Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology (v.179, #1)

An active d-hydantoinase from Pseudomonas fluorescens was heterogeneously overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and designated as d-PfHYD. Sequence and consensus analysis suggests that d-PfHYD belongs to the dihydropyrimidinase/hydantoinase family and possesses catalytic residues for metal ion and hydantoin binding. d-PfHYD was purified to homogeneity by nickel affinity chromatography for characterization. d-PfHYD is a homotetramer with molecular weight of 215 kDa and specific activity of 20.9 U mg−1. d-PfHYD showed the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 60 °C. Metal ions such as Mn2+, Fe2+, and Fe3+ could activate d-PfHYD with 20 % improvement. Substrate specificity analysis revealed that purified d-PfHYD preferred aliphatic to aromatic 5′-monosubstituted hydantoins. Among various strategies tested, chaperone GroES-GroEL was efficient in improving the soluble expression of d-PfHYD. Employing 1.0 g L−1 recombinant E. coli BL21(DE3)-pET28-hyd/pGRO7 dry cells, 100 mM isobutyl hydantoin was converted into d-isoleucine with 98.7 % enantiomeric excess (ee), isolation yield of 78.3 %, and substrate to biocatalyst ratio of 15.6. Our results suggest that recombinant d-PfHYD could be potentially applied in the synthesis of d-amino acids.
Keywords: Pseudomonas fluorescens ; d-hydantoinase; d-amino acids; Soluble expression; Chaperone

A cellulase-producing bacterium isolated from pulp and paper feedstock, Bacillus sp. AR03, was evaluated by means of a factorial design showing that peptone and carbohydrates were the main variables affecting enzyme production. Simple sugars, individually and combined with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), were further examined for their influence on cellulase production by strain AR03. Most of the mono and disaccharides assayed presented a synergistic effect with CMC. As a result, a peptone-based broth supplemented with 10 g/L sucrose and 10 g/L CMC maximized enzyme production after 96 h of cultivation. This medium was used to produce endoglucanases in a 1-L stirred tank reactor in batch mode at 30 °C, which reduced the fermentation period to 48 h and reaching 3.12 ± 0.02 IU/mL of enzyme activity. Bacillus sp. AR03 endoglucanases showed an optimum temperature of 60 °C and a pH of 6.0 with a wide range of pH stability. Furthermore, presence of 10 mM Mn2+ and 5 mM Co2+ produced an increase of enzyme activity (246.7 and 183.7 %, respectively), and remarkable tolerance to NaCl, Tween 80, and EDTA was also observed. According to our results, the properties of the cellulolytic cocktail from Bacillus sp. AR03 offer promising features in view of potential biorefinery applications.
Keywords: Bacillus sp. AR03; Factorial design; Endoglucanase production; Enzyme activity; Biorefinery

As well-known powerful mucosal adjuvant proteins, Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) and its non-toxic or low-toxic mutants (LTm) are capable of promoting strong mucosal immune responses to co-administered antigens in various types of vaccines. However, due to the complex composition and special structure, the yield of LTm directly from the recombinant genetic engineering strains is quite low. Here, we put forward a novel method to prepare LTm protein which designed, expressed, and purified three kinds of component subunits respectively and assembled them into a hexamer structure in vitro by two combination modes. In addition, by simulated in vivo environment of polymer protein assembly, the factors of the protein solution system which include environment temperature, pH, ionic strength of the solution, and ratio between each subunit were taken into consideration. Finally, we confirmed the optimal conditions of two assembly strategies and prepared the hexamer holotoxin in vitro. These results are not only an important significance in promoting large-scale preparation of the mucosal adjuvant LTm but also an enlightening to produce other multi-subunit proteins.
Keywords: Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT); Mucosal adjuvant; In vitro preparation; Artificially assisted self-assembly

Differential Effects of Thidiazuron on Production of Anticancer Phenolic Compounds in Callus Cultures of Fagonia indica by Tariq Khan; Bilal Haider Abbasi; Mubarak Ali Khan; Zabta Khan Shinwari (46-58).
Fagonia indica, a very important anticancer plant, has been less explored for its in vitro potential. This is the first report on thidiazuron (TDZ)-mediated callogenesis and elicitation of commercially important phenolic compounds. Among the five different plant growth regulators tested, TDZ induced comparatively higher fresh biomass, 51.0 g/100 mL and 40.50 g/100 mL for stem and leaf explants, respectively, after 6 weeks of culture time. Maximum total phenolic content (202.8 μg gallic acid equivalent [GAE]/mL for stem-derived callus and 161.3 μg GAE/mL for leaf-derived callus) and total flavonoid content (191.03 μg quercetin equivalent [QE]/mL for stem-derived callus and 164.83 μg QE/mL for leaf-derived callus) were observed in the optimized callus cultures. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) data indicated higher amounts of commercially important anticancer secondary metabolites such as gallic acid (125.10 ± 5.01 μg/mL), myricetin (32.5 ± 2.05 μg/mL), caffeic acid (12.5 ± 0.52 μg/mL), catechin (9.4 ± 1.2 μg/mL), and apigenin (3.8 ± 0.45 μg/mL). Owing to the greater phenolic content, a better 2-2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity (69.45 % for stem explant and 63.68 % for leaf explant) was observed in optimized calluses. The unusually higher biomass and the enhanced amount of phenolic compounds as a result of lower amounts of TDZ highlight the importance of this multipotent hormone as elicitor in callus cultures of F. indica.
Keywords: Callus; TDZ; Fagonia ; Phenolic acids; Anticancer; HPLC

Construction of a Fusion Peptide 5rolGLP-HV and Analysis of its Therapeutic Effect on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Thrombosis in Mice by Zaizhong Ni; Yaofang Zhang; Haisong Wang; Yiming Wei; Baicheng Ma; Junfeng Hao; Peipei Tu; Huikun Duan; Xiaodan Li; Pingzhe Jiang; Xiaofeng Ma; Bin Wang; Ri Wu; Jianhong Zhu; Minggang Li (59-74).
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), is currently used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus and hirudin (HV), plays an important role in controlling thrombosis and cardiovascular diseases. This investigation aimed to develop a fusion peptide 5rolGLP-HV which combined functions of rolGLP-1 and rHV to treat diabetes and thrombosis. In this study, we constructed a fusion gene including five copies of rolGLP-1 and one copy of rHV (5rolGLP-HV). The optimum expression conditions of 5rolGLP-HV in a soluble form were 0.8 mM IPTG induction when OD600 reached 0.6–0.8 and further growing at 25 °C for 9 h. Isolated rolGLP-1 and rHV were acquired by trypsin digestion in vitro, and the concentration of them was determined by HPLC in vivo. Oral administration of 5rolGLP-HV significantly decreased the levels of blood glucose, GHbA1C, TC, and TG in diabetic mice at the time of 3 weeks compared to the saline-treated group (p < 0.05), while the insulin level was reversed significantly (p < 0.05). 5rolGLP-HV treatment significantly shortened the length of thrombus in thrombosis mice compared to the saline-treated group (p < 0.01). These results indicated that 5rolGLP-HV had dual-function in treating diabetes and preventing thrombosis.
Keywords: 5rolGLP-HV; Diabetes; Thrombosis; Expression; Purification; Dual-function treatment

A novel GDSL lipase (MT6) was cloned from the genome of Marinactinospora thermotolerans SCSIO 00652 identified from the South China Sea. MT6 showed its maximum identity of 59 % with a putative lipase from Nocardiopsis dassonville. MT6 was heterologously expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) and further functionally characterized. MT6 could efficiently resolve racemic 1-phenylethanol and generate (R)-1-phenylethanol with high enantiomeric excess (99 %) and conversion rate (54 %) through transesterification reactions after process optimization. Our report was the first one report about the utilization of one GDSL lipase in the preparation of chiral chemicals by transesterification reactions, and the optical selectivity of MT6 was interestingly opposite to those of other common lipases. GDSL lipases represented by MT6 possess great potential for the generation of valuable chiral chemicals in industry.
Keywords: Novel GDSL lipase; Kinetic resolution; (R)-1-phenylethanol; Opposite optical selectivity

We reported natural polymer-conjugated magnetic featured urease systems for removal of urea effectively. The optimum temperature (20–60 °C), optimum pH (3.0–10.0), kinetic parameters, thermal stability (4–70 °C), pH stability (4.0–9.0), operational stability (0–250 min), reusability (18 times) and storage stability (24 weeks) were studied for characterisation of the urease-encapsulated biocompatible polymer-conjugated magnetic beads. Also, the surface groups and chemical structure of the magnetic beads were determined by using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The all urease-encapsulated magnetic beads protected their stability of 30–45 % relative activity at 70 °C. A significant increase was observed at their pH stability compared with the free urease for both acidic and alkaline medium. Besides this, their repeatability activity were approximately 100 % during 4th run. They showed residual activity of 50 % after 16 weeks. The importance of this work is enhancement stability of immobilised urease by biocompatible polymer-conjugated magnetic beads for the industrial application based on removal of urea.
Keywords: Fe3O4 nanoparticles; Fe[NiFe]O4 nanoparticles; Magnetic polymeric beads; Urease encapsulation; Urease stability

Corn stover (CS) adjusted to 50, 66, and 70 % moisture was pretreated by the low moisture anhydrous ammonia (LMAA) process in a pilot-scale ammoniation reactor. After ammoniation, the 70 % moisture CS was treated at 90 and 100 °C whereas the others were treated at 90 °C only. The 70 % moisture pretreated CS then was subjected to a storage study under non-sterile conditions for 3 months. It was found that storage time did not have significant effects on the compositions of the pretreated materials and their hydrolysis by commercial enzymes. The 70 % moisture CS treated at 90 °C was used for preparation of a mix sugar hydrolysate (MSH) using combination of cellulase and xylanase. The MSH was used to prepare a corn mash at 9.5 wt% solid then subjected to ethanol fermentation by Escherichia coli KO11. The 66 % moisture CS treated at 90 °C was hydrolyzed with xylanase to make a xylose-rich hydrolysate (XRH), which was subsequently used for butyric acid fermentation by Clostridium tyrobutyricum. The resultant cellulose-enriched residue was hydrolyzed with cellulase to make a glucose-rich hydrolysate (GRH), which was subsequently used for succinic acid fermentation by E. coli AFP184.
Keywords: Cellulosic biomass; Corn stover; Pretreatment; Low moisture anhydrous ammonia; Ethanol; Value-added products; Fermentation

A low molecular weight xylanase from Bacillus strain CSB40, isolated from traditional Korean food and produced in beechwood xylan, was biochemically and thermodynamically characterized. It was purified 8.12-fold with a 15.88 % yield using DEAE sepharose fast flow, and it was determined to have a mass of ∼27 kDa via sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and xylan zymography. The purified xylanase was optimally active at 50 °C and pH 6 and stable over a wide range of pH (4.5–12.5). The N-terminal amino acid sequence of xylanase was GIQQGDDGKL. The activation energy for beechwood xylan hydrolysis was 29.39 kJmol−1 with k cat value of 927.582 × 102 s−1. K m and V max were 0.080 mg/ml and 794.63 mmol min−1 mg−1. The analysis of other thermodynamic parameters like ∆H, ∆G, ∆S, Q10, ∆GE-S, and ∆GE-T also supported the spontaneous formation of products, greater hydrolytic efficiency, and feasibility of enzymatic reaction, which also ratifies the novelty of this xylanase. The enzyme was strongly activated by Zn2+ and inhibited by Cu2+. The principal hydrolyzed end-products of this xylanase are xylobiose, xylotriose, and xylotetrose, which can be used in the pharmaceutical industry and as prebiotic in food.
Keywords: Bacillus methylotrophicus ; Low molecular weight xylanase; Thermodynamic characterization; Xylooligosaccharides

The genes of two α-l-arabinofuranosidases (AbfI and II) from family GH 62 have been identified in the genome of Aspergillus fumigatus wmo. Both genes have been expressed in Pichia pastoris and the enzymes have been purified and characterized. AbfI is composed of 999 bp, does not contain introns and codes for a protein (ABFI) of 332 amino acid residues. abfII has 1246 bp, including an intron of 51 bp; the protein ABFII has 396 amino acid residues; it includes a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) in the N-terminal region, followed by a catalytic module. The sequence of ABFI and the catalytic module of ABFII show a 79 % identity. Both enzymes are active on p-nitrophenyl α-l-arabinofuranoside (pNPAra) with KM of 94.2 and 3.9 mM for ABFI and II, respectively. Optimal temperature for ABFI is 37 °C and for ABFII 42 °C, while the pH optimum is about 4.5 to 5 for both enzymes. ABFII shows a higher thermostability. When assayed using natural substrates, both show higher activity over rye arabinoxylan as compared to wheat arabinoxylan. ABFII only is active on sugar beet pulp arabinan and both are inactive towards debranched arabinan. The higher thermostability, higher affinity for pNPAra and wider activity over natural substrates shown by ABFII may be related to the presence of a CBM. The availability of the recombinant enzymes may be useful in biotechnological applications for the production of arabinose.
Keywords: Aspergillus fumigatus ; Arabinofuranosidases; GH family 62; Heterologous expression; Pichia pastoris

Antioxidative Metabolites Synthesized by Marine Pigmented Vibrio sp. and Its Protection on Oxidative Deterioration of Membrane Lipids by Ravindra Pawar; C. Mohandass; Syed G. Dastager; Yogesh M. Kolekar; Rahul Malwankar (155-167).
Bacterial strain Vibrio sp. (PIGB 184) isolated from water samples of the Arabian Sea and identified through 16S rRNA demonstrated the production of pigmentary antioxidants with higher ABTS activities 90.9 ± 0.42 % in comparison with the standard commercial pigmented antioxidant, quercetin 88.8 ± 1.4 %. Antioxidative metabolites of this strain substantially inhibit the lipid peroxidation (LPO) reactions tested in sheep liver and brain. The antioxidant compounds produced by the Vibrio sp. (PIGB 184), analysed by GC-MS, reveals that it is composed mostly of phenol, 2,4-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl) and pyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine-1,4-dione,hexahydro-3-(2-methylpropyl). The interrelationship assessed between LPO and the phenolic compounds showed significant correlation with anti-LPO properties (R 2 = 0.9698 to 0.9861). These compounds are responsible for obstruction of harmful radical associated biochemical reactions in biological systems. Pigmented metabolites also tested for attributive biological properties against pathogenic bacteria showed prominent inhibition towards Gram-positive organisms (31.25 to 62.5 μg ml−1). From this study, it may be suggested that the marine bacterium PIGB 184 could be used as a potential bio-resource for antioxidants and needs to be worked out for mass production.
Keywords: Marine pigmented bacteria; Antioxidants; Lipid peroxidation; Phenolics; Pathogen inhibition

Miniaturization of the sandwich enzyme-based immunosensor has several advantages but could result in lower signal strength due to lower enzyme loading. Hence, technologies for amplification of the signal are needed. Signal amplification in a field effect-based electrochemical immunosensor utilizing chip-based ELISA is presented in this work. First, the molarities of phosphate buffer saline (PBS) and concentrations of KCl as ionic strength adjuster were optimized to maximize the GOx glucose-based enzymatic reactions in a beaker for signal amplification measured by change in the voltage shift with an EIS device (using 20 μl of solution) and validated with a commercial pH meter (using 3 ml of solution). The PBS molarity of 100 μM with 25 mM KCl provided the maximum voltage shift. These optimized buffer conditions were further verified for GOx immobilized on silicon chips, and similar trends with decreased PBS molarity were obtained; however, the voltage shift values obtained on chip reaction were lower as compared to the reactions occurring in the beaker. The decreased voltage shift with immobilized enzyme on chip could be attributed to the increased Km (Michaelis–Menten constant) values in the immobilized GOx. Finally, a more than sixfold signal enhancement (from 8 to 47 mV) for the chip-based sandwich immunoassay was obtained by altering the PBS molarity from 10 to 100 μM with 25 mM KCl.
Keywords: Enzymatic immunosensors; Signal amplification; Optimized buffer; Sandwich immunoassay