Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology (v.161, #1-8)

Mountain pine beetle-killed lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) chips were pretreated using the organosolv process, and their ease of subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was assessed. The effect of varying pretreatment chemicals and solvents on the substrate’s physicochemical characteristics was also investigated. The chemicals employed were MgCl2, H2SO4, SO2, and NaOH, and the solvents were ethanol and butanol. It was apparent that the different pretreatments resulted in variations in both the chemical composition of the solid and liquid fractions as well in the extent of cellulolytic hydrolysis (ranging from 21% to 82% hydrolysis after 12 h). Pretreatment under acidic conditions resulted in substrates that were readily hydrolyzed despite the apparent contradiction that pretreatment under alkaline conditions resulted in increased delignification (approximately 7% and 10% residual lignin for alkaline conditions versus 17% to 19% for acidic conditions). Acidic pretreatments also resulted in lower cellulose degree of polymerization, shorter fiber lengths, and increased substrate porosity. The substrates generated when butanol/water mixtures were used as the pretreatment solvent were also hydrolyzed more readily than those generated with ethanol/water. This was likely due to the limited miscibility of the solvents resulting in an increased concentration of pretreatment chemicals in the aqueous layer and thus a higher pretreatment severity.
Keywords: Enzymatic hydrolysis; Organosolv; Cellulose; Ethanol; Substrate characteristics

Optimizing Dilute-Acid Pretreatment of Rapeseed Straw for Extraction of Hemicellulose by Tae-Su Jeong; Byung-Hwan Um; Jun-Seok Kim; Kyeong-Keun Oh (22-33).
Biological conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals requires hydrolysis of the polysaccharide fraction into monomeric sugars prior to fermentation. Hydrolysis can be performed enzymatically or with mineral acids. In this study, dilute sulfuric acid was used as a catalyst for the pretreatment of rapeseed straw. The purpose of this study is to optimize the pretreatment process in a 15-mL bomb tube reactor and investigate the effects of the acid concentration, temperature, and reaction time. These parameters influence hemicellulose removal and production of sugars (xylose, glucose, and arabinose) in the hydrolyzate as well as the formation of by-products (furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and acetic acid). Statistical analysis was based on a model composition corresponding to a 33 orthogonal factorial design and employed the response surface methodology to optimize the pretreatment conditions, aiming to attain maximum xylan, mannan, and galactan (XMG) extraction from hemicellulose of rapeseed straw. The obtained optimum conditions were: H2SO4 concentration of 1.76% and temperature of 152.6 °C with a reaction time of 21 min. Under these optimal conditions, 85.5% of the total sugar was recovered after acid hydrolysis (78.9% XMG and 6.6% glucan). The hydrolyzate contained 1.60 g/L glucose, 0.61 g/L arabinose, 10.49 g/L xylose, mannose, and galactose, 0.39 g/L cellobiose, 0.94 g/L fructose, 0.02 g/L 1,6-anhydro-glucose, 1.17 g/L formic acid, 2.94 g/L acetic acid, 0.04 g/L levulinic acid, 0.04 g/L 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and 0.98 g/L furfural.
Keywords: Rapeseed straw; Response surface methodology (RSM); Sulfuric acid; Pretreatment

Sugarcane bagasse is the major by-product of the sugar industry. It has a great potential for the production of biofuels and chemicals due to its considerable amount of cellulose and hemicellulose. In this study, we investigated a simple and economic pretreatment process using dilute ammonia for the storage of sugarcane bagasse. Sugarcane bagasse was stored in 0, 0.03, and 0.3% (w/w) ammonium hydroxide in a closed bottle for 40 days at 30 °C under atmospheric pressure without any agitation or circulation. Samples were taken every 10 days and analyzed for changes on lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose composition, ammonia concentration, and microbial counts. Biomass storage for 40 days at 0.3% ammonium hydroxide removed 46% of lignin and retained 100% cellulose and 73% hemicellulose.
Keywords: Sugarcane bagasse; Low temperature pretreatment; Dilute ammonium hydroxide; Lignin; Cellulose; Hemicellulose

This study focused on optimization of reaction conditions for formation of sugars and levulinic acid from marine algal biomass Gelidium amansii using acid catalyst and by using statistical approach. By this approach, optimal conditions for production of sugars and levulinic acid were found as follows: glucose (reaction temperature of 139.4°C, reaction time of 15.0 min, and catalyst concentration of 3.0%), galactose (108.2°C, 45.0 min, and 3.0%), and levulinic acid (160.0°C, 43.1 min, and 3.0%). While trying to optimize the conditions for the production of glucose and galactose, levulinic acid production was found to be minimum. Similarly, the production of glucose and galactose were found to be minimum while optimizing the conditions for the production of levulinic acid. In addition, optimized production of glucose required a higher reaction temperature and shorter reaction time than that of galactose. Levulinic acid was formed at a high reaction temperature, long reaction time, and high catalyst concentration. The combined results of this study may provide useful information to develop more economical and efficient systems for production of sugars and chemicals from marine biomass.
Keywords: Marine biomass; Gelidium amansii ; Response surface methodology; Chemical intermediates; Levulinic acid; Sugar

Paper mill sludge is a solid waste material composed of pulp residues and ash generated from pulping and paper making processes. The carbohydrate portion of the sludge has chemical and physical characteristics similar to pulp. Because of its high carbohydrate content and well-dispersed structure, the sludges can be biologically converted to value-added products without pretreatment. In this study, two different types of paper mill sludges, primary sludge and recycle sludge, were evaluated as a feedstock for bioconversion to ethanol. The sludges were first subjected to enzymatic conversion to sugars by commercial cellulase enzymes. The enzymatic conversion was inefficient because of interference by ash in the sludges with the enzymatic reaction. The main cause was that the pH level is dictated by CaCO3 in ash, which is two units higher than the pH optimum of cellulase. To alleviate this problem, simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF) using cellulase (Spezyme CP) and recombinant Escherichia coli (ATCC-55124), and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using cellulase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ATCC-200062) were applied to the sludges without any pretreatment. Ethanol yields of 75–81% of the theoretical maximum were obtained from the SSCF on the basis of total carbohydrates. The yield from the SSF was also found to be in the range of 74–80% on the basis of glucan. The SSCF and SSF proceeded under stable condition with the pH staying near 5.0, close to the optimum for cellulase. Decrease of pH occurred due to carbonic acid and other organic acids formed during fermentation. The ash was partially neutralized by the acids produced from the SSCF and SSF and acted as a buffer to stabilize the pH during fermentation. When the SSF and SSCF were operated in fed-batch mode, the ethanol concentration in the broth increased from 25.5 and 32.6 g/L (single feed) to 45 and 42 g/L, respectively. The ethanol concentration was limited by the tolerance of the microorganism in the case of SSCF. The ethanol yield in fed-batch operation decreased to 68% for SSCF and 70% for SSF. The high-solids condition in the bioreactor appears to create adverse effects on the cellulase reaction.
Keywords: Paper mill sludges; Ethanol; SSF; SSCF; Bioconversion

Dilute Ammonia Pretreatment of Sorghum and Its Effectiveness on Enzyme Hydrolysis and Ethanol Fermentation by Deepti A. Salvi; Giovanna M. Aita; Diana Robert; Victor Bazan (67-74).
A new pretreatment technology using dilute ammonium hydroxide was evaluated for ethanol production on sorghum. Sorghum fibers, ammonia, and water at a ratio of 1:0.14:8 were heated to 160 °C and held for 1 h under 140–160 psi pressure. Approximately, 44% lignin and 35% hemicellulose were removed during the process. Hydrolysis of untreated and dilute ammonia pretreated fibers was carried out at 10% dry solids at an enzyme concentration of 60 FPU Spezyme CP and 64 CBU Novozyme 188/g glucan. Cellulose digestibility was higher (84%) for ammonia pretreated sorghum as compared to untreated sorghum (38%). Fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A resulted in 24 g ethanol /100 g dry biomass for dilute ammonia pretreated sorghum and 9 g ethanol /100 g dry biomass for untreated sorghum.
Keywords: Dilute ammonia pretreatment; Sorghum; Ethanol; Lignocellulosic; Biomass; Hydrolysis

Degeneration is one of the limiting factors in butanol fermentation, and it must be monitored and prevented for stable butanol production. In Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824, the most well-known butanol-producing microorganism, degeneration is caused by the loss of the pSOL1 plasmid that carries essential genes involved in solvent production. In this study, we designed two specific primer and probe sets for real-time qPCR (RT-qPCR) detection of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 (the C. aceto set) and pSOL1-possessing C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 (the DGS set). Specific primer and probe sets were designed on the basis of the 16S rDNA sequence and pSOL1 sequence. The number of degenerated C. acetobutylicum could be quantified by subtracting the number of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 containing pSOL1 from the total number of C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824. The primer and probe sets permitted the specific detection and quantification of degenerated C. acetobutylicum and total butanol-producing C. acetobutylicum by RT-qPCR.
Keywords: Biobutanol; Degeneration; Monitoring; pSOL1 plasmid; Real-time qPCR

Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse Hydrolysate Using Pichia stipitis by Larissa Canilha; Walter Carvalho; Maria das Graças de Almeida Felipe; João Batista de Almeida e Silva; Marco Giulietti (84-92).
The objective of this study was to evaluate the ethanol production from the sugars contained in the sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate with the yeast Pichia stipitis DSM 3651. The fermentations were carried out in 250-mL Erlenmeyers with 100 mL of medium incubated at 200 rpm and 30 °C for 120 h. The medium was composed by raw (non-detoxified) hydrolysate or by hydrolysates detoxified by pH alteration followed by active charcoal adsorption or by adsorption into ion-exchange resins, all of them supplemented with yeast extract (3 g/L), malt extract (3 g/L), and peptone (5 g/L). The initial concentration of cells was 3 g/L. According to the results, the detoxification procedures removed inhibitory compounds from the hemicellulosic hydrolysate and, thus, improved the bioconversion of the sugars into ethanol. The fermentation using the non-detoxified hydrolysate led to 4.9 g/L ethanol in 120 h, with a yield of 0.20 g/g and a productivity of 0.04 g L−1 h−1. The detoxification by pH alteration and active charcoal adsorption led to 6.1 g/L ethanol in 48 h, with a yield of 0.30 g/g and a productivity of 0.13 g L−1 h−1. The detoxification by adsorption into ion-exchange resins, in turn, provided 7.5 g/L ethanol in 48 h, with a yield of 0.30 g/g and a productivity of 0.16 g L−1 h−1.
Keywords: Sugarcane bagasse hemicellulosic hydrolysate; Fermentation inhibitors; Ethanol; Pichia stipitis

Ethanol Production from Sugarcane Bagasse by Zymomonas mobilis Using Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF) Process by Danielle da Silveira dos Santos; Anna Carolina Camelo; Kelly Cristina Pedro Rodrigues; Luís Cláudio Carlos; Nei Pereira Jr. (93-105).
Considerable efforts have been made to utilize agricultural and forest residues as biomass feedstock for the production of second-generation bioethanol as an alternative fuel. Fermentation utilizing strains of Zymomonas mobilis and the use of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process has been proposed. Statistical experimental design was used to optimize the conditions of SSF, evaluating solid content, enzymatic load, and cell concentration. The optimum conditions were found to be solid content (30%), enzymatic load (25 filter paper units/g), and cell concentration (4 g/L), resulting in a maximum ethanol concentration of 60 g/L and a volumetric productivity of 1.5 g L−1 h−1.
Keywords: Lignocellulosics; Sugarcane; SSF; Bioethanol; Z. mobilis

Saccharomyces cerevisiae was exposed to inhibitory concentrations of the three phenolic phenylpropanoids: coniferyl aldehyde, ferulic acid, and isoeugenol. Deoxyribonucleic acid microarray analysis was employed as one approach to generate a set of candidate genes for deletion mutant analysis to determine the potential contribution of the corresponding gene products to the resistance against toxic concentrations of phenolic fermentation inhibitors. Three S. cerevisiae deletion mutants with increased sensitivity to coniferyl aldehyde were identified: yap1Δ, atr1Δ, and flr1Δ. The rate of reduction of coniferyl aldehyde to coniferyl alcohol decreased sixfold when the gene encoding the transcriptional activator Yap1p was deleted, and threefold when the Yap1p-controlled genes encoding Atr1p and Flr1p were deleted. Growth, glucose consumption, and ethanol formation progressed after a lag phase during which coniferyl aldehyde reduction and coniferyl alcohol formation occurred. The results link ATR1, FLR1, and YAP1 by their ability to confer resistance to coniferyl aldehyde and show that deletion of any of these three genes impairs the ability of S. cerevisiae to withstand coniferyl aldehyde and detoxify it by reduction. Furthermore, the results suggest that overexpression of ATR1, FLR1, and YAP1 is of interest for the construction of novel yeast strains with improved resistance against inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates.
Keywords: Liquid biofuel; Cellulosic ethanol; Fermentation inhibitors; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Hyperresistance

Phenotype MicroArray Profiling of Zymomonas mobilis ZM4 by Barry Bochner; Vanessa Gomez; Michael Ziman; Shihui Yang; Steven D. Brown (116-123).
In this study, we developed a Phenotype MicroArray™ (PM) protocol to profile cellular phenotypes in Zymomonas mobilis, which included a standard set of nearly 2,000 assays for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur source utilization, nutrient stimulation, pH and osmotic stresses, and chemical sensitivities with 240 inhibitory chemicals. We observed two positive assays for C-source utilization (fructose and glucose) using the PM screen, which uses redox chemistry and cell respiration as a universal reporter to profile growth phenotypes in a high-throughput 96-well plate-based format. For nitrogen metabolism, the bacterium showed a positive test results for ammonia, aspartate, asparagine, glutamate, glutamine, and peptides. Z. mobilis appeared to use a diverse array of P-sources with two exceptions being pyrophosphate and tripolyphosphate. The assays suggested that Z. mobilis uses both inorganic and organic compounds as S-sources. No stimulation by nutrients was detected; however, there was evidence of partial inhibition by purines and pyrimidines, NAD, and deferoxamine. Z. mobilis was relatively resistant to acid pH, tolerating a pH down to about 4.0. It also tolerated phosphate, sulfate, and nitrate, but was rather sensitive to chloride and nitrite. Z. mobilis showed resistance to a large number of diverse chemicals that inhibit most bacteria. The information from PM analysis provides an overview of Z. mobilis physiology and a foundation for future comparisons of other wild-type and mutant Z. mobilis strains.
Keywords: Ethanol; Fermentation; Physiology; Systems biology; Global

Utilizing all forms of sugars derived from lignocellulosic biomass via various pretreatment and hydrolysis process is a primary criterion for selecting a microorganism to produce biofuels and biochemicals. A broad carbon spectra and potential inhibitors such as furan, phenol compounds and weak acids are two major obstacles that limited the application of dilute-acid hydrolysate of lignocellulosics in lactic acid fermentation. Two strains of bacteria isolated from sour cabbage, S3F4 (Lactobacillus brevis) and XS1T3-4 (Lactobacillus plantrum), exhibited the ability to utilize various sugars present in dilute-acid hydrolysate of biomass. The S3F4 strain also showed strong resistance to potential fermentation inhibitors such as ferulic acid and furfural. Fermentation in flasks by this strain resulted in 39.1 g/l of lactic acid from dilute acid hydrolysates of corncobs that had initial total sugar concentration of 56.9 g/l (xylose, 46.4 g/l; glucose, 4.0 g/l; arabinose, 6.5 g/l). The hydrolysate of corncobs was readily utilized by S3F4 without detoxification, and the lactic acid concentration obtained in this study was higher compared to other reports.
Keywords: Lactic acid; Lignocellulose; Dilute acid hydrolysate; Inhibition; Fermentation

Optimization of Lactic Acid Production by Pellet-Form Rhizopus oryzae in 3-L Airlift Bioreactor Using Response Surface Methodology by Thanapoom Maneeboon; Wirat Vanichsriratana; Chaiyaporn Pomchaitaward; Vichien Kitpreechavanich (137-146).
The influence of two key environmental factors, pH and oxygen transfer coefficient (k La), was evaluated on the lactic acid production as the main answer and, on the size of cell pellets of the fungal strain Rhizopus oryzae KPS106, as second dependant answer by response surface methodology using a central composite design. The results of the analysis of variance and modeling demonstrated that pH and k La had a significant effect on lactic acid production by this strain. However, no interaction was observed between these two experimental factors. pH and k La had no significant influence on the pellet size. Optimal pH and k La of the fermentation medium for lactic acid production from response surface analysis was 5.85 and of 3.6 h−1, respectively. The predicted and experimental lactic acid maximal values were 75.4 and 72.0 g/l, respectively, with pellets of an average of 2.54 ± 0.41 mm. Five repeated batches in series were conducted with a mean lactic acid production of 77.54 g/l. The productivity was increased from 0.75 in the first batch to 0.99 g/l h in the last fifth batch.
Keywords: Lactic acid; Rhizopus oryzae ; Pellet; Response surface methodology; Central composite design; Repeated batch

A unique thermophilic microbial community developed initially from swine waste was investigated in this study. Cellulase activities were observed when this community was inoculated to media containing either cellulose or carboxymethylcellulose at 57 °C. Through constructing a clone library for the 16S ribosomal DNA, it was revealed that this community was mainly composed of three genera: Thermobacillus, Brevibacillus, and Anoxybacillus. New findings regarding the thermo- and pH stability of crude cellulases secreted by Brevibacillus sp. JXL were presented. Recent study on the growth characteristics of Anoxybacillus sp. 527 was discussed.
Keywords: Cellulose; Thermophilic; Cellulase; Microbial community; Brevibacillus sp. JXL; Anoxybacillus sp. 527

In this work, acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) fermentation characteristics of cassava starch and cassava chips when using Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 was presented. The obtained results in batch mode using a 1-L fermenter showed that C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4 was a hyperamylolytic strain and capable of producing solvents efficiently from cassava starch and cassava chips, which was comparable to when glucose was used. Batch fermentation of cassava starch and cassava chips resulted in 21.0 and 19.4 g/L of total solvent as compared with 24.2 g/L of total solvent when using glucose. Solvent productivity in fermentation of cassava starch was from 42% to 63% higher than that obtained in fermentation using corn and sago starches in the same condition. In fermentation of cassava starch and cassava chips, maximum butanol concentration was 16.9 and 15.5 g/L, respectively. Solvent yield and butanol yield (based on potential glucose) was 0.33 and 0.41, respectively, for fermentation of cassava starch and 0.30 and 0.38, respectively for fermentation using cassava chips.
Keywords: Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4; Acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) fermentation; Cassava starch; Cassava chips

Characterization of Commercial Amylases for the Removal of Filter Cake on Petroleum Wells by Nattascha Kyaw; Rafael Fonseca de Mesquita; Etel Kameda; João Crisósthomo de Queiroz Neto; Marta Antunes Pereira Langone; Maria Alice Zarur Coelho (171-180).
Drilling fluid has many functions, such as carry cuttings from the hole permitting their separation at the surface, cool and clean the bit, reduce friction between the drill pipe and wellbore, maintain the stability of the wellbore, and prevent the inflow of fluids from the wellbore and form a thin, low-permeable filter cake. Filter cake removal is an important step concerning both production and injection in wells, mainly concerning horizontal completion. The drilling fluids are typically comprised of starch, the most important component of the filter cake. A common approach to remove this filter cake is the use of acid solutions. However, these are non-specific reactants. A possible alternative is the use of enzymatic preparations, like amylases, that are able to hydrolyze starch. Wells usually operate in drastic conditions for enzymatic preparations, such as high temperature, high salt concentration, and high pressure. Thus, the main objective of this work was to characterize four enzymatic preparations for filter cake removal under open hole conditions. The results showed that high salt concentrations (204,000 ppm NaCl) in completion fluid decreased amylolytic activity. All enzymatic preparations were able to catalyze starch hydrolysis at all temperatures tested (30, 65, 80, and 95 °C). An increase of amylolytic activity was observed with the increase of pressure (100, 500 and 1,000 psi) for one commercial amylase.
Keywords: Amylase; Filter cake removal; Drilling fluid; Pressure; Temperature

A circulating packed-bed bioreactor system using fibrous nonwoven fabric as the immobilization matrix was suitable for simultaneous cell growth and immobilization of Rhizopus oryzae fungus cells, which could be used for lipase-mediated production of biodiesel by methanolysis of soybean oil. Response surface methodology and 5-level-5-factor central composite rotatable design was proved to be a powerful tool for the optimization of methanolysis conditions catalyzed by immobilized R. oryzae whole cell biocatalyst. A quadratic polynomial regression model was used to analyze the relationship between the yield and the significant reaction parameters. The analysis confirmed that water content, molar ratio of methanol to oil, cell weight, and reaction time were the significant factors affecting the yield at a 95% confidence level (p < 0.05). Under the optimum condition at 10.97% (w/w) water content, 0.64 molar ratio of methanol to oil, 2.25% (w/w) cell weight, and 23.3 h reaction time, the predicted value of yield was 72.6%. Validation experiments with yields of 70.77 ± 2.46% verified the availability and the accuracy of the model.
Keywords: Biodiesel; Immobilized cells; Lipase; Response surface methodology; Nonwoven; Whole cell biocatalyst; Transesterification; Fungus cells

In this study, we conducted experiments using a response surface methodology to determine the optimal reaction conditions for the enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel from rapeseed oil and short-chained alkyl acetates, such as methyl acetate or ethyl acetate, as the acyl acceptor at 40 °C. Based on our response surface methodology experiments, the optimal reaction conditions for the synthesis of biodiesel were as follows: methyl acetate as acyl acceptor, catalyst concentration of 16.50%, oil-to-methyl acetate molar ratio of 1:12.44, and reaction time of 19.70 h; ethyl acetate as acyl acceptor, catalyst concentration of 16.95%, oil-to-ethyl acetate molar ratio of 1:12.56, and reaction time of 19.73 h. The fatty acid ester content under the above conditions when methyl acetate and ethyl acetate were used as the acyl acceptor was 58.0% and 62.6%, respectively. The statistical method described in this study can be applied to effectively optimize the enzymatic conditions required for biodiesel production with short-chained alkyl acetates.
Keywords: Optimization; Biodiesel; Transesterification; Response surface methodology; Central composite rotatable design; Short-chained alkyl acetates; Methyl acetate; Ethyl acetate

Ethanol Production by Fermentation Using Immobilized Cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Cashew Apple Bagasse by Alexandre Monteiro Pacheco; Diego Romão Gondim; Luciana Rocha Barros Gonçalves (209-217).
In this work, cashew apple bagasse (CAB) was used for Saccharomyces cerevisiae immobilization. The support was prepared through a treatment with a solution of 3% HCl, and delignification with 2% NaOH was also conducted. Optical micrographs showed that high populations of yeast cells adhered to pre-treated CAB surface. Ten consecutive fermentations of cashew apple juice for ethanol production were carried out using immobilized yeasts. High ethanol productivity was observed from the third fermentation assay until the tenth fermentation. Ethanol concentrations (about 19.82–37.83 g L−1 in average value) and ethanol productivities (about 3.30–6.31 g L−1 h−1) were high and stable, and residual sugar concentrations were low in almost all fermentations (around 3.00 g L−1) with conversions ranging from 44.80% to 96.50%, showing efficiency (85.30–98.52%) and operational stability of the biocatalyst for ethanol fermentation. Results showed that cashew apple bagasse is an efficient support for cell immobilization aiming at ethanol production.
Keywords: Cashew apple; Ethanol; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Cell immobilization; Alcoholic fermentation

Light Regime Characterization in an Airlift Photobioreactor for Production of Microalgae with High Starch Content by Bruno D. Fernandes; Giuliano M. Dragone; José A. Teixeira; António A. Vicente (218-226).
The slow development of microalgal biotechnology is due to the failure in the design of large-scale photobioreactors (PBRs) where light energy is efficiently utilized. In this work, both the quality and the amount of light reaching a given point of the PBR were determined and correlated with cell density, light path length, and PBR geometry. This was made for two different geometries of the downcomer of an airlift PBR using optical fiber technology that allows to obtain information about quantitative and qualitative aspects of light patterns. This is important since the ability of microalgae to use the energy of photons is different, depending on the wavelength of the radiation. The results show that the circular geometry allows a more efficient light penetration, especially in the locations with a higher radial coordinate (r) when compared to the plane geometry; these observations were confirmed by the occurrence of a higher fraction of illuminated volume of the PBR for this geometry. An equation is proposed to correlate the relative light intensity with the penetration distance for both geometries and different microalgae cell concentrations. It was shown that the attenuation of light intensity is dependent on its wavelength, cell concentration, geometry of PBR, and the penetration distance of light.
Keywords: Microalgae; Optical fiber; Incident light spectrum; Light absorption; Airlift photobioreactor

Production of Lactic Acid from Sucrose: Strain Selection, Fermentation, and Kinetic Modeling by Betânia H. Lunelli; Rafael R. Andrade; Daniel I. P. Atala; Maria Regina Wolf Maciel; Francisco Maugeri Filho; Rubens Maciel Filho (227-237).
Lactic acid is an important product arising from the anaerobic fermentation of sugars. It is used in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic, chemical, and food industries as well as for biodegradable polymer and green solvent production. In this work, several bacterial strains were isolated from industrial ethanol fermentation, and the most efficient strain for lactic acid production was selected. The fermentation was conducted in a batch system under anaerobic conditions for 50 h at a temperature of 34 °C, a pH value of 5.0, and an initial sucrose concentration of 12 g/L using diluted sugarcane molasses. Throughout the process, pulses of molasses were added in order to avoid the cell growth inhibition due to high sugar concentration as well as increased lactic acid concentrations. At the end of the fermentation, about 90% of sucrose was consumed to produce lactic acid and cells. A kinetic model has been developed to simulate the batch lactic acid fermentation results. The data obtained from the fermentation were used for determining the kinetic parameters of the model. The developed model for lactic acid production, growth cell, and sugar consumption simulates the experimental data well.
Keywords: Fermentation; Sugarcane molasses; Ethanol fermentation contaminants; Lactic acid; Kinetic modeling

Production of Biodiesel via Enzymatic Ethanolysis of the Sunflower and Soybean Oils: Modeling by Fernando L. P. Pessoa; Shayane P. Magalhães; Pedro Wagner de Carvalho Falcão (238-244).
Biodiesel has become attractive due to its environmental benefits compared with conventional diesel. Although the enzymatic synthesis of biodiesel requires low thermal energy, low conversions of enzymatic transesterification with ethanol (ethanolysis) of oils to produce biodiesel are reported as a result of deactivation of the enzyme depending on the reaction conditions. The synthesis of biodiesel via enzymatic ethanolysis of sunflower and soybean oils was investigated. Kinetic parameters for the overall reactions were fitted to experimental data available in the literature with the Ping Pong Bi-Bi mechanism including the inhibition effect of the ethanol on the activity of lipase Novozyme® 435. The model was applied to a batch reactor and the experimental conversions were successfully reproduced. The modeling of a semibatch reactor with continuous addition of ethanol was also performed and the results showed a reduction of roughly 3 h in the reaction time in comparison with the batch-wise operation.
Keywords: Biodiesel; Enzymatic ethanolysis; Ping Pong Bi-Bi; Sunflower oil; Soybean oil

Biodiesel Production from Integration Between Reaction and Separation System: Reactive Distillation Process by Nívea de Lima da Silva; Carlos Mario Garcia Santander; César Benedito Batistella; Rubens Maciel Filho; Maria Regina Wolf Maciel (245-254).
Biodiesel is a clean burning fuel derived from a renewable feedstock such as vegetable oil or animal fat. It is biodegradable, non-inflammable, non-toxic, and produces lesser carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons than petroleum-based fuel. The purpose of the present work is to present an efficient process using reactive distillation columns applied to biodiesel production. Reactive distillation is the simultaneous implementation of reaction and separation within a single unit of column. Nowadays, it is appropriately called “Intensified Process”. This combined operation is especially suited for the chemical reaction limited by equilibrium constraints, since one or more of the products of the reaction are continuously separated from the reactants. This work presents the biodiesel production from soybean oil and bioethanol by reactive distillation. Different variables affect the conventional biodiesel production process such as: catalyst concentration, reaction temperature, level of agitation, ethanol/soybean oil molar ratio, reaction time, and raw material type. In this study, the experimental design was used to optimize the following process variables: the catalyst concentration (from 0.5 wt.% to 1.5 wt.%), the ethanol/soybean oil molar ratio (from 3:1 to 9:1). The reactive column reflux rate was 83 ml/min, and the reaction time was 6 min.
Keywords: Biodiesel; Ethyl esters; Reactive distillation; Transesterification

Evaluation of Oxalate Decarboxylase and Oxalate Oxidase for Industrial Applications by Pierre Cassland; Anders Sjöde; Sandra Winestrand; Leif J. Jönsson; Nils-Olof Nilvebrant (255-263).
Increased recirculation of process water has given rise to problems with formation of calcium oxalate incrusts (scaling) in the pulp and paper industry and in forest biorefineries. The potential in using oxalate decarboxylase from Aspergillus niger for oxalic acid removal in industrial bleaching plant filtrates containing oxalic acid was examined and compared with barley oxalate oxidase. Ten different filtrates from chemical pulping were selected for the evaluation. Oxalate decarboxylase degraded oxalic acid faster than oxalate oxidase in eight of the filtrates, while oxalate oxidase performed better in one filtrate. One of the filtrates inhibited both enzymes. The potential inhibitory effect of selected compounds on the enzymatic activity was tested. Oxalate decarboxylase was more sensitive than oxalate oxidase to hydrogen peroxide. Oxalate decarboxylase was not as sensitive to chlorate and chlorite as oxalate oxidase. Up to 4 mM chlorate ions, the highest concentration tested, had no inhibitory effect on oxalate decarboxylase. Analysis of the filtrates suggests that high concentrations of chlorate present in some of the filtrates were responsible for the higher sensitivity of oxalate oxidase in these filtrates. Oxalate decarboxylase was thus a better choice than oxalate oxidase for treatment of filtrates from chlorine dioxide bleaching.
Keywords: Oxalic acid; Calcium oxalate scaling; Oxalate decarboxylase; Oxalate oxidase

The only family 1 glycoside hydrolase in Clostridium cellulolyticum H10 (CcGH1) is annotated as a beta-galactosidase but has high sequence homology with many beta-glucosidases. Given the possible importance of beta-glucosidase in cellulose utilization by C. cellulolyticum, the encoding open reading frame Ccel_0374 was cloned and expressed in E. coli as a soluble fusion protein with thioredoxin. After tag cleavage, the purified enzyme had a molecular mass of 52 kDa and was active in dimeric form on a broad range of substrates, including cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetraose, p-nitrophenyl-beta-glucopyranoside, lactose, and o-nitrophenyl-beta-galactopyranoside. The enzyme showed lower K m and higher catalytic efficiency (k cat/K m) on cellodextrins with degree of polymerization from 2 to 4 than on lactose, and the k cat/K m values on cellodextrins increased in the order of cellobiose < cellotriose < cellotetraose, suggesting that CcGH1 was a cellodextrin glucohydrolase (EC The high K m (69 mM) on cellobiose implies that CcGH1 likely has a minimal role in the intracellular hydrolysis of cellobiose in C. cellulolyticum. The three-dimensional structure model of CcGH1 generated by homology modeling showed a typical (α/β)8 barrel topology characteristic of family 1 glycoside hydrolases.
Keywords: Beta-galactosidase; Beta-glucosidase; Clostridium cellulolyticum ; Consolidated bioprocessing; Cellodextrin glucohydrolase; Cellulose hydrolysis; Microbial cellulose utilization

The potential economic benefits of surfactants addition on enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-exploded lodgepole pine (SELP) and ethanol-pretreated lodgepole pine (EPLP) were investigated in this study. Free cellulase readsorption on fresh substrate was used to recover and recycle cellulase enzymes during the hydrolysis of SELP and EPLP substrate. Supplementing Tween 80 during the hydrolysis could facilitate enzyme recycling for EPLP substrate. A logarithmic correlation was established between surfactant concentration and free cellulase content after lignocellulosic hydrolysis, which was used to compute enzyme cost savings over various Tween 80 concentrations. A simple economic analysis of enzyme cost savings versus the cost of surfactant was undertaken. The results indicated that the addition of Tween 80 (priced at US $0.25/kg) during the hydrolysis of the EPLP substrate could save 60% of the total enzyme cost at concentrations in the 0.025% to 0.2% range. The addition of Tween for the hydrolysis of the SELP substrate significantly reduced the material cost by 24% per 1 gal of ethanol produced, and the ethanol production cost could be reduced by 8.6% with the addition of Tween and enzymes recycle for the hydrolysis of SELP substrate. A schematic concept of recycling enzyme and surfactant was also presented with a recirculation of process streams during hydrolysis. Further analysis indicated a 66% reduction in total enzyme cost could potentially be achieved under the concept.
Keywords: Enzyme recycling; Cellulase; Surfactant; Enzymatic hydrolysis; Lodgepole pine

Partitioning of Porcine Pancreatic Lipase in a Two-Phase Systems of Polyethylene Glycol/Potassium Phosphate Aqueous by Ranyere Lucena de Souza; José Murillo P. Barbosa; Gisella Maria Zanin; Marcos Wandir N. Lobão; Cleide Mara F. Soares; Álvaro Silva Lima (288-300).
The hydrolysis of triglycerides at the oil–water interface, synthesis of esters and transesterification in microaqueous conditions are catalysed by lipase. For its application, a proper purification method was necessary. This study examined the application of an aqueous two-phase system to partition porcine pancreatic lipase. The influence of molecular weight and concentration of polyethylene glycol (PEG), tie line length (TLL), potassium phosphate concentration, sodium chloride (NaCl) addition and temperature in the partition was studied. The enzyme was more efficiently purified in PEG 8,000 at 14.5 °C (PF = 3.89-fold), presenting more recoveries at the top phase with shorter TLL and lower concentrations of PEG and potassium phosphate. Moreover, the increase of these variables repressed the purification and the further addition of NaCl did not promote the purification of the enzyme. These results demonstrated the efficiency of the aqueous two-phase system on lipase purification.
Keywords: Aqueous two-phase system; Lipase; Enzymes; Purification; PEG

Directed Evolution of a Thermophilic β-glucosidase for Cellulosic Bioethanol Production by Elizabeth Hardiman; Moreland Gibbs; Rosalind Reeves; Peter Bergquist (301-312).
Characteristics that would make enzymes more desirable for industrial applications can be improved using directed evolution. We developed a directed evolution technique called random drift mutagenesis (RNDM). Mutant populations are screened and all functional mutants are collected and put forward into the next round of mutagenesis and screening. The goal of this technique is to evolve enzymes by rapidly accumulating mutations and exploring a greater sequence space by providing minimal selection pressure and high-throughput screening. The target enzyme was a β-glucosidase isolated from the thermophilic bacterium, Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus that cleaves cellobiose resulting from endoglucanase hydrolysis of cellulose. Our screening method was fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), an attractive method for assaying mutant enzyme libraries because individual cells can be screened, sorted into distinct populations and collected very rapidly. However, FACS screening poses several challenges, in particular, maintaining the link between genotype and phenotype because most enzyme substrates do not remain associated with the cells. We employed a technique where whole cells were encapsulated in cell-like structures along with the enzyme substrate. We used RNDM, in combination with whole cell encapsulation, to create and screen mutant β-glucosidase libraries. A mutant was isolated that, compared to the wild type, had higher specific and catalytic efficiencies (k cat/K M) with p-nitrophenol-glucopyranoside and -galactopyranoside, an increased catalytic turnover rate (k cat) with cellobiose, an improvement in catalytic efficiency with lactose and reduced inhibition (K i) with galactose and lactose. This mutant had three amino acid substitutions and one was located near the active site.
Keywords: β-glucosidase; Directed evolution; Random drift mutagenesis; In vitro compartmentalisation; Fluorescence-activated cell sorting

Determination of Product Inhibition of CBH1, CBH2, and EG1 Using a Novel Cellulase Activity Assay by Faye Du; Erin Wolger; Louise Wallace; Amy Liu; Thijs Kaper; Brad Kelemen (313-317).
The hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass by degrading enzymes (cellulases) has emerged as a promising process within the bio-ethanol industry. Yet, understanding all the intricacies of how these enzymes work has been a challenging task. Substrate–enzyme interaction in complex feed mixtures, the recalcitrance of the crystalline structure of cellulose and enzyme inactivation by product inhibition, nonproductive binding to lignin, and process stress are only some of the problems standing in the way of creating an effective and efficient process to bio-ethanol production. This study focuses on the product inhibition of cellobiohydrolases and endoglucanases. Here, we present a method of studying product inhibition by measuring the decrease in substrate, utilizing the fluorescent properties of a calcofluor dye.
Keywords: Calcofluor cellulase assay; Product inhibition

Production of Ethanol and Feed by High Dry Matter Hydrolysis and Fermentation of Palm Kernel Press Cake by Henning Jørgensen; Anand R. Sanadi; Claus Felby; Niels Erik Krebs Lange; Morten Fischer; Steffen Ernst (318-332).
Palm kernel press cake (PKC) is a residue from palm oil extraction presently only used as a low protein feed supplement. PKC contains 50% fermentable hexose sugars present in the form of glucan and mainly galactomannan. This makes PKC an interesting feedstock for processing into bioethanol or in other biorefinery processes. Using a combination of mannanase, β-mannosidase, and cellulases, it was possible without any pretreatment to hydrolyze PKC at solid concentrations of 35% dry matter with mannose yields up to 88% of theoretical. Fermentation was tested using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in both a separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) setup. The hydrolysates could readily be fermented without addition of nutrients and with average fermentation yields of 0.43 ± 0.02 g/g based on consumed mannose and glucose. Employing SSF, final ethanol concentrations of 70 g/kg was achieved in 216 h, corresponding to an ethanol yield of 70% of theoretical or 200 g ethanol/kg PKC. Testing various enzyme mixtures revealed that including cellulases in combination with mannanases significantly improved ethanol yields. Processing PKC to ethanol resulted in a solid residue enriched in protein from 17% to 28%, a 70% increase, thereby potentially making a high-protein containing feed supplement.
Keywords: Bioethanol; Cellulase; Galactomannan; Mannanase; Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Screening and Production Study of Microbial Xylanase Producers from Brazilian Cerrado by Heloiza Ferreira Alves-Prado; Fabiana Carina Pavezzi; Rodrigo Simões Ribeiro Leite; Valéria Maia de Oliveira; Lara Durães Sette; Roberto DaSilva (333-346).
Hemicelluloses are polysaccharides of low molecular weight containing 100 to 200 glycosidic residues. In plants, the xylans or the hemicelluloses are situated between the lignin and the collection of cellulose fibers underneath. The xylan is the most common hemicellulosic polysaccharide in cell walls of land plants, comprising a backbone of xylose residues linked by β-1,4-glycosidic bonds. So, xylanolytic enzymes from microorganism have attracted a great deal of attention in the last decade, particularly because of their biotechnological characteristics in various industrial processes, related to food, feed, ethanol, pulp, and paper industries. A microbial screening of xylanase producer was carried out in Brazilian Cerrado area in Selviria city, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. About 50 bacterial strains and 15 fungal strains were isolated from soil sample at 35 °C. Between these isolated microorganisms, a bacterium Lysinibacillus sp. and a fungus Neosartorya spinosa as good xylanase producers were identified. Based on identification processes, Lysinibacillus sp. is a new species and the xylanase production by this bacterial genus was not reported yet. Similarly, it has not reported about xylanase production from N. spinosa. The bacterial strain P5B1 identified as Lysinibacillus sp. was cultivated on submerged fermentation using as substrate xylan, wheat bran, corn straw, corncob, and sugar cane bagasse. Corn straw and wheat bran show a good xylanase activity after 72 h of fermentation. A fungus identified as N. spinosa (strain P2D16) was cultivated on solid-state fermentation using as substrate source wheat bran, wheat bran plus sawdust, corn straw, corncob, cassava bran, and sugar cane bagasse. Wheat bran and corncobs show the better xylanase production after 72 h of fermentation. Both crude xylanases were characterized and a bacterial xylanase shows optimum pH for enzyme activity at 6.0, whereas a fungal xylanase has optimum pH at 5.0–5.5. They were stable in the pH range 5.0–10.0 and 5.5–8.5 for bacterial and fungal xylanase, respectively. The optimum temperatures were 55C and 60 °C for bacterial and fungal xylanase, respectively, and they were thermally stable up to 50 °C.
Keywords: Microbial enzyme; Xylanase; Brazilian cerrado; Lysinibacillus sp.; Neosartorya spinosa

Conversion of lignocellulosic substrates is limited by several factors, in terms of both the enzymes and the substrates. Better understanding of the hydrolysis mechanisms and the factors determining their performance is crucial for commercial lignocelluloses-based processes. Enzymes produced on various carbon sources (Solka Floc 200, lactose and steam-pre-treated corn stover) by Trichoderma reesei Rut C30 were characterised by their enzyme profile and hydrolytic performance. The results showed that there was a clear correlation between the secreted amount of xylanase and mannanase enzymes and that their production was induced by the presence of xylan in the carbon source. Co-secretion of α-arabinosidase and α-galactosidase was also observed. Secretion of β-glucosidase was found to be clearly dependent on the composition of the carbon source, and in the case of lactose, 2-fold higher specific activity was observed compared to Solka Floc and steam-pre-treated corn stover. Hydrolysis experiments showed a clear connection between glucan and xylan conversion and highlighted the importance of β-glucosidase and xylanase activities. When hydrolysis was performed using additional purified β-glucosidase and xylanase, the addition of β-glucosidase was found to significantly improve both the xylan and glucan conversion.
Keywords: Trichoderma reesei Rut C30; Cellulase fermentation; Enzymatic hydrolysis; Accessory enzymes; Hemicellulases; β-Glucosidase

In this study, transesterification and esterification were investigated in batch and continuous process using immobilized Candida rugosa and Rhizopus oryzae lipases. In the case of batch process, stepwise reaction method was investigated to prevent the lipase deactivation. Reaction conditions were as follows: temperature, 45 °C; agitation speed, 250 rpm; enzyme concentration, 20%; and water contents 10%. And then, conversion yield was 98.33% at 4 h. In the case of continuous process, circulation and long-term continuous system were investigated for development of efficient mass transfer system. Optimal reaction conditions were as follows: temperature, 45 °C; flow rate, 0.8 mL/min; and water contents, 10%. And then, conversion yield of biodiesel was 97.98% at 3 h. Especially, the maximum conversion yield using a mixture of immobilized lipases exceeded over 90% for 108 h in long-term continuous system under optimal reaction conditions (45 °C; flow rate, 0.8 mL/min; and water contents, 10%). These results should help in determining the best method for the biodiesel production and improving the design and operation of large scale by enzymatic systems.
Keywords: Transesterification; Esterification; Circulation process; Long-term continuous process; Packed-bed reactor

Packed-Bed Reactor Running on Babassu Oil and Glycerol to Produce Monoglycerides by Enzymatic Route using Immobilized Burkholderia cepacia Lipase by Larissa de Freitas; Julio C. dos Santos; Gisella Maria Zanin; Heizir F. de Castro (372-381).
The aim of this study was the glycerolysis of babassu oil catalyzed by immobilized lipase from Burkholderia cepacia, in a continuous packed-bed reactor. The best reaction conditions were previously established in batchwise via response surface methodology as a function of glycerol-to-oil molar ratio and reaction temperature. The reactor operated continuously for 22 days at 50 °C, and during the first 6 days, no significant decrease on the initial lipase activity was observed. Monoglycerides concentration was in the range from 25 to 33 wt.%. Subsequently, a progressive decrease in the activity was detected, and an inactivation profile described by Arrhenius model estimated values of 50 days and 1.37 × 10−2 h−1, for the half-life and deactivation coefficient, respectively.
Keywords: Continuous packed reactor; Glycerolysis; Lipase; Monoglycerides; Babassu oil; Operational stability; Response surface methodology

Paper mill sludge is a solid waste material generated from pulping and papermaking operations. Because of high glucan content and its well-dispersed structure, paper mill sludges are well suited for bioconversion into value-added products. It also has high ash content originated from inorganic additives used in papermaking, which causes hindrance to bioconversion. In this study, paper mill sludges from Kraft process were de-ashed by a centrifugal cleaner and successive treatment by sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide, and used as a substrate for cellulase production. The treated sludge was the only carbon source for cellulase production, and predominantly inorganic nutrients were used as the nitrogen source for this bioprocess. The cellulase enzyme produced from the de-ashed sludge exhibited cellulase activity of 8 filter paper unit (FPU)/mL, close to that obtainable from pure cellulosic substrates. The yield of cellulase enzyme was 307 FPU/g glucan of de-ashed sludge. Specific activity was 8.0 FPU/mg protein. In activity tests conducted against the corn stover and α-cellulose, the xylanse activity was found to be higher than that of a commercial cellulase. Relatively high xylan content in the sludge appears to have induced high xylanase production. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) was performed using partially de-ashed sludge as the feedstock for ethanol production using Sacharomyces cerevisiae and the cellulase produced in-house from the sludge. With 6% (w/v) glucan feed, ethanol yield of 72% of theoretical maximum and 24.4 g/L ethanol concentration were achieved. These results were identical to those of the SSF using commercial cellulases.
Keywords: Cellulase production; Lignocellulosic substrates; Paper mill sludge; Ethanol production

β-d-Xylosidase/α-l-arabinofuranosidase from Selenomonas ruminantium is the most active enzyme known for catalyzing hydrolysis of 1,4-β-d-xylooligosaccharides to d-xylose. Catalysis and inhibitor binding by the GH43 β-xylosidase are governed by the protonation states of catalytic base (D14, pK a 5.0) and catalytic acid (E186, pK a 7.2). Biphasic inhibition by triethanolamine of E186A preparations reveals minor contamination by wild-type-like enzyme, the contaminant likely originating from translational misreading. Titration of E186A preparations with triethanolamine allows resolution of binding and kinetic parameters of the E186A mutant from those of the contaminant. The E186A mutation abolishes the pK a assigned to E186; mutant enzyme binds only the neutral aminoalcohol $$ left( {{ ext{pH}} - { ext{independent}};K_{ ext{i}}^{ ext{triethanolamine}} = 19,{ ext{mM}}} ight) $$ , whereas wild-type enzyme binds only the cationic aminoalcohol $$ left( {{ ext{pH}} - { ext{independent}};K_{ ext{i}}^{ ext{triethanolamine}} = 0.065,{ ext{mM}}} ight) $$ . At pH 7.0 and 25°C, relative kinetic parameter, $$ k_{ ext{cat}}^{ ext{4NPX}}/k_{ ext{cat}}^{ ext{4NPA}} $$ , for substrates 4-nitrophenyl-β-d-xylopyranoside (4NPX) and 4-nitrophenyl-α-l-arabinofuranoside (4NPA) of E186A is 100-fold that of wild-type enzyme, consistent with the view that, on the enzyme, protonation is of greater importance to the transition state of 4NPA whereas ring deformation dominates the transition state of 4NPX.
Keywords: Fuel ethanol; Glycoside hydrolase; GH43; pH dependence; Relative substrate specificity

Nitrogen Source Optimization for Cellulase Production by Penicillium funiculosum, using a Sequential Experimental Design Methodology and the Desirability Function by Roberto Nobuyuki Maeda; Mariana Mello Pereira da Silva; Lídia Maria Melo Santa Anna; Nei Pereira Jr. (411-422).
The present study aimed at maximizing cellulase production by Penicillium funiculosum using sequential experimental design methodology for optimizing the concentrations of nitrogen sources. Three sequential experimental designs were performed. The first and the second series of experiments consisted of a 24 and a 23 factorial designs, respectively, and in the third one, a central composite rotational design was used for better visualizing the optimum conditions. The following nitrogen sources were evaluated: urea, ammonium sulfate, peptone, and yeast extract. Peptone and ammonium sulfate were removed from the medium optimization since they did not present significant statistical effect on cellulase production. The optimal concentrations of urea and yeast extract predicted by the model were 0.97 and 0.36 g/L, respectively, which were validated experimentally. By the use of the desirability function, it was possible to maximize the three main enzyme activities simultaneously, which resulted in values for FPase of 227 U/L, for CMCase of 6,917 U/L, and for β-glucosidase of 1,375 U/L. These values corresponded to increases of 3.3-, 3.2-, and 6.7-folds, respectively, when compared to those obtained in the first experimental design. The results showed that the use of sequential experimental designs associated to the use of the desirability function can be used satisfactorily to maximize cellulase production by P. funiculosum.
Keywords: Cellulase; Sugar cane bagasse; Penicillium funiculosum ; Response surface methodology; Nitrogen sources

Ethanol Production from the Organic Fraction Obtained After Thermal Pretreatment of Municipal Solid Waste by Mercedes Ballesteros; Felicia Sáez; Ignacio Ballesteros; Paloma Manzanares; Maria Jose Negro; Jose Maria Martínez; Rafael Castañeda; Jose Miguel Oliva Dominguez (423-431).
In this work, the use of organic fraction from municipal solid waste (MSW) as substrate for ethanol production based on enzymatic hydrolysis was evaluated. MSW was subjected to a thermal pretreatment (active hygienization) at 160 °C from 5 to 50 min. The organic fiber obtained after 30 min was used as substrate in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) and fed-batch SSF process using cellulases and amylases. In a fed-batch mode with 25% (w/w) substrate loading, final ethanol concentration of 30 g/L was achieved (60% of theoretical). In these conditions, more than 160 L of ethanol per ton of dry matter could be produced from the organic fraction of MSW.
Keywords: Municipal solid waste; Thermal pretreatment; Second generation bioethanol; Enzymatic hydrolysis; Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation; Fed-batch SSF

One near-term option to developing a forest product biorefinery is to derive pre-pulping extract from incoming wood chips before the main pulping step. The release of monomer sugars from a xylan-rich extract, creating a fermentable substrate is a prerequisite for utilization of pre-pulping extract for production of ethanol or other value-added products. This study examined the individual and mixture efficiencies of two hemicellulolytic microbial enzymes and two xylanase preparations in catalyzing degradation of green liquor (GL) and hot water (HW) pre-pulping extracts. The effects of four commercial enzyme preparations were determined by assessing yields of xylose + galactose + mannose (xmg) obtained under different reaction conditions. Of the individual enzyme preparations tested, a sample NS 50012 was superior to the other enzyme preparations in releasing xmg under conditions optimized for separate hydrolysis and fermentation and for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. In comparison to pre-pulping extracts treated with HW, extract treated with GL was found to inhibit the action of all tested enzymes. This inhibition may be related to higher salt and lignin phenol in the GL extract. On both types of extracts, the mixture constituted by NS 50012 and NS 50030 provided the highest yield of hemicellulose conversion at 55 °C and pH 5.5. The generated digestibility thus signified that the synergistic effectiveness in xylan + galactan + mannan (XMG) hydrolysis between NS 50012 (from Aspergillus aculeatus) and NS 50030 (from Aspergillus oryzae) is the result of an interaction mechanism involving different XMG-degrading enzyme activities in the two enzyme preparations.
Keywords: Green liquor; Pre-pulping extraction; Enzymatic hydrolysis; Hemicellulolytic enzyme; Xylanase

Production of Cellulolytic Enzymes by Fungi Acrophialophora nainiana and Ceratocystis paradoxa Using Different Carbon Sources by Rodrigo R. O. Barros; Raul A. Oliveira; Leda Maria F. Gottschalk; Elba P. S. Bon (448-454).
Although a number of filamentous fungi, such as Trichoderma and Aspergillus, are well known as producers of cellulases, xylanases, and accessory cellulolytic enzymes, the search for new strains and new enzymes has become a priority with the increase in diversity of biomass sources. Moreover, according to the type of pretreatment applied, biomass of the same type may require different enzyme blends to be efficiently hydrolyzed. This study evaluated cellulases, xylanases, and β-glucosidases produced by two fungi, the thermotolerant Acrophialophora nainiana and Ceratocystis paradoxa. Cells were grown in submerged culture on three carbon sources: lactose, wheat bran, or steam-pretreated sugarcane bagasse, a commonly used cattle feed in Brazil. Xylanase and endo-1-4-β-glucanase (CMCase) highest production were found in A. nainiana growing on lactose and reached levels of 2,200 and 2,016 IU/L, respectively. C. paradoxa showed highest activity for xylanase when grown on wheat bran and for β-glucosidase when grown on steam-treated bagasse, at levels of 12,728 and 1,068 IU/mL, respectively.
Keywords: Acrophialophora nainiana ; Ceratocystis paradoxa ; Thermotolerant fungi; Cellulases; Xylanase; β-glucosidases; Enzyme production

Immobilization and Stabilization of Xylanase by Multipoint Covalent Attachment on Agarose and on Chitosan Supports by Anny Manrich; Andrea Komesu; Wellington Sabino Adriano; Paulo Waldir Tardioli; Raquel Lima Camargo Giordano (455-467).
Xylanases have important applications in industry. Immobilization and stabilization of enzymes may allow their reuse in many cycles of the reaction, decreasing the process costs. This work proposes the use of a rational approach to obtain immobilized commercial xylanase biocatalysts with optimized features. Xylanase NS50014 from Novozymes was characterized and immobilized on glyoxyl-agarose, agarose-glutaraldehyde, and agarose-amino-epoxy support and on differently activated chitosan supports: glutaraldehyde-chitosan, glyoxyl-chitosan, and epoxy-chitosan. Two different chitosan matrices were tested. The best chitosan derivative was epoxy-chitosan-xylanase, which presented 100% of immobilization yield and 64% of recovered activity. No significant increase on the thermal stability was observed for all the chitosan-enzyme derivatives. Immobilization on glyoxyl-agarose showed low yield immobilization and stabilization degrees of the obtained derivative. The low concentration of lysine groups in the enzyme molecule could explain these poor results. The protein was then chemically modified with ethylenediamine and immobilized on glyoxyl-agarose. The new enzyme derivatives were 40-fold more stable than the soluble, aminated, and dialyzed enzyme (70 °C, pH 7), with 100% of immobilization yield. Therefore, the increase of the number of amine groups in the enzyme surface was confirmed to be a good strategy to improve the properties of immobilized xylanase.
Keywords: Xylanases; Multipoint immobilization; Stabilization; Amination; Chitosan; Agarose

The cellulose hydrolysis kinetics during batch enzymatic saccharification are typified by a rapid initial rate that subsequently decays, resulting in incomplete conversion. Previous studies suggest that changes associated with the solution, substrate, or enzymes may be responsible. In this work, kinetic experiments were conducted to determine the relative magnitude of these effects. Pretreated corn stover (PCS) was used as a lignocellulosic substrate likely to be found in a commercial saccharification process, while Avicel and Kraft lignin were used to create model substrates. Glucose inhibition was observed by spiking the reaction slurry with glucose during initial-rate experiments. Increasing the glucose concentration from 7 to 48 g/L reduced the cellulose conversion rate by 94%. When product sugars were removed using ultrafiltration with a 10 kDa membrane, the glucose-based conversion increased by 9.5%. Reductions in substrate reactivity with conversion were compared directly by saccharifying PCS and Avicel substrates that had been pre-reacted to different conversions. Reaction of substrate with a pre-conversion of 40% resulted in about 40% reduction in the initial rate of saccharification, relative to fresh substrate with identical cellulose concentration. Overall, glucose inhibition and reduced substrate reactivity appear to be dominant factors, whereas minimal reductions of enzyme activity were observed.
Keywords: Saccharification; Cellulase; Kinetics; Inhibition; Cellulose; Corn stover; Membrane

Marine Diatom, Navicula sp. Strain JPCC DA0580 and Marine Green Alga, Chlorella sp. Strain NKG400014 as Potential Sources for Biodiesel Production by Mitsufumi Matsumoto; Hiroshi Sugiyama; Yoshiaki Maeda; Reiko Sato; Tsuyoshi Tanaka; Tadashi Matsunaga (483-490).
Marine diatom, strain JPCC DA0580, and marine green microalga strain NKG400014 were selected as high neutral lipid-producers from marine microalgal culture collection toward biodiesel production. These strains were tentatively identified as Navicula sp. and Chlorella sp., respectively, by 18S rDNA analysis. Growth and lipid accumulation conditions of both strains were analyzed by changing nutrient concentrations in growth media and initial illuminance intensity. The highest productivity of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) reached to 154 mg/L/week for NKG400014 and 185 mg/L/week for JPCC DA0580. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis indicates that FAME fraction from NKG400014 mainly contained 9-12-15-octadecatrienoate (C18:3) and that from JPCC DA0580 mainly contained methyl palmitate (C16:0) and methyl palmitoleate (C16:1). Furthermore, calorimetric analysis revealed that the energy content of strain was 4,233 ± 55 kcal/kg (i.e., 15.9 ± 0.2 MJ/kg) for NKG400014 and 6,423 ± 139 kcal/mg (i.e., 26.9 ± 0.6 MJ/kg) for JPCC DA0580, respectively. The value from JPCC DA0580 was equivalent to that of coal. The strains NKG400014 and JPCC DA0580 will become a promising resource that can grow as dominant species in the open ocean toward production of both liquid and solid biofuels.
Keywords: Biodiesel; Triglyceride; Fatty acid methyl ester; Microalgae; Calorimetry

Microbial Fed-batch Production of 1,3-Propanediol Using Raw Glycerol with Suspended and Immobilized Klebsiella pneumoniae by Sun-Ae Jun; Chuloo Moon; Cheol-Hee Kang; Sean W. Kong; Byoung-In Sang; Youngsoon Um (491-501).
The production of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) was investigated with Klebsiella pneumoniae DSM 4799 using raw glycerol without purification obtained from a biodiesel production process. Fed-batch cultures with suspended cells revealed that 1,3-PD production was more effective when utilizing raw glycerol than pure glycerol (productivity after 47 h of fermentation, 0.84 g L−1 h−1 versus 1.51 g L−1 h−1 with pure and raw glycerol, respectively). In addition, more than 80 g/L of 1,3-PD was produced using raw glycerol; this is the highest 1,3-PD concentration reported thus far for K. pneumoniae using raw glycerol. Repeated fed-batch fermentation with cell immobilization in a fixed-bed reactor was performed to enhance 1,3-PD production. Production of 1,3-PD increased with the cycle number (1.06 g L−1 h−1 versus 1.61 g L−1 h−1 at the first and fourth cycle, respectively) due to successful cell immobilization. During 46 cycles of fed-batch fermentation taking place over 1,460 h, a stable and reproducible 1,3-PD production performance was observed with both pure and raw glycerol. Based on our results, repeated fed batch with immobilized cells is an efficient fermentor configuration, and raw glycerol can be utilized to produce 1,3-PD without inhibitory effects caused by accumulated impurities.
Keywords: 1,3-Propanediol; Glycerol; Immobilization; Klebsiella pneumonia; Fed-batch

Effect of Biodiesel-derived Raw Glycerol on 1,3-Propanediol Production by Different Microorganisms by Chuloo Moon; Jae-Hyeong Ahn; Seung W. Kim; Byoung-In Sang; Youngsoon Um (502-510).
The microbial production of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) from raw glycerol, a byproduct of biodiesel production, is economically and environmentally advantageous. Although direct use of raw glycerol without any pretreatment is desirable, previous studies have reported that this could cause inhibition of microbial growth. In this study, we investigated the effects of raw glycerol type, different microorganisms, and pretreatment of raw glycerol on the production of 1,3-PD. Raw glycerol from waste vegetable-oil-based biodiesel production generally caused more inhibition of 1,3-PD production and microbial growth compared to raw glycerol from soybean-oil-based biodiesel production. In addition, two raw glycerol types produced from two biodiesel manufacturers using waste vegetable oil exhibited different 1,3-PD production behavior, partially due to different amounts of methanol included in the raw glycerol from the two biodiesel manufacturers. Klebsiella strains were generally resistant to all types of raw glycerol while the growth of Clostridium strains was variably inhibited depending on the type of raw glycerol. The 1,3-PD production of the Clostridium strains using acid-pretreated raw glycerol was significantly enhanced compared to that with raw glycerol, demonstrating the feasibility of using raw glycerol for 1,3-PD production by various microorganisms.
Keywords: Raw glycerol; 1,3-Propanediol; Fermentation; Pretreatment

Algal growth requires optimal irradiance. In photobioreactors, optimal light requirements change during the growth cycle. At low culture densities, a high incident light intensity can cause photoinhibition, and in dense algal cultures, light penetration may be limited. Insufficient light supply in concentrated algae suspensions can create zones of dissimilar photon flux density inside the reactor, which can cause suboptimal algal growth. However, growth of dense cultures can also be impaired due to photoinhibition if cells are exposed to excessively high light intensities. In order to simultaneously maintain optimal growth and photon use efficiency, strategies for light supply must be based on cell concentrations in the culture. In this study, a lipid-producing microalgal strain, Neochloris oleoabundans, was grown in batch photobioreactors. Growth rates and biomass concentrations of cultures exposed to constant light were measured and compared with the growth kinetic parameters of cultures grown using sequentially increasing light intensities based on increasing culture densities during batch growth. Our results show that reactors operated under conditions of sequential increase in irradiance levels yield up to a 2-fold higher biomass concentration when compared with reactors grown under constant light without negatively impacting growth rates. In addition, this tailored light supply results in less overall photon use per unit mass of generated cells.
Keywords: Sequential change in light; Algal growth; Neochloris oleoabundans ; Batch culture; Photobioreactor; Algae biofuels

Chlorella minutissima—A Promising Fuel Alga for Cultivation in Municipal Wastewaters by Ashish Bhatnagar; Monica Bhatnagar; Senthil Chinnasamy; K. C. Das (523-536).
It is imperative to slash the cost of algal oil to less than $50 bbl−1 for successful algal biofuel production. Use of municipal wastewater for algal cultivation could obviate the need for freshwater and the nutrients—N and P. It would also add CO2 through bacterial activity. Chlorella minutissima Fott et Nova dominated the entire phycoflora year around and through each stage of the wastewater treatment at the oxidation pond system of Wazirabad (Delhi) in India. The ability to grow so profusely in such varied and contrasting situations made this alga unique. Besides pollution tolerance, it grew heterotrophically in dark under acidic conditions and as a mixotroph in presence of light over a range of organic C substrates. It could utilize both ammoniacal and nitrate nitrogen, survived anaerobicity, 5% NaCl and −10 bar of osmotic stress. C. minutissima grew at pH 4–11 and raised the pH set initially by 1 to 3 units in 7.5 h. It showed gigantism and largely kept afloat in presence of utilizable organic carbon, while flocculated in mineral medium and on aging. The alga also possessed potential for biofuel production. The studied parameters indicate why C. minutissima was a potential biomass builder in municipal sewage and could be used to determine which other alga(e) may serve the purpose.
Keywords: Anaerobiosis; Biofuel; Chlorella minutissima ; Mixotrophy; Wastewater