Optoelectronics, Instrumentation and Data Processing (v.51, #1)

Controlling the energy of colliding electron-positron beams on the VEPP-2000 accelerator complex by D. E. Berkaev; P. Yu. Shatunov; D. B. Shvarts; Yu. A. Rogovskii; A. I. Senchenko; I. M. Zemlyanskii; A. S. Kasaev; A. L. Romanov; A. N. Kirpotin; A. P. Lysenko; E. A. Perevedentsev; I. A. Koop; V. R. Kozak; K. V. Gorchakov; V. F. Veremeenko; O. V. Belikov; Yu. M. Shatunov (1-7).
The issues of control automation of the VEPP-2000 electron-positron complex (a new, large physical facility developed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk and constructed and put into operation in Russia in the 20th century) are considered on the example of one of the main procedures for achieving the design parameters of a physical facility — changing the energy of accumulated and colliding beams. An approach to developing the automation system of a large physical facility is proposed, and the key points of construction of the architecture of this system as a whole and its individual subsystems are discussed.
Keywords: collider; automation; control system; acceleration complex; energy; round beams

Hardware widely used for design of control systems for electrophysical facilities is described. These devices are low-level automation background of facilities developed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences and at other research centers. Requirements to this hardware are discussed. Specific features of circuit engineering and functional capabilities are described. Some real applications of the developed hardware are considered.
Keywords: control system; accelerator; automation; controller; CANbus

The LIA-2 radiographic complex created on the basis of a linear induction accelerator is a complex electrophysical facility with a large number of control objects. The nature of experiments performed with this complex requires its high reliability. The facility elements are powerful pulse highvoltage devices whose parameters can vary during operation. A system that automatically detects errors and failures by analyzing an ensemble of waveforms characterizing the operation of individual elements of the facility during tests is described. The analysis system is designed on the basis of the HDF5, Numpy, Scipy, Pytables, and Matplotlib software. The results of processing of the first experimental data are given.
Keywords: induction accelerator; data analysis; data processing system

Architecture of the system of registration and triggering of the CMD-3 detector by V. M. Aulchenko; D. A. Epifanov; A. N. Kozyrev; I. B. Logashenko; A. S. Popov; A. A. Ruban; A. N. Selivanov; A. A. Talyshev; V. M. Titov; Yu. V. Yudin; L. B. Epshteyn (24-30).
A specialized data acquisition system is developed, designed, and fabricated at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences for conducting precision experiments with a CMD-3 detector of the VEPP-2000 electron-positron collider. The structure of electronic hardware is described.
Keywords: high-energy physics; detectors; data acquisition systems; signal processing

Structure and algorithm of electronics of a multichannel crystal calorimeter for a high-rate trigger by V. M. Aulchenko; V. N. Zhilich; V. V. Zhulanov; A. S. Kuzmin; D. V. Matvienko; K. Mibayashi; I. Nakamura; Yu. V. Usov; B. G. Cheon; B. A. Shwartz; V. E. Shebalin (31-38).
An algorithm for computing the amplitudes and timing signals with continuous sampling in a multichannel calorimeter for high-energy physics is proposed. The structure of the developed hardware for implementation of this algorithm and the results of testing of production samples of electronic modules are presented.
Keywords: high-energy physics; detectors; calorimeters; data acquisition systems

Upgrading of the synchrotron radiation beam stabilization system of the VEPP-3 storage ring by M. G. Fedotov; A. N. Aleshaev; S. I. Mishnev; A. F. Rovenskikh; A. N. Selivanov; P. A. Selivanov (39-44).
The basic components of a new system of stabilization of synchrotron radiation beams of the VEPP-3 storage ring are developed and tested. This system will ensure the beam position measurement and its stabilization not only over the vertical but also over the horizontal angle and coordinate. It will be also possible to use this system in parallel to the previously developed stabilization system, which registers only the vertical components.
Keywords: synchrotron radiation; x-ray radiation; stabilization; data acquisition system

Automated system for setting the seam coordinates in electron-beam welding facilities by E. A. Kuper; P. V. Logachev; V. V. Repkov; A. N. Selivanov; P. A. Selivanov; Yu. I. Semenov; A. G. Tribendis; M. G. Fedotov; A. S. Chertovskikh (45-50).
Several facilities for electron-beam welding have been developed and fabricated at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences. A prototype of the system designed for accurate determination of the welded seam position before the welding process and aiming of the electron beam during the welding process is described. For this purpose, the difference in scattering of electrons (and formation of secondary electrons) by the seam and by the surface of the welded workpiece is used, which allows recording the seam image by scanning with a low-current beam. A block diagram of the prototype and basic algorithms of its operation (both tested and proposed for the future) is given. Results of testing and trial operation of the first prototype of the electron-beam welding facility are considered.
Keywords: electron-beam welding; visualization; scattered electrons; secondary electrons

Precision digital signal integrators with accurate synchronization by A. M. Batrakov; I. V. Il’yin; A. V. Pavlenko (51-57).
This paper presents the VsDC2 and VsDC3 multifunctional integrators developed at the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences for measurements of both constant and pulsed magnetic fields. These integrators are based on the digital integration method which provides an error smaller than 10−5 for a wide class of measurements. The method used in the developed devices allows accurate synchronization of an integration interval with pulsed signals, while the ADC used in the measuring channel is clocked by an asynchronous and low clock frequency. The theoretical aspects of the proposed solutions are considered and compared with known methods of constructing digital integrators. The circuitry of these devices is briefly described, and the main characteristics are given.
Keywords: digital integrators; precision measurements; synchronization; magnetic field; ADC

A precision magnetometer based on pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is described. This magnetometer measures constant magnetic fields with an absolute error not more than 10−6 and a resolution of up to 10−7. The use of modern digital technologies, such as FPGA, made it possible to significantly accelerate and optimize NMR signals. The magnetometer structure is and the signal processing methods are described, measurement errors are analyzed, and experimental data are presented.
Keywords: NMR magnetometer; FPGA; NMR sensor; magnetic fields; digital signal processing

Microdose X-ray imaging systems of the budker institute of nuclear physics and the fields of their optimal use by E. A. Babichev; S. E. Baru; V. V. Leonov; V. V. Porosev; G. A. Savinov (64-71).
Problems related to X-ray imaging with minimum radiation doses are described, a method for constructing systems for X-ray imaging of people at these doses is proposed, the main components of these systems are briefly described, and their optimal applications in medicine and security systems are characterized.
Keywords: x-ray detectors; radiation doses; X-ray scanners; inspection systems; medical x-ray imaging

A fast meter of the phase difference of two arbitrarily shaped signals at a frequency of 0.2 to 6 MHz is proposed. The device allows measuring the phase difference for the first harmonic with an error of not more than 1° within ∼20 μs. The signal frequency and amplitude may vary at a speed of up to 20 MHz/s and 40 dB/sec, respectively. Basic signal processing and phase calculation are implemented digitally in a field programmable gate array. The electronics design features are presented, the signal processing methods are described, and the meter parameters and the results obtained on the physical facility are given.
Keywords: digital signal processing; phase measurement; quadrature detection; synchronous detection

A device for measuring ionization chamber currents in the range from 5·10−15 to 3·10−6 A is presented. The intrinsic noise is analyzed and it shown that its root-mean-square value does not exceed the estimated minimum of 5 fA. The device is designed for experiments with synchrotron radiation, but it can also be used in applications requiring low-current measurements.
Keywords: low-current meter; sigma-delta ADC; ionization chamber

Automated system for controlling the high-voltage power supply of an electron cooling facility by D. N. Skorobogatov; M. N. Kondaurov; V. R. Kozak (81-85).
This paper describes a system for controlling precision high-voltage power supplies at different potentials designed for an electron cooling facility. The issues of architecture choice and reliability during operation at a high potential under conditions of interference and high-voltage discharges are considered. The design structure and hardware and software used in this facility are analyzed.
Keywords: wireless control system; electron cooling facility; controllers; ZigBee standard

Monitoring of the booster parameters for the NSLS-II synchrotron light source by A. A. Derbenev; S. E. Karnaev; E. A. Simonov; P. B. Cheblakov (86-93).
A method for monitoring electron synchrotron parameters is proposed. The adjustment and control of the synchrotron are analyzed. The architecture, operation logic, and software means of the monitoring system are considered. The software of the monitoring system of the booster parameters for the NSLS-II synchrotron light source is described, which was developed on the basis of the EPICS software environment.
Keywords: booster synchrotron; monitoring system; data synchronization; saving/restoring the operation modes

Microfluidic electric generator based on a silicon microchannel membrane by M. A. Parashchenko; N. S. Filippov; V. V. Kirienko (94-102).
This paper is devoted to the development and characterization of a microfluidic electric generator based on a silicon microchannel membrane. The voltage and current produced by the generator and the power dissipated on the load resistance during fluid passage through the membrane for different values of the load resistance were determined in experiments using deionized water. The performance of the device is estimated. The possibility of using silicon membranes as the working element of the microfluidic generator is demonstrated. It is suggested that, based on this device, generators suitable for low-power supply can be manufactured. The device can be used as a sensor element for determining fluid flow rate.
Keywords: macroporous silicon; microchannel membrane; streaming potential; microfluidic system; microfluidic electric generator