Optoelectronics, Instrumentation and Data Processing (v.49, #6)

A method is proposed to solve the joint optimization problem based on system quality criteria for the thermophysical processes of preheating and subsequent plastic deformation of metal semi-finished products in industrial metal working systems with a free choice of the admissible initial temperature states before plastic deformation that integrate these processes in a single process system. Potentials for practical applications of the method is illustrated by the example of a process system for forming pressed articles from aluminum alloys.
Keywords: process system; metal working; induction heating; joint optimization; system quality criteria; optimal control; alternance method; optimal design

Using the Kalman filter in the quadrotor vehicle trajectory tracking system by S. A. Belokon’; Yu. N. Zolotukhin; K. Yu. Kotov; A. S. Mal’tsev; A. A. Nesterov; V. Ya. Pivkin; M. A. Sobolev; M. N. Filippov; A. P. Yan (536-545).
A problem of control of quadrotor vehicle motion over a trajectory defined implicitly in the coordinate space is considered. The previously proposed system of automated control of quadrotor vehicle flight is supplemented with relations based on an extended Kalman filter for estimating the plant state vector and the systematic error of measurements. The workability of the control system in the presence of the measurement noise is verified by results of modeling and experiments with the AR.Drone quadrotor vehicle.
Keywords: AR.Drone quadrotor vehicle; trajectory tracking system; extended Kalman filter

Analytical synthesis of invariant reduced-order state observers by A. Z. Asanov; D. N. Dem’yanov (546-552).
An algorithm for the analytical synthesis of reduced-order observers for dynamic systems with an output matrix of arbitrary form is proposed, and invariance conditions for the constructed observer with respect to external disturbances are formulated. Solvability conditions for the synthesis problem are obtained in the form of a system of linear matrix equations. The proposed algorithm is based on a nondegenerate transformation of the state vector using the matrix canonization technique and methods for solving linear matrix equations of arbitrary dimension.
Keywords: reduced order observer; external disturbances; invariance; canonization of matrices; synthesis algorithm

Control of the carriage-inverted pendulum system based on a signal-adaptive inverse model by V. V. Pankratov; A. A. Tatarnikova; A. B. Tatarnikov (553-560).
In this paper, we consider typical problems of automatic control for systems consisting of a carriage and a one-link inverted pendulum: stabilization of the pendulum in the absence of constraints on the coordinates of the carriage, control of the speed and position of the carriage with the stabilization of the pendulum, and control of the position with the subordinate system of speed control. Control algorithms were synthesized using a signal-adaptive inverse model based on the requirement of the desired distribution of the poles of the linearized zero system with deliberate implementation of three-rate processes. The results of numerical simulation of the synthesized control systems are presented.
Keywords: automatic control; inverted pendulum; signal-adaptive inverse model

Development and identification of a servo model based on experimental data by K. Yu. Kotov; A. S. Mal’tsev; A. A. Nesterov; M. A. Sobolev; M. N. Filippov; A. P. Yan (561-568).
A servo model is developed and its parameters are identified using data obtained on a test bench developed. High accuracy of the proposed model is confirmed experimentally..
Keywords: servo motor; frequency responses; identification; test bench

Two important stages in design of fuzzy approximators, including structure generation and parameter optimization, are considered. Two optimization criteria, i.e., the accuracy measured by the root-mean-square error and the complexity expressed as the number of fuzzy rules, are proposed. The results of studies of the approximators obtained on real data from the KEEL repository are given, and the results are compared with their analogs.
Keywords: fuzzy approximator; structure generation; parameter optimization; metaheuristics

New generation solar telescope of operative predictions by V. S. Peshcherov; V. M. Grigor’ev; P. M. Svidskii; A. N. Bevzov; K. I. Budnikov; S. V. Vlasov; A. A. Zotov; V. N. Kotov; A. K. Kitov; A. A. Lubkov; S. A. Lylov; S. V. Perebeinos (578-584).
The functional and metrological characteristics of a new solar telescope designed to obtain quantitative data on large-scale magnetic fields (LMF) of the Sun are considered. The full automation of measurements, the application of CCD matrices in image scanning and spectra recording systems, and the optical diagram corresponding to the main purpose of the telescope significantly increased the efficiency, quality, and accuracy of measurements of the LMF and expanded the range of tasks in comparison with existing telescopes. The developed automated system of telescope control, measuring system, and software for real-time processing of measurement results make it possible to obtain LMF magnetograms with the required accuracy for about 15 min.
Keywords: telescope; automated control system; measurements of LMF; the Sun; magnetogram

A new approach to distributed control systems (DCS’s) designed for automation of large, functionally complex technological objects with a large volume of input/output channels up to 104 and more is developed and tested. The novelty of the proposed approach is to apply a common information highway for the interaction of all elements of the control system (input/output devices, control computers, workstations, and servers) or peer-to-peer distributed control environment (PDCE). The results are implemented in the Tornado-N DCS and applied in a number of power plants in Russia and abroad. The advantages of control systems with the PDCE architecture in flexibility, scalability, fault-tolerance, and performance over the classical multilevel systems are confirmed in practice.
Keywords: process control system (PCS); real-time peer-to-peer distributed control environment (PDCE); control computer (CC); computer-process interface (CPI); Fast Ethernet; Modbus; ISaGRAF

A module of control of an acousto-optical modulator of laser radiation in a multifrequency mode on the basis of a multichannel synthesizer with direct digital synthesis of frequencies is described. Specific features of system operation during multichannel laser recording with controlled amplitude, phase, and frequency of the channels with automatic calibration of intensity in each channel are considered. Application of the system in a photoplotter for producing photomasks of printed circuit boards makes it possible to increase the resolution of the device and to improve stability and reproducibility of recording.
Keywords: acousto-optical modulator; frequency synthesizer; device for laser recording; multichannel laser photoplotter; direct digital frequency synthesis; calibration of channels

Aperture apodization on regular gratings with variable transmission in the zero diffraction order by A. G. Poleshchuk; A. G. Sedukhin; N. Yu. Nikanorov (598-607).
A new principle of aperture apodization for imaging and transform optical systems with controlled splitting of the output light beam into spatially selected diffraction orders and deflection of all higher orders beyond the operating region is proposed and investigated. Implementation of the principle is based on the use of regular gratings whose transmission coefficient in the useful zero diffraction order changes slowly from cell to cell, and excess light is coupled to higher orders and is screened with a field stop. To test the proposed principle, we designed, experimentally fabricated, and investigated an optical refracting telescope equipped with an apodizing filter with a binary amplitude circular structure and having the intensity of the first spurious diffraction peak of the point spread function 10 times lower than that in the embodiment without filter.
Keywords: apodization; spatial filtering; imaging; diffraction elements; astronomical optics

Photodesorption of molecular nitrogen from the glass surface by S. N. Atutov; N. A. Danilina; S. L. Mikerin; A. I. Plekhanov (608-614).
Results of experiments on photodesorption of molecular nitrogen from the glass surface are presented. The study is performed in vacuum glass cells whose internal surface is illuminated by a powerful pulsed lamp. The dynamics of the nitrogen density in the cell due to photodesorption is studied with the use of a mass spectrometer and a vacuum ionization lamp. A qualitative comparison of experimental data with results predicted by a developed theoretical model is performed.
Keywords: photodesorption; molecular nitrogen; gas sensors; pulsed sources of atoms or molecules

Hilbert diagnostics of phase disturbances of the light field induced by a vortex flow by V. A. Arbuzov; Yu. N. Dubnishchev; V. G. Nechaev; O. N. Novoselova; D. S. Pechkin; V. V. Sotnikov; E. O. Shlapakova (615-621).
Methods of Hilbert filtration of phase disturbances of the light field in the spectral range of source emission are discussed. The evolution of complementary vortex rings induced in an air medium by a pressure pulse on the hole in the combustor wall under various boundary and initial conditions is experimentally studied.
Keywords: optical diagnostics of flows, Hilbert optics, large-scale vortex structures, vortex rings

Two cellular automata models of an artificial biological cell, which can be elements of computing devices that mimic the properties of living organisms (growth, self-reproduction, and self-repair), are presented. The models are based on the parallel substitution algorithm, which is a spatial model for representing fine-grained parallel algorithms and architectures. An artificial biological cell is constructed from a genome applied to the input tape of the cellular automata structure. The result is a model of an artificial biological cell, which contains a phenotype as a set of fixed data and a genotype as a set of mobile data.
Keywords: cellular automata; self-replicating loop; parallel substitution algorithm; artificial biological cell