Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering (v.29, #9)

A study of the palladium size effect on the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from hydrogen and oxygen using highly uniform palladium nanoparticles supported on carbon by Youngjin Ye; Jinyoung Chun; Sunyoung Park; Tae Jin Kim; Young-Min Chung; Seung-Hoon Oh; In Kyu Song; Jinwoo Lee (1115-1118).
Highly monodisperse carbon-supported palladium nanoparticles with controllable size (3 nm, 6.5 nm, 9.5 nm) were prepared using a simple colloidal method, and the size dependence of the catalytic performance for the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide from hydrogen and oxygen was studied. Smaller-sized supported palladium nanoparticles showed both higher conversion of hydrogen and selectivity for hydrogen peroxide, compared to larger-sized supported particles. Among the catalysts tested, 3-nm Pd nanoparticles supported on carbon showed the highest yield for hydrogen peroxide because of the small size and high crystallinity.
Keywords: Direct Synthesis of Hydrogen Peroxide; Hydrogen Peroxide; Palladium; Nanoparticles

TiCl4 hybridization with modified Ni(II) α-diimine catalyst complex for ethylene polymerization by Yong Beom Lee; Seung Hyun Hur; Bijal Kottukkal Bahuleyan; Il Kim; Jin Suk Chung (1119-1122).
A hybrid Ni(II) α-diimine and conventional TiCl4-based Ziegler-Natta catalyst was synthesized to study the effect of hybridization on the properties of the produced polymer. As the Ti/Ni ratio increased, the catalytic activity decreased due to the steric hindrance of the Ni site, but the deactivation was not severe. The molecular weight distribution showed bimodality in the higher Ti/Ni ratio due to the combined effects of the polymerization of low molecular weight polymers from the Ti-based active sites and the increase in polymer molecular weight from the Ni-based active sites. The polydispersity index (PDI) of the produced PE increased as high as 76, which was 22 times higher than that of the PE polymerized by the pure Ni(II) α-diimine catalyst. The melting points of PEs also increased as the Ti/Ni ratio increased due to the contribution of the TiCl4 catalyst.
Keywords: Ni(II) α-Diimine; Ziegler-Natta Catalyst; Ethylene; Polymerization; Hybridization

Estimation of nitrous oxide emissions (GHG) from wastewater treatment plants using closed-loop mass balance and data reconciliation by JungJin Lim; Boddupalli Sankarrao; TaeSeok Oh; MinJung Kim; OnYu Kang; JeongTai Kim; ChangKyoo Yoo (1123-1128).
The amount of greenhouse gases (GHG), especially, nitrous oxide (N2O) emitted from wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) using data reconciliation and closed-loop mass balance was estimated. This study is based on a flowbased emission estimation approach which depends on the accuracy of the measurement data. To reduce the (random) measurement error, data reconciliation was used to enhance the accuracy of the flow measurements. After performing data reconciliation, N2O emission was estimated with more precision by using the closed-loop mass balance. The results in both pilot-scale and full-scale plants show that the suggested method can easily obtain the precise flow measurement for GHG emission, which in turn, results in the accurate estimation of the N2O amounts emitted from WWTP. Moreover, it is shown that the estimated flowrate values can be used as a software sensor, which can replace the faulty sensors and can validate the existing field measurements.
Keywords: Climate Change; Data Reconciliation; Greenhouse Gases (GHG); Mass Balance; Nitrous Oxide Emission; Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP)

This paper presents the results of the cost of energy (COE) analysis of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant with respect to CO2 capture ratio under the climate change scenarios. To obtain process data for a COE analysis, simulation models of IGCC power plants and an IGCC with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) power plant, developed by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), have been adopted and simulated using Aspen Plus. The concept of 20-year levelized cost of energy (LCOE), and the climate change scenarios suggested by International Energy Agency (IEA) are also adopted to compare the COE of IGCC power plants with respect to CO2 capture ratio more realistically. Since previous studies did not consider fuel price and CO2 price changes, the reliability of previous results of LCOE is not good enough to be accepted for an economic comparison of IGCC power plants with respect to CO2 capture ratio. In this study, LCOEs which consider price changes of fuel and CO2 with respect to the climate change scenarios are proposed in order to increase the reliability of an economic comparison. And the results of proposed LCOEs of an IGCC without CCS power plant and IGCC with CCS (30%, 50%, 70% and 90% capture-mole basis- of CO2 in syngas stream) power plants are presented.
Keywords: Cost of Energy Analysis; IGCC; CO2 Capture; Climate Change Scenario; Aspen Plus

Development of a novel self-validating soft sensor by Yiqi Liu; Daoping Huang; Yan Li; Xuefeng Zhu (1135-1143).
A self-validating soft sensor is proposed that not only can perform self-diagnostics and self-reconstruction, but also generate a variety of output data types, including the prediction values, input sensors status of soft sensor and the uncertainty values which represent the credibility of soft sensor’s output. The input sensors are validated before performing a prediction by principal components analysis (PCA) model. These validated data are then employed for subsequent recursive partial least square (RPLS) prediction. Other than input sensor validation and modeling for prediction, a t-statistic confidence interval is created and the status of input sensors is offered. By using this self-validating soft sensor, we can determine the work condition of the soft sensor and take proper actions in real time. The usefulness of the proposed method is demonstrated through a case study of a wastewater treatment process.
Keywords: Self-validating; Soft Sensor; RPLS; Wastewater; Uncertainty

Through proper monitoring, problems can be identified and isolated well before the economics of the process are threatened. In contrast to most conventional methods, fouling can be detected when the heat exchanger operates in transient states. Statistical analysis is used to develop a fouling growth model of a heat exchanger subjected to fouling. The statistical analysis was considered for four different types of distributions out of which the lognormal distribution was found to be most suitable. Experiments were conducted with a single pass shell and tube heat exchanger with water both as the hot and cold fluids. The results show that the proposed tool is very effective in detecting critical fouling in a heat exchanger, which can be utilized for predicting the optimal maintenance schedule. Hence, the results of this work can find application in predicting the reduction in heat transfer efficiency due to fouling in heat exchangers that are in operation and assist the exchanger operators to plan cleaning schedules.
Keywords: Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger; Threshold Fouling; Fouling Resistance; Cumulative Distribution Function; Reliability

CO oxidation over CuO catalysts prepared with different precipitants by Jung-Hyun Park; Jun Hee Cho; Kyung Ho Cho; Tae Woo Lee; Hyun Sik Han; Chae-Ho Shin (1151-1157).
CuO catalysts, prepared by the precipitation method using different precipitants such as ammonium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate and sodium hydrogen carbonate were applied to CO oxidation. Among the catalysts studied, CuO synthesized with sodium hydrogen carbonate showed the highest activity for CO oxidation. With the water vapor present in the feed gas, the catalytic activity decreased considerably due to reduction in the number of active sites by competitive adsorption between water vapor and CO. The H2-TPR and CO-TPD results showed that existing Na+ cations and HCO 3 and CO3/2− anions on the CuO surface could weaken the copper-oxygen bond strength and accelerate the mobility of oxygen on the surface or lattice. Finally, the morphology of the CuO crystals was dependent on the precipitants, and the introduction of Na+ cations and various anions resulted in the formation of smaller crystals.
Keywords: CuO Catalyst; Precipitants; CO Oxidation; H2-TPR; CO-TPD

A simple electrochemical approach is presented to quantitatively predict activation energy and mass transfer coefficient from a polarization curve of polymer electrolyte fuel cells to examine the membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) performance. It is assumed that the initial voltage drop at open circuit voltage is due to kinetic activation energy and that the current loss at short circuit current is due to mass transfer resistance. Accordingly, voltage drop in the activation polarization is converted into a change in the Gibbs free energy to determine the activation energy requirement. The mass transfer coefficient for current losses is derived from Fick’s law, based on the mass transfer limitation of oxygen at the oxygen reduction reaction sites. Case studies from the literature show reasonable correlations to the operating conditions, thereby providing a useful tool for prediction of the preliminary values of the activation energy and mass transfer coefficient for an MEA under various conditions.
Keywords: Activation Energy Loss; Mass Transfer Coefficient; Polarization Curve; Membrane-electrode Assembly (MEA); Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (PEFCs)

A pinch-based approach has been used to calculate optimum values of CO2 capture and storage (CCS) retrofit and compensatory renewable power for the Korean electricity sector. Three cases are proposed. In the first case, KEPCO 2020 power generation forecast data were used to calculate CO2 emissions and a 30% emission reduction target applied. For the second case, nuclear-free KEPCO 2020 forecast was used to calculate emissions along with 30% emissions reduction. In the third case, the emissions reduction target increased from 30% to 54.50% for case-2 scenario, in order to achieve 2005 emissions level. Results show that CCS retrofit and compensatory renewable power for case 3 is 2.6 times higher than case 1 and 1.8 times higher than case 2. According to sensitivity analysis results, CCS retrofit and compensatory renewable power for case 3 is more sensitive to CO2 removal ratio and parasitic energy loss ratio, respectively, as compared to case 1 and case 2.
Keywords: Pinch Analysis; Carbon Capture and Storage; Renewable Power; Electricity Sector Planning

Application of iron-coated zeolites (ICZ) for mine drainage treatment by Chil-Sung Jeon; Sung-Woo Park; Kitae Baek; Jung-Seok Yang; Joon-Gyu Park (1171-1177).
To evaluate iron-coated zeolite (ICZ) for the treatment of mine drainage contaminated arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), a full scale treatment system was installed and operated for nine months. Because it is well known that ICZ can remove As from the water stream, the removal characteristics of cationic metal ions (Cd(II), Cu(II), and Pb(II)) using ICZ were investigated by batch and column experiments before the field test. In the batch test, over 99% of the heavy metal ions were removed by the ICZ within 30 min. The results for the adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherms were fitted well by a pseudo-second-order model and the Langmuir equation, respectively. An affinity analysis showed that the adsorption of heavy metal ions onto ICZ was favorable. In the column experiments, the cadmium breakthrough point was about 50 bed volumes, while the copper breakthrough occurred immediately in the zeolite column. The lead was not detected in any of the columns in the experiments. In the field experiment, the removal efficiency of arsenic onto ICZ was approximately 99% and the removal of heavy metals onto ICZ field-scale experiments was quite lower compared to the results of laboratory experiments. The value of pH in influent and effluent was about 7.0. Based on the results, ICZ is a suitable material to treat the mine drainage or wastewater bearing As(V) and slightly higher concentration of heavy metals simultaneously.
Keywords: Adsorption; Heavy Metal Ions; Iron-coated Zeolite; Arsenic Field Aapplication

Electrochemical degradation of phenol on the La and Ru doped Ti/SnO2-Sb electrodes by Haiqing Xu; Ai-Ping Li; Qi Qi; Wei Jiang; Yue-Ming Sun (1178-1186).
La and Ru doped Ti/SnO2-Sb electrodes were prepared by thermal decomposition and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It confirmed that the surface of the La and Ru doped Ti/SnO2-Sb electrodes presents a certain microspherical structure formed by aggregates of nanoparticles, which increases the specific area greatly and provides more active sites. The enhanced performance of the La and Ru doped electrodes arose from the increased adsorption capacity of hydroxyl radicals. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed an improvement of the electrochemical capacity for the La and Ru doped Ti/SnO2-Sb electrodes. The electrochemical oxidation performance of the prepared electrode was further studied using phenol as a model pollutant. UV scans revealed that both phenol and its intermediate products are more rapidly decomposed, especially in the early stage of oxidation on the La and Ru doped electrodes. The removals of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 86.4% and 82.1% on the Ti/SnO2-Sb-La and Ti/SnO2-Sb-Ru electrodes, respectively, which were higher than that on the SnO2-Sb/Ti electrode (60.1%). The doped electrodes are demonstrated to have superior electrochemical oxidation ability for phenol.
Keywords: Electrochemical Oxidation; Ti/SnO2-Sb-La; Ti/SnO2-Sb-Ru; Phenol Degradation

Preparation and characterizations of activated carbon from kenaf fiber for equilibrium adsorption studies of copper from wastewater by Zaira Zaman Chowdhury; Sharifuddin Mohd. Zain; Rashid Atta Khan; Md. Sakinul Islam (1187-1195).
The potential of activated carbon prepared from kenaf fiber (KF) to remove copper (II) from aqueous effluents was investigated. The fibers were first semi-carbonized, then impregnated with potassium hydroxide (KOH) and finally activated by using carbon dioxide (CO2) gas to produce activated carbon. Pore structure and physical characteristics of the prepared kenaf fiber activated carbon (KFAC) were determined. Adsorption studies for divalent copper (Cu) ions were carried out to delineate the effect of contact time, temperature, pH and initial metal ion concentration on equilibrium adsorption capacity. The experimental data followed pseudo-second-order kinetics and Elovich Model than pseudo-first-order. Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin models were implemented to analyze the parameters for adsorption at 30 °C, 50 °C and 70 °C. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG o , ΔH o and ΔS o which represent Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy, respectively, were evaluated. It was concluded that activated carbon from kenaf fiber (KFAC) can be used as an efficient adsorbent for removal of Cu (II) from synthetic wastewater.
Keywords: Kinetics; Isotherm; Copper; Thermodynamics

Specific nitrate uptake rates (SNURs) under two test conditions were measured to evaluate effects of oxygen inhibition on denitrification. A test condition was that activated sludge was completely prevented from contacting of oxygen (SNUR closed ), the other was that activated sludge was contacted to free air (SNUR open ). Municipal wastewater and acetate were used as electron donors. SNUR closed was 2.42 mg NO3-N/g VSS-hr and SNUR open was 1.09 mg NO3-N/g VSS-hr when municipal wastewater was used as electron donor. Meanwhile, when acetate was used as electron donor, SNUR closed was 24.65 mg NO3-N/g VSS-hr and SNUR open was 18.00 mg NO3-N/g VSS-hr. The operating costs for electron donors were calculated based on the unit price of acetate to remove nitrate. When municipal wastewater was used as electron donor the ratio of cost open to cost closed was 0.45. Cost evaluation showed the adverse impacts on denitrification and explained why an anoxic reactor should be sequestered from oxygen.
Keywords: Specific Nitrate Uptake Rate; Denitrification; Oxygen Inhibition; C/N Ratio; Cost Evaluation

Electro-Fenton treatment of synthetic organic dyes: Influence of operational parameters and kinetic study by Prabir Ghosh; Lalit Kumar Thakur; Amar Nath Samanta; Subhabrata Ray (1203-1210).
This work investigates oxidative decolorization of two different dyes, Methylene blue and Titan yellow in aqueous solution using an environmentally friendly advanced electro-chemical oxidation (electro-Fenton) process. The effect of operating conditions like H2O2 concentration, current density, initial dye concentration was studied in a batch stirred cell. Individual decolorization decay kinetics for both dyes was investigated. The second-order absolute rate constants (L mol−1 s−1) between hydroxyl radical and dye have been calculated from experimental data by fitting it to the decolorization model. The apparent kinetic constants, k app (s−1) for Methylene blue and Titan yellow dye decolorization were also determined. The experimental data showed a good fit to the theoretical model, which can predict data in a wide range of % dye decolorization. This process also reduces COD of the dye solution, and the unit energy demand (UED) in kWh/kg COD removed for different electrical current has been reported.
Keywords: Electro-Fenton Process; Hydroxyl Radicals; Environmental Pollution; Modeling; Kinetics; Rate Constants

The effects of culture condition on the growth property and docosahexaenoic acid production from Thraustochytrium aureum ATCC 34304 by Kyeong Ho Min; Hwan Hee Lee; Periasamy Anbu; Bidur Prasad Chaulagain; Byung Ki Hur (1211-1215).
The effect of the composition of artificial sea water (ASW) medium on the growth properties and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) production from Thraustochytrium aureum ATCC 34304 was investigated. A maximum dry cell weight (DCW) of 3.71 g/l was obtained when the NaCl and MgSO4 concentration in the ASW media were 15 and 0 g/l, respectively. The maximum initial specific growth (ISG) rate of 0.16 was attained at 7.5 g/l NaCl and 18 g/l MgSO4, while the minimum ISG rate (0.02) was obtained at 5.0 g/l NaCl and 4.5 g/l MgSO4. The least doubling time required for biomass production was 4.3 h at 7.5 g/l NaCl and different MgSO4 concentrations. A maximum of 7.9 g/l DCW was obtained on the fourth day of cultivation at 30 g/l glucose and 2.5 g/l (each) yeast extract (YE) and peptone. The DHA content in the lipids was significantly affected by the concentration of glucose and nitrogen sources (YE and peptone) in the ASW medium. At the lowest glucose (10 g/l) and YE/peptone (0.5 g/l) concentration and highest glucose (30 g/l) and YE/peptone (2.5 g/l) concentration, the DHA content was 34.725 and 40.33%, respectively, relative to total lipid content. However, the DHA content in the lipid was not affected by the NaCl and MgSO4 concentration. At the lowest NaCl (2.5 g/l) and MgSO4 (4.5 g/l) concentration and highest NaCl (60 g/l) and MgSO4 (18 g/l) concentration the DHA content was 39.62 and 38.48%, respectively. The maximum DHA content in the lipid was 49.01% after four days of cultivation when 7.5 g/l NaCl and 4.5 g/l MgSO4 were in the ASW medium. The growth properties of T. aureum ATCC 34304 for biomass production and DHA yield in the lipid content were found to be affected by NaCl and glucose concentration.
Keywords: Thraustochytrium aureum ; Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs); Salt Concentration; Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA); Dry Cell Weight

Influence of sodium dodecyl sulfate and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide upon calcium carbonate precipitation on bacterial cellulose by Marta Stroescu; Anicuta Stoica-Guzun; Sorin Ion Jinga; Tanase Dobre; Iuliana Mihaela Jipa; Loredana Mihaela Dobre (1216-1223).
Calcium carbonate was deposed on bacterial cellulose (BC) never-dried membranes in the presence of different concentrations of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) by a precipitation reaction between aqueous solutions of calcium chloride (CaCl2) and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) containing, or not, surfactant in their composition. Different shapes of crystals were obtained from rhombohedral ones to flowerlike, depending on surfactant type and concentration. From the two surfactants tested, SDS has a greater influence on calcium carbonate morphology than CTAB. The only polymorph obtained in all studied cases was calcite. The composite films BC-calcite were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and color measurements. The obtained BC-calcium carbonate composites could be used in paper manufacturing.
Keywords: Calcium Carbonate; Calcite; Bacterial Cellulose; Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate; Cetyl Trimethylammonium Bromide

Evaluation of sediments of the waste from beer fermentation broth for bioethanol production by Jung Hwan Ha; Min-Kyung Gang; Taous Khan; Joong Kon Park (1224-1231).
As our previous studies showed, the waste from beer fermentation broth (WBFB) is a potential resource for bio-ethanol production. The original WBFB was superior to the supernatant in this regard. The current study investigates the potential of the WBFB sediment alone for bio-ethanol production after it has been diluted with distilled water or a chemically-defined medium. The effect of stock time on WBFB sediments for ethanol production was also studied. The fermentations were carried out using 50 ml vials placed in a bioreactor in static conditions. There was relatively little increase in ethanol production with fermentation time (up to 2 h) and stock time (up to 7 days) using 20% (v/v) sediment in distilled water which did not contain any nutrients or enzymes. A 2.09% increase in ethanol production was recorded after 2 h fermentation with 20% (v/v) WBFB sediments (1 day old) in a chemically-defined medium. The increase was 3.25% for WBFB sediments with a stock time of three days in a chemically-defined medium. The results also showed some residual activity of starch hydrolyzing enzymes in the sediments, especially at 60 °C. The overall results of this study revealed that the sediments alone were capable of bio-ethanol production even though they were five-fold diluted with distilled water or the chemically-defined medium.
Keywords: Bio-ethanol; Waste from Beer Fermentation Broth; Sediments; Fermentation; Saccharification

Adsorption of Ni(II) on ion exchange resin: Kinetics, equilibrium and thermodynamic studies by Baybars Ali Fil; Recep Boncukcuoğlu; Alper Erdem Yilmaz; Serkan Bayar (1232-1238).
This article describes the ion exchange of a heavy metal Ni(II) from aqueous solutions onto a Dowex HCR-S, cationic resin. Batch adsorption studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of various parameters such as pH, resin dose, stirring speed, temperature, contact time and initial Ni(II) concentration on the removal of Ni(II). Adsorption rate increased with the increase in initial nickel concentration, stirring speed and temperature. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms were measured for the single component system, and the experimental data were analyzed by using Langmuir, Freundlich, Elovich, Temkin, Khan, Sips, Toth, Koble-Corrigan and Radke-Prausnitz isotherm equations. The Sips equation appears to fit the equilibrium data. Different models were tested for their applicability. Adsorption kinetic data were modeled using the Lagergren pseudo-first-order, Ho’s pseudo-second-order and Elovich models. It was found that Ho’s pseudo-second-order model could be used for the prediction of the system’s kinetics. Thermodynamic activation parameters such as ΔG*, ΔS* and ΔH* of the adsorption of Ni(II) on Dowex HCR-S cationic resin were also calculated.
Keywords: Nickel; Dowex HCR-S; Isotherm; Ion Exchange; Removal

We developed a separation process that can minimize utility consumption in order to obtain normal hexane from crude raffinates for electronic-grade reagents. For the separation of normal hexane from the crude raffinate mixtures, a two-column configuration was selected. The first distillation column removes lighter constituents than normal hexane as a column top product, after which heavier constituents containing normal hexane are put into the middle of the second distillation column. This allows normal hexane with a purity of 95.5 wt% to be obtained from the top of the second distillation column by removing the constituents that are heavier than normal hexane as a second column bottom product. When both distillation columns are operated at approximately atmospheric pressure, it requires about 5.2 tons of steam per hour both for the reboiling heating source. However, when the operating pressure of the second distillation column is increased, the vapor stream coming out of the top of the second distillation column can be used as a heating medium for the reboiling source of the first distillation column. In this way, steam of only 3.1 tons per hour is required, potentially reducing the amount of steam used to 59.6% of the original amount.
Keywords: Normal Hexane Recovery; Energy Saving; Simulation NRTL Liquid Activity Coefficient Model; Optimization

The dynamics of steam regeneration in activated carbon and dealuminated Y-zeolite (DAY-zeolite) beds was studied to recover acetone and toluene from effluent gases. Due to the higher adsorption capacity of acetone on both adsorbents, the desorption breakthrough of toluene was faster than that of acetone, but the breakthrough shape of acetone was steeper than that of toluene. The variation in breakthrough time as a function of steam flow rate was less in the activated carbon bed than in the DAY-zeolite bed. The inside temperature profiles during regeneration showed stepwise shapes. A temperature plateau was observed near 355 K for toluene, which is lower than its boiling temperature and azeotrope. A temperature plateau for acetone occurred near 330 K, near its boiling temperature. The duration of the temperature plateau at the bed end corresponded with the time period of high desorption concentration during acetone desorption; for toluene, plateau duration was shorter than the duration of high desorption concentration. The maximum effluent concentration of toluene reached only 80% of the feed concentration, while that of acetone was almost 100%. Therefore, the water-miscibility of the adsorbate was an important factor in steam regeneration.
Keywords: Steam Regeneration; Acetone; Toluene; Activated Carbon; DAY-zeolite

Ternary excess molar enthalpies at T=298.15 K and P=101.3 kPa for the system of {1,2-dichloropropane+2-propanol+2-butanol} and their constituent binary systems {1,2-DCP+2-propanol}, {1,2-DCP+2-butanol}, and {2-propanol+2-butanol} have been measured over the whole composition range using an isothermal micro-calorimeter with flow-mixing cell. All of the binary and ternary systems, including three pseudobinary systems, show endothermic behavior except for the binary mixture {2-propanol+2-butanol}, which shows small exothermicity. The Redlich-Kister equation was used to correlate the binary H m, ij E data, and the Morris equation to correlate the ternary H m, 123 E data. Comparisons between the Morris and Radojkovi equations for the prediction of H m,123 E have been also made. The experimental results have been qualitatively discussed in terms of self-association, isomeric effect and chain length among molecules.
Keywords: Excess Molar Enthalpy; Ternary System; Binary Systems; 1,2-Dichloropropane; 2-Propanol; 2-Butanol

NiMoP films were electrolessly deposited on copper substrates in a bath containing alkali-free chemicals. The film characteristics such as composition, thickness (or deposition rate), and microstructure were investigated by varying the concentration of the electrolyte. The film thickness increased with nickel ion concentration and decreased with increasing concentrations of either molybdate or hypophosphite ions. The nickel, molybdenum, and phosphorous content of the film increased as the concentrations of their corresponding precursors increased in the bath. Microstructural analysis showed that amorphous films formed when the combined content of molybdenum and phosphorous in the film was sufficiently high. Higher combined contents of molybdenum and phosphorous also improved the corrosion resistance of the film.
Keywords: NiMoP Films; Electroless Deposition; Alkali-free Chemicals; Amorphous; Corrosion Resistance

The mathematical modeling for the preparation of C/C composites from propane by F-CVI (Forced-flow chemical vapor infiltration) was studied. Experimental data were fitted with the modeling calculations and an adjusted reaction rate constant was obtained. Effects of many operation parameters such as temperature, the inlet concentration of propane, flow rate, and the initial porosity were observed. The decrease of the deposition rate due to the decrease of porosity and the depletion of propane in the middle of the preform was compensated with the increase of the lateral surface area of fibers. It was confirmed that a slow reaction rate with a low temperature and a low concentration is necessary for a uniform infiltration. As the gas flow rate and the initial porosity increase, the amount of deposition increases.
Keywords: C/C Composites; CVI; Propane; Numerical Modeling; Process Parameter

HEMA, MMA, NVP, EDGMA, and 3-vinylanisole were copolymerized with Si nanoparticles and silicon 2,3-naphthalocyanine bis (trihexylsilyloxide) for ophthalmic application. The physical, optical, and surface characteristics of the contact lens copolymers were investigated to examine the usefulness of the above nanomaterials as components for contact lenses. The water content and the refractive index were in the range of 26.03–37.61% and 1.435–1.479, respectively. Meanwhile, the tensile strength ranging from 0.156 to 0.802 kgf increased with increasing the addition ratio of 3-vinylanisole. Si nanoparticles reduce spectral transmittance in all wavelengths, whereas for silicon 2,3-naphthalocyanine bis (trihexylsilyloxide) the transmittance of visual light increased but the transmittance of UV and near infrared decreased. High contact angle was observed for contact lenses containing both Si nanopowder and silicon 2,3-naphthalocyanine bis (trihexylsilyloxide). The water content of contact lenses was not significantly affected by the addition of 3-vinylanisole. Nanomaterials such as Si nanoparticles and silicon 2,3-naphthalocyanine bis (trihexylsilyloxide) can be used for manufacturing hydrogel soft contact lenses with UV-blocking capabilities if the intensity and the wettability of the surface are properly controlled.
Keywords: Silicon Nanoparticle; 3-Vinylanisole; Wettability; Contact Angle; Antimicrobial Property

Synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers from AnAc for the separation of γ-oryzanol by Amaraporn Kaewchada; Chunyawat Borvornpongsakul; Attasak Jaree (1279-1284).
The selectivity of gamma-oryzanol (γ-oryzanol) was recognized by molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP). Polymeric materials were successfully synthesized via thermal polymerization method using γ-oryzanol as template, anacardic acid (AnAc) as functional monomer, toluene as porogen, benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiator and divinylbenzene as crosslinker. Binding performance of MIPs was evaluated by MINITAP 14 for variance of analysis, linear regression analysis and adequating model through full factorial experimental technique in terms of adsorption capacity. Analysis of variance with 95% confidence level suggested significant interaction effect (amounts of template, porogen, crosslinker) on adsorption capacity of MIPs. The strongest interaction is between the amount of porogen and the amount of crosslinker. It was also found that a linear regression model for adsorption capacity represents the experimental data with the correlation coefficients (R2) greater than 0.9. The MIP synthesis with 0.8 mmol of template, 6 ml of porogen and 10 ml of crosslinker provided the highest adsorption capacity of MIP (1.14 mg/g-adsorbent). The proposed method is relatively rapid and easy to perform for the separation of γ-oryzanol in non-aqueous systems.
Keywords: Analysis of Variance; Molecularly Imprinted Polymer; Molecular Recognition; Gamma-oryzanol; Anacardic Acid