carotenoids; Anthocyanins; Gene expression

Improvement of Lead Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Random Mutagenesis of Transcription Regulator SPT3 by Liying Zhu; Shan Gao; Hongman Zhang; He Huang; Ling Jiang (155-167).
Bioremediation of heavy metal pollution with biomaterials such as bacteria and fungi usually suffer from limitations because of microbial sensitivity to high concentration of heavy metals. Herein, we adopted a novel random mutagenesis technique called RAISE to manipulate the transcription regulator SPT3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to improve cell lead tolerance. The best strain Mutant VI was selected from the random mutagenesis libraries on account of the growth performance, with higher specific growth rate than the control strain (0.068 vs. 0.040 h−1) at lead concentration as high as 1.8 g/L. Combined with the transcriptome analysis of S. cerevisiae, expressing the SPT3 protein was performed to make better sense of the global regulatory effects of SPT3. The data analysis revealed that 57 of S. cerevisiae genes were induced and 113 genes were suppressed, ranging from those for trehalose synthesis, carbon metabolism, and nucleotide synthesis to lead resistance. Especially, the accumulation of intracellular trehalose in S. cerevisiae under certain conditions of stress is considered important to lead resistance. The above results represented that SPT3 was acted as global transcription regulator in the exponential phase of strain and accordingly improved heavy metal tolerance in the heterologous host S. cerevisiae. The present study provides a route to complex phenotypes that are not readily accessible by traditional methods.
Keywords: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Lead tolerance; SPT3; RAISE method; RNA-seq

Microbial oils are among the most attractive alternative feedstocks for biodiesel production. In this study, a newly isolated yeast strain, AM113 of Papiliotrema laurentii, was identified as a potential lipid producer, which could accumulate a large amount of intracellular lipids from hydrolysates of inulin. P. laurentii AM113 was able to produce 54.6% (w/w) of intracellular oil in its cells and 18.2 g/l of dry cell mass in a fed-batch fermentation. The yields of lipid and biomass were 0.14 and 0.25 g per gram of consumed sugar, respectively. The lipid productivity was 0.092 g of oil per hour. Compositions of the fatty acids produced were C14:0 (0.9%), C16:0 (10.8%), C16:1 (9.7%), C18:0 (6.5%), C18:1 (60.3%), and C18:2 (11.8%). Biodiesel obtained from the extracted lipids could be burnt well. This study not only provides a promising candidate for single cell oil production, but will also probably facilitate more efficient biodiesel production.
Keywords: Papiliotrema laurentii ; Single cell oil; Hydrolysates of inulin; Biodiesel

Operational and Thermal Stability Analysis of Thermomyces lanuginosus Lipase Covalently Immobilized onto Modified Chitosan Supports by Horacio L. Bonazza; Ricardo M. Manzo; José C. S. dos Santos; Enrique J. Mammarella (182-196).
The aim of this paper was to evaluate different strategies of chitosan activation using cross-linking reagent like glycidol, epichlorohydrin, and glutaraldehyde for Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase (TLL) immobilization. Operational activity and stability by esterification of oleic acid with ethanol and thermal inactivation using these derivatives were investigated. Derivative obtained by sequentially activation with glycidol, ethylenediamine, and glutaraldehyde and subsequent TLL immobilization showed the best performance, with high hydrolytic activity value. Its stability was 15-fold higher than solubilized TLL in the evaluated inactivation conditions (60 °C, 25 mM sodium phosphate buffer pH 7). After 5 cycles of oleic acid esterification, only a few percentage of its conversion has reduced. On the other hand, glycidol-activated chitosan derivative showed very low hydrolytic activity value. Epichlorohydrin-activated chitosan derivative showed regular hydrolytic activity value. Both derivatives showed low immobilization yields. Operational stability of this last derivative was very low, where after the first cycle of oleic acid esterification, only 56% of its initial conversion was obtained. Graphical Abstract ᅟ
Keywords: Lipase; Thermomyces lanuginosus ; Immobilization; Chitosan; Esterification; Biodiesel

The rampant use and misuse of antibiotics in human medicine, agriculture and veterinary have become the key contributors to global antimicrobial resistance. One of the significant resistance mechanisms that inactivates antibiotics and impedes treatment of bacterial infections is the expression of β-lactamases. Rising evidence of newer variants of β-lactamases in the environment is therefore a serious threat to the presently available antibiotic armoury. The present work describes the purification of a variant β-lactamase isolated from a soil strain EMB20 of Bacillus cereus. The lactamase was purified using three-phase partitioning and gel filtration chromatography to a 30-fold purification and 15% recovery yield. Contrary to the general trend, the lactamase was not a metalloenzyme, but its activity was enhanced in the presence of Mg2+ and Mn2+. The EMB20 lactamase exhibited improved stability against inhibitors and denaturing agents such as urea and GdmCl as compared to its commercial analogue. The improved stability of EMB20 lactamase was further validated by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. This study reemphasizes the rising prevalence of environmental lactamase variants. Decoding the structure–function correlation of such lactamases in the presence of inhibitors will provide insights into the response of this enzyme towards inhibitors as well as its substrates.
Keywords: Antimicrobial resistance; β-Lactamases; Lactamase inhibitors; Three-phase partitioning chromatography; Circular dichroism; Fluorescence

Inhibitory Effect and Mechanism of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Cultured in 3D System on Hepatoma Cells HepG2 by Diandian Zhao; Lingling Hou; Mengwu Pan; Jilei Hua; Ziling Wang; Jinsheng He; Honggang Hu (212-227).
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exhibit the feature of homing to tumor site and being immunosuppressive, which have broad prospects in tumor therapy. However, MSCs are commonly cultured in a two-dimensional (2D) condition, which would gradually loss some in vivo important properties. In this study, we built a three-dimensional (3D) system with collagen/Matrigel scaffolds to culture MSCs. The results indicated that MSCs in 3D scaffolds showed higher proliferation ability than that of in 2D cells. In vitro, 3D-cultured MSC-conditioned media (CM) significantly inhibited the proliferation of hepatoma cells HepG2 than that of in 2D-cultured MSC-CM and control groups. In vivo, animal transplantation experiment showed that the treatment of 3D-cultured MSC-CM could further significantly delay the tumor initiation and decrease the tumor volume. The microarray, quantitative PCR, and ELISA assay found that MSCs cultured in the 3D system expressed and secreted more amounts of IL-24. RT-PCR and western blot results showed that IL-24 can activate JAK1-STAT3 pathway via IL22R1 and IL20R2, and further inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells. Taken together, these results demonstrated that MSCs cultured in the 3D system had an inhibitory effect on the proliferation of HepG2 cells, probably through secreting more IL-24, which activated JAK1-STAT3 signaling and finally inhibited the cell proliferation to delay tumor initiation. This study also provided a simpler and more reliable approach for MSCs to suppress tumor cells, and provided effective experimental data for clinical treatment of tumor and experimental basis.
Keywords: MSCs; Three-dimensional cell culture technique; Inhibition; IL-24; JAK-STAT pathway

Heterologous Expression and Characterization of an Acidic GH11 Family Xylanase from Hypocrea orientalis by Hailong Li; Hongli Wu; Fengjiao Jiang; Jinlian Wu; Yong Xue; Lihui Gan; Jian Liu; Minnan Long (228-238).
A gene encoding glycoside hydrolase family 11 xylanase (HoXyn11B) from Hypocrea orientalis EU7–22 was expressed in Pichia pastoris with a high activity (413 IU/ml). HoXyn11B was partly N-glycosylated and appeared two protein bands (19–29 kDa) on SDS-PAGE. The recombinant enzyme exhibited optimal activity at pH 4.5 and 55 °C, and retained more than 90% of the original activity after incubation at 50 °C for 60 min. The determined apparent K m and V max values using beechwood xylan were 10.43 mg/ml and 3246.75 IU/mg, respectively. The modes of action of recombinant HoXyn11B on xylo-oligosaccharides (XOSs) and beechwood xylan were investigated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), which indicated that the modes of action of HoXyn11B are different from HoXyn11A since it is able to release a significant amount of xylose from various substrates. This study provides an opportunity to better understand the hydrolysis mechanisms of xylan by xylanases from Trichoderma.
Keywords: Heterologous expression; Pichia pastoris ; Xylan hydrolysis; Xylanases; Hypocrea orientalis ; Xylo-oligosaccharides

Cloning, Purification, and Characterization of Tripeptidyl Peptidase from Streptomyces herbaricolor TY-21 by Keisuke Ekino; Shinichi Yonei; Hiroshi Oyama; Takuji Oka; Yoshiyuki Nomura; Takashi Shin (239-252).
Tripeptidyl peptidase (TPP) is an exopeptidase that sequentially hydrolyzes tripeptides from the N-terminus of oligopeptides or polypeptides. We performed screening for isolating novel TPP-producing microorganisms from soil samples. TPP activity was observed in the culture supernatant of Streptomyces herbaricolor TY-21 by using Ala-Ala-Phe-p-nitroanilide (pNA) as the substrate. TPP from the culture supernatant was purified to approximately 790-fold. It was shown to cleave oxidized insulin B-chain, thereby with releasing tripeptide units, but not the N-terminal-protected peptide, Cbz-Ala-Ala-Phe-pNA. The TPP gene, designated tpp, was isolated from a partial genomic DNA library of S. herbaricolor TY-21. The TPP gene consisted of 1488 bp, and encoded a 133-amino acid pre-pro-peptide and a 362-amino acid mature enzyme containing conserved amino acid residues (Asp-36, His-77, and Ser-282) similar to the catalytic residues in subtilisin. TY-21 TPP belonged to the peptidase S8A family in the MEROPS database. The mature TY-21 TPP showed approximately 49% identity with tripeptidyl peptidase subtilisin-like (TPP S) from Streptomyces lividans strain 66.
Keywords: Tripeptidyl peptidase; Streptomyces herbaricolor ; Subtilisin; Tripeptide; Peptidase S8A

Microspheres which were sensitive to pH change were developed by utilizing cinnamic acid (CA) as a physical cross-linker for poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI). At pH 7.0, the microspheres were efficiently formed at the PEI/CA ratio of 1:3.4, 1:5.1, and 1:7.1 (w/w), which corresponded to the protonated amino group/deprotonated carboxyl group ratio of 5:5, 4:6, and 3:7. The mean diameter of wet microspheres was 3.2 ± 0.3 to 8.8 ± 0.5 μm and that of dry ones was 1.7 ± 0.2 to 2.7 ± 0.2 μm. The microspheres were disappeared upon the alkalification, possibly because the electrostatic interaction between PEI and CA was slackened down and the hydrophobic interaction among CA molecules was weakened. At pH 5.0 and 7.0, the microsphere released its content in a sustained manner and the release degree in 24 h was less than 40%. Whereas, at pH 8.0 and 9.0, the microsphere exhibited a burst release and the release degree in 24 h was greater than 80%. In the alkali condition, not only the electrostatic interaction between PEI and CA but also the hydrophobic interaction among CA molecules became weaker, leading to the disintegration of the microsphere and resulting in a burst and intensive release.
Keywords: Poly(ethyleneimine); Cinnamic acid; Electrostatic interaction; Hydrophobic interaction; Microsphere; FITC-dextran; pH-sensitive release

The merit of deacetylation of corn stover prior to pretreatment is decreasing the formation of inhibitors and improving enzyme hydrolysis, proved in dilute acid pretreatment. However, few studies are done on how deacetylation would affect bioconversion process containing steam explosion. In this study, the effect of deacetylation on steam explosion was conducted using poplar as substrate. About 57 to 90% of acetyl group in poplar, depending on alkaline types and concentration, was removed by dilute alkaline deacetylation in 6 h. Deacetylation eliminated over 85% of inhibitor formation during downstream steam explosion. However, deacetylation prior to steam explosion decreased the dissolution of hemicellulose, thus reducing the cellulose accessibility of pretreated poplar, finally resulting in 5–20% decrease in glucose yield and 20–35% decrease in xylose yield. The addition of 5% SO2 during steam explosion significantly improved the hydrolysis of deacetylated and pretreated poplar without significantly increasing the concentration of inhibitors. Incorporating 45 mmol/kg sulfoacid group in lignin fraction of deacetylated and then pretreated poplar dramatically improved the xylose yield to about 100% and increased the glucose yield by 30%.
Keywords: Deacetylation; Acetyl group; Steam explosion; Poplar

The present study explores the utilisation of a new raw material from lignocellulose biomass, Meranti wood sawdust (MWS) for high commercial value xylooligosaccharides (XOS) production using immobilised xylanase. The xylanase was immobilised by a combination of entrapment and covalent binding techniques. The hemicellulosic xylan from MWS was extracted using a standard chlorite delignification method. The production of total and derivatives of XOS from the degradation of the hemicellulosic xylan of MWS were compared to the production from the commercial xylan from Beechwood. The utilisation of the extracted xylan from MWS yielded 0.36 mg/mL of total XOS after 60 h of hydrolysis. During the hydrolysis reaction, the immobilised xylanase released a lower degree of polymerisation (DP) of XOS, mainly X2 and X3, which were the major products of xylan degradation by xylanase enzymes. The production of XOS with a lower DP from MWS demonstrated the biotechnological potential of the MWS in the future. The XOS production retained about 70% of its initial XOS production during the second cycle. This is also the first report on the utilisation of MWS wastes in enzymatic hydrolysis using immobilised xylanase for XOS production.
Keywords: Xylooligosaccharides; Meranti wood sawdust; Lignocellulosic biomass; Immobilised xylanase

MgO Nanoparticle-Catalyzed Synthesis and Broad-Spectrum Antibacterial Activity of Imidazolidine- and Tetrahydropyrimidine-2-Thione Derivatives by Hamid Beyzaei; Somaye Kooshki; Reza Aryan; Mohammad Mehdi Zahedi; Alireza Samzadeh-Kermani; Behzad Ghasemi; Mohammadreza Moghaddam-Manesh (291-302).
The biological properties of imidazolidine- and tetrahydropyrimidine-2-thione derivatives such as antiviral, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities increase the demand for mild and efficient synthetic routes. In this regard, methods such as reaction of diaminoalkanes with carbon disulfide have been developed. However, this method usually suffers from relatively long reaction times, using excess reagents, vigorous reaction conditions, and emission of pernicious hydrogen sulfide gas. In this project, MgO nanoparticle was used as an efficient, non-toxic, recyclable, and economic catalyst to synthesize cyclic five- or six-membered thioureas 3ah via reaction of 1:1 molar ratios of 1,2- or 1,3-diaminoalkanes 1ah and carbon disulfide in ethanol at ambient temperature. More interestingly, no hydrogen sulfide emission was detected during the reaction progress. The in vitro antimicrobial properties of synthesized compounds were investigated against 14 different Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria according to CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute) broth microdilution and disk diffusion methods. The results were compared to those of penicillin, gentamicin, and ceftriaxone, and reported as inhibition zone diameter (IZD), the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values. The best inhibitory effects were observed with imidazolidine-2-thiones 3c and 3d. They were effective against 14 and 11 pathogens, respectively. The structure-activity relationships of the prepared heterocyclic compounds were also studied.
Keywords: MgO nanoparticle; Imidazolidine-2-thione; Tetrahydropyrimidine-2-thione; Diaminoalkane; Antibacterial activity; Structure-activity relationship

Recent developments in medical biotechnology have facilitated to enhance the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and recombinant proteins in mammalian cells. Human mAbs for clinical applications have focused on three areas, particularly cancer, immunological disorders, and infectious diseases. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), which has both proinflammatory and immunoregulatory functions, is an important target in biopharmaceutical industry. In this study, a humanized anti-TNF-α mAb producing stable CHO cell line which produces a biosimilar of Humira (adalimumab) was used. Adalimumab is a fully human anti-TNF mAb among the top-selling mAb products in recent years as a biosimilar. Products from mammalian cell bioprocesses are a derivative of cell viability and metabolism, which is mainly disrupted by cell death in bioreactors. Thus, different strategies are used to increase the product yield. Suppression of apoptosis, also called anti-apoptotic cell engineering, is the most remarkable strategy to enhance lifetime of cells for a longer production period. In fact, using anti-apoptotic cell engineering as a BioDesign approach was inspired by nature; nature gives prolonged life span to some cells like stem cells, tumor cells, and memory B and T cells, and researchers have been using this strategy for different purposes. In this study, as a biomimicry approach, anti-apoptotic cell engineering was used to increase the anti-TNF-α mAb production from the humanized anti-TNF-α mAb producing stable CHO cell line by Bcl-xL anti-apoptotic protein. It was shown that transient transfection of CHO cells by the Bcl-xL anti-apoptotic protein expressing plasmid prolonged the cell survival rate and protected cells from apoptosis. The transient expression of Bcl-xL using CHO cells enhanced the anti-TNF-α production. The production of anti-TNF-α in CHO cells was increased up to 215 mg/L with an increase of 160% after cells were transfected with Bcl-xL expressing plasmid with polyethylenimine (PEI) reagent at the ratio of 1:6 (DNA:PEI). In conclusion, the anti-apoptotic efficacy of the Bcl-xL expressing plasmid in humanized anti-TNF-α MAb producing stable CHO cells is compatible with curative effect for high efficiency recombinant protein production. Thus, this model can be used for large-scale production of biosimilars through transient Bcl-xL gene expression as a cost-effective method.
Keywords: Anti-apoptotic cell engineering; Bcl-xL; Chinese hamster ovary cells; Polyethylenimine (PEI); Transient gene expression (TGE)

In Vivo Evaluation of the Toxic Effect of Ethyl Acetate Extracts of Marine Antibiotic Resistance Pseudomonas Species Derived from the Red Sea by Mervat Morsy Abbas Ahmed El-Gendy; Hind A. A. Al-Zahrani; Najlaa Y. Abozinadah; Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed El-Bondkly (323-349).
Eighty-nine cultured Pseudomonas species isolated from the sediment and water samples collected from five industrial Red Sea regions that have been affected by petroleum and industry. Genotypic (exoT, exoS, exoU, exoY, lasA, lasB, rhlA, rhlB, Pf1, PAGI-1, -2, and -3) and phenotypic (DNase, elastase, lipase, protease, siderophore, antibiotic resistance patterns) characteristics were determined. Out of these isolates, nine Pseudomonas isolates were selected as the hyperactive virulence factors producers along with highly resistant pattern against all antibiotics of different classes included in this study. They were subjected to phenotypic and chemotypic characterization as well as molecular identification through 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequencing. The bioactive metabolites of these nine strains were extracted by ethyl acetate followed by evaluating their cytotoxic activity toward liver tissues, kidney tissues, and other biochemical activities in rat. Both EGY6 and EGY8 caused the highest significant reduction in the levels of packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cell count (RBC), and hemoglobin (Hb), which indicate that these Pseudomonas strain metabolites could cause anemia and toxic effects on hematological values in animals that were infected with them. Rats treated with the most toxic extract, EGY8, showed severe histopathological alterations in liver and kidney.
Keywords: Pseudomonas sp.; 16S rRNA gene; Virulence factors and genes; Cytotoxic and biochemical activities

Assessment of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of Lignin from Corn Stover Residue Pretreated with Low-Moisture Anhydrous Ammonia and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Process by Mingming Guo; Tony Jin; Nhuan P. Nghiem; Xuetong Fan; Phoebe X. Qi; Chan Ho Jang; Lingxiao Shao; Changqing Wu (350-365).
Lignin accounts for 15–35% of dry biomass materials. Therefore, developing value-added co-products from lignin residues is increasingly important to improve the economic viability of biofuel production from biomass resources. The main objective of this work was to study the lignin extracts from corn stover residue obtained from a new and improved process for bioethanol production. Extraction conditions that favored high lignin yield were optimized, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the resulting lignin were investigated. Potential estrogenic toxicity of lignin extracts was also evaluated. The corn stover was pretreated by low-moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) and then subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using cellulase and hemicellulase. The residues were then added with sodium hydroxide and extracted for different temperatures and times for enhancing lignin yield and the bioactivities. The optimal extraction conditions using 4% (w/v) sodium hydroxide were determined to be 50 °C, 120 min, and 1:8 (w:v), the ratio between corn stover solids and extracting liquid. Under the optimal condition, 33.92 g of lignin yield per 100 g of corn stover residue was obtained. Furthermore, the extracts produced using these conditions showed the highest antioxidant activity by the hydrophilic oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. The extracts also displayed significant antimicrobial activities against Listeria innocua. Minimal estrogenic impacts were observed for all lignin extracts when tested using the MCF-7 cell proliferation assay. Thus, the lignin extracts could be used for antioxidant and antimicrobial applications, and improve the value of the co-products from the biomass-based biorefinery.
Keywords: Corn stover; Low-moisture anhydrous ammonia; Lignin extracts; Antioxidant activity; Antimicrobial activity; Estrogenic effects

V79 Fibroblasts Are Protected Against Reactive Oxygen Species by Flax Fabric by Katarzyna Skórkowska-Telichowska; Anna Kulma; Tomasz Gębarowski; Wioleta Wojtasik; Kamil Kostyn; Helena Moreira; Anna Szyjka; Aleksandra Boba; Marta Preisner; Justyna Mierziak; Malgorzata Arendt; Anna Kostyn; Michał Szatkowski; Jan Szopa; Kazimierz Gąsiorowski (366-385).
Chinese hamster pulmonary fibroblasts (V79 cells) pre-treated with flax fabrics derived from non-modified or genetically engineered flax fibres and treated with H2O2 revealed a markedly lower level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) than control, non-pre-treated cells. The fabrics were prepared from fibres derived from two kinds of transgenic plants: W92 plants, which overproduce flavonoids, and M type plants, which produce hydroxybutyrate polymer in their vascular bundles and thus in fibres. Incubating the V79 cells with the flax fabrics prior to H2O2 treatment also reduced the amount of DNA damage, as established using the comet assay (also known as alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis) and pulsed-field electrophoresis of intact cellular DNA. Selected gene expression analysis revealed the activator impact of fabrics on the apoptotic (BCL2 family, caspases) gene expression. This promoting activity was also detected for histone acetyltransferase (HAT; MYST2) gene expression. The flax fabric derived from both GM flax plants exhibited a protective effect against oxidative stress and ROS-mediated genotoxic damage, but the W92 fabric was the strongest. It is thus suggested that these fabrics might be useful as a basis for new biomedical products (e.g. wound dressings) that actively protect cells against inflammation and degeneration.
Keywords: Flax; Fibre; Reactive oxygen species; Fibroblasts; Antioxidants

Application of Transgalactosylation Activity of β-Galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis for the Synthesis of Ascorbic Acid Galactoside by Aleksandra Wojciechowska; Robert Klewicki; Michał Sójka; Katarzyna Grzelak-Błaszczyk (386-400).
In view of a commonly known beneficial role and low stability of ascorbic acid, many efforts are constantly undertaken to produce its improved derivatives. This paper presents results on the synthesis of ascorbic acid galactoside using transgalactosylation properties of β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis and lactose as a donor of galactosyl moiety. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of selected factors (concentration and molar ratio of substrates, amount of the enzyme preparation, pH of the solution, presence of different ions) on the course of transgalactosylation reaction. Research has shown that approx. 2.5% dry matter (d.m.; 12.7 g/L) of ascorbic acid galactoside is formed under favourable conditions (50% (w/v) substrates, sodium ascorbate and lactose at the molar ratio of 1.9:1, enzyme dose of 28,600 U/100 g lactose, pH = 7.0). The addition of Mg2+ or K+ ions to the reaction medium caused an increase in the final product content (even up to approx. 3.4% d.m., 17.2 g/L), while Na+ or Mn2+ had an adverse impact on the yield. The gathered data may be valuable for cosmetic or food industry.
Keywords: Ascorbic acid; β-Galactosidase; Kluyveromyces lactis ; Transgalactosylation; Lactose