Acta Geochimica (v.28, #3)

Low-mature gases and their resource potentiality by Yongchang Xu; Xiaofeng Wang; Baoguang Shi (231-238).
In the 80’s of last century, based on the advances in natural gas exploration practice, the concepts of bio-thermocatalytic transitional-zone gas and early thermogenetic gas were proposed, and the lower limit R o values for the formation and accumulation of thermogenetic natural gases of industrial importance have been extended to 0.3%–0.4%. In accordance with the two-stage model established on the basis of carbon isotope fractionation involved in the formation of coal-type natural gases, the upper limit R o values of lowly evolved natural gases should be set at 0.8%–1.0%. This is the concept of low-mature gas which is commonly accepted at the present time. The Urengoy super-large gas field in western Siberian Basin is a typical example of low-mature gas field, where low-mature gas reserves account for 20% of the globally proven natural gas reserves, and this fully indicates the importance of this kind of resources. The proven reserves of natural gases in the Turpan-Hami Basin of China are approximate to 1000×108 m3, and the thermal evolution indices of source rocks are R o=0.4%–0.8%. The δ 13C1 values of methane are mainly within the range of −44‰–39‰ (corresponding to R o=0.6%–0.8%), and those of ethane are mainly within the range of −29‰–26‰, indicating that these natural gases should be designated to the coal-type low-mature gases. The light hydrocarbon evolution indices of natural gases also provide strong evidence suggesting that they are the coal-type low-mature gases. If so, low-mature gas in the Turpan-Hami Basin has been accumulated to such an extent as to be equivalent to the total reserves of three large-sized gas fields, and their existence is of great significance in the study and exploration of China’s low-mature gases. If it is evidenced that the source rocks of low-mature gases are related mainly to coal measures, China’s abundant lowly evolved coal series resources will provide a huge resource potentiality for the generation of low-mature gases.
Keywords: Turpan-Hami Basin; natural gas; low-mature gas; humus; isotopic composition

A gabbro-diorite plutonic complex from the Southeast Obudu Plateau, representing limited volumes of magma, was studied for its trace and rare-earth element characteristics, in an attempt to document its genetic and geodynamic history. Geochemical studies indicate that the gabbro samples are characterized by variable concentrations and low averages of such index elements as Cr (40×10−6−200×10−6; av. 80×10−6), Ni (40×10−6−170×10−6; 53.33×10−6) and Zr (110×10−6−240×10−6; 116.67×10−6); variable and high averages of Rb (3×10−6−270×10−6; 80.67×10−6), Sr (181×10−6−1610×10−6; 628.17×10−6) and U (0.14×10−6−3.46×10−6; 1.51×10−6), and fairly uniform Co (34×10−6−49×10−6; 36.33×10−6) and Sc (23×10−6−39×10−6; 34.5×10−6), while the diorite samples exhibit higher trace element compositions. The range of REE contents and distinctive chondrite-normalized patterns indicate moderate fractionation with slight positive Eu anomaly in the diorites to very low fractionation with flat patterns and slight positive Eu anomaly in the gabbros. However, the general element systematics of the samples, especially LILE (Ba, Rb, Sr, Cs and Pb), HFSE (Zr, Th, U, Hf, Mo, W, Nb and Sn), relatively immobile elements (Zr, Ni, Cr) and REE, suggests a differentiation model, involving fractional crystallization of olivine and clinopyroxene from a partial melt generated beneath an island arc complex. A possible model for the complex is therefore an island arc setting, the development of which was dominated by calc-alkaline magmatism across the Obudu Plateau.
Keywords: rare-earth and trace element imprints; origin and tectonic setting; gabbro-diorite complex; Pan-African belt; Southeast Obudu Plateau; Nigeria

The trace elements characteristics of the migmatitic gneisses (biotite-garnet- and hornblende-biotite), granulite facies rocks (charnockitic gneisses) and meta-peridotite in the area of Southwest Obudu Plateau indicate that the area exhibits a high degree of geochemical variability. Compatible trace elements (Ni and Cr) are comparatively high in the granulite facies rocks and meta-peridotite. Ni ranges from 28×10−6 to 266×10−6 whilst Cr ranges from 62×10−6 to 481×10−6 for the granulite facies rocks (charnockitic gneisses), and for the meta-peridotite Ni varies between 2045×10−6 and 2060×10−6. Incompatible trace elements show a higher variability in these rocks. The rocks in the area of Southwest Obudu Plateau generally are characterized by the high concentrations of Ba, Ce, Sr, Rb, Ga, Ni, Cr, Co, Zr, Pr and moderate concentrations of Cu, Sm and Th. The available data show that the charnockitic gneisses are of lower crustal origin. The enrichment of the meta-peridotite in compatible trace elements suggests the primitive mantle would be the source region, with slight contamination during ascent. These diverse origins collaborate the tectonic setting of the area as shown by discrimination diagrams. The diverse tectonic settings range from arc to collisional. Alkaline to sub-alkaline magmatism in the area was probably contemporaneous with the tectonic events that occurred in the area during the Proterozoic.
Keywords: trace element; tectonic characterization; granulite; SW Obudu Plateau; Nigeria

Geochemical characteristics of the oceanic island-type volcanic rocks in the Chiang Mai zone, northern Thailand by Shangyue Shen; Qinglai Feng; Zhibin Zhang; Chonglakmani Chongpan (258-263).
The oceanic island volcanic rocks in the Chiang Mai zone, northern Thailand, are usually covered by Lower Carboniferous and Upper Permian shallow-water carbonate rocks, with the Hawaii rocks and potash trachybasalt being the main rock types. The alkaline series is dominant with sub-alkaline series occurring in few cases. The geochemical characteristics are described as follows: the major chemical compositions are characterized by high TiO2, high P2O5 and medium K2O; the rare-earth elements are characterized by right-inclined strong LREE-enrichment patterns; the trace element patterns are of the upward-bulging K-Ti enrichment type; multi-component plots falling within the fields of oceanic island basalts and alkali basalts, belonging to the oceanic island-type volcanic rocks, which are similar to the equivalents in Deqin and Gengma (the Changning-Menglian zone) of Yunnan Province, China.
Keywords: Chiang Mai zone of Thailand; Changning-Menglian zone of China; oceanic island basalt; geochemical characteristic

Twenty organic rich outcrop samples from the Belait and Setap Shale formations in the Klias Peninsula area, West Sabah, were analysed by means of organic petrology and geochemical techniques. The aims of this study are to assess the type of organic matter, thermal maturity and established source rock characterization based primarily on Rock-Eval pyrolysis data. The shales of the Setap Shale Formation have TOC values varying from 0.6 wt%–1.54 wt% with a mean hydrogen index (HI) of 60.1 mg/g, whereas the shales of the Belait Formation have TOC values ranging from 0.36 wt%–0.61 wt% with a mean (HI) of 38.2 mg/g, indicating that both formations have TOC>0.5 wt% the minimum limit for hydrocarbon generation. The samples do not contain sufficient hydrogen-rich organic matter (types I, II and III) to be considered good quality source rocks. The kerogen of type II is predominantly of marine origin. This organic matter was deposited in clastic algal environments. Geochemical data (Rock-Eval, T max values ranging from 377–451°C for shales of the Setap Shale Formation and ranging from 466–498°C for shales of the Belait Formation, typical of high maturity), indicate variable maturation histories in both formations. The maturation level varied from the beginning to the peak stage of oil generation in the Setap Shale Formation and it has reached the over-mature level in the samples of the Belait Formation.
Keywords: organic rich sediment; Neogene formation; Klias Peninsula; TOC; kerogen

Bulk compositions of metallic Fe-Ni from two equilibrated ordinary chondrites, Jilin (H5) and Anlong (H5), and two unequilibrated ones, GRV 9919 (L3) and GRV 021603 (H3), were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The CI-, Co-normalized abundances of siderophile and chalcophile elements of metallic Fe-Ni from the unequilibrated ordinary chondrites correlate with 50% condensation temperatures (i.e., volatility) of the elements. The refractory siderophile elements (i.e., platinum group elements, Re), Au, Ni and Co show a flat pattern (1.01×CI Co-normalized), while moderate elements (As, Cu, Ag, Ga, Ge, Zn) decrease with volatility from 0.63×CI (Co-normalized, As) to 0.05×CI (Co-normalized, Zn). Cr and Mn show deficit relative to the trend, probably due to their main partition in silicates and sulfides (nonmagnetic). Metallic Fe-Ni from the equilibrated ordinary chondrites shows similar patterns, except for strong deficit of Cr, Mn, Ag and Zn. It is indicated that these elements were almost all partitioned into silicates and/or sulfides during thermal metamorphism. The similar deficit of Cr, Mn, Ag and Zn was also found in iron meteorites.Our analyses demonstrate similar behaviors of W and Mo as refractory siderophile elements during condensation of the solar nebula, except for slight depletion of Mo in the L3 and H5 chondrites. The Mo-depletion of metallic Fe-Ni from GRV 9919 (L3) relative to GRV 021603 (H3) could be due to a more oxidizing condition of the former than the latter in the solar nebula. In contrast, the Mo-depletion of the metallic Fe-Ni from the H5 chondrites may reflect partition of Mo from metal to silicates and/or sulfides during thermal metamorphism in the asteroidal body.
Keywords: ICP-MS; metal; meteorite; siderophile element; platinum group elements

This paper covers the detailed version of the potential raw material deposits at Darukhula and the adjacent areas of Nizampur, the manufacturing of high-strength Portland cement samples from the same material and comparison of the physical and chemical parameters for resulting cement with British and Pakistan standard specifications, which include compressive strength, setting time, consistency, lechatelier expansion, Blaine and insoluble residue. It was found that the raw material available in the study area meets the standard specifications and the area is feasible for the cement plant installation. The area can provide raw material which is quite sufficient for the running of a cement plant.
Keywords: cement raw material; N.W.F.P.; cement plant

The Bainiuchang deposit in Yunnan Province, China, is located geographically between the Gejiu ore field and the Dulong ore field. In addition to >7000 t Ag reserves, the deposit possesses large-scale Pb, Zn, Sn reserves and a mass of dispersed elements (i.e., In, Cd, Ge, Ga, etc.). Based on systematic studies of sulfur isotopic composition, the authors conclude: The Bainiuchang deposit experienced two epochs of metallogenesis, i.e., the Middle-Cambrian sea-floor exhalative sedimentary metallogenic epoch and the Yanshanian magmatic hydrothermal superimposition metallogenic epoch. In the two metallogenic epochs, the δ34S values of sulfides were all near 0, showing a tendency of being enriched slightly in heavy sulfur. The δ34S values of sulfides in the early metallogenic epoch are within the range of 2‰–5‰ with a peak value range of 2‰–3‰ and an average of 3.0‰, and those of sulfides in the late metallogenic epoch are within the range of 2‰–6‰ with a peak value of 3‰–4‰ and an average of 3.9‰. For the single metallogenic epoch, sulfur in the ore-forming fluids in the early epoch already reached isotopic equilibrium and was derived mainly from underneath the magma chamber or basement metamorphic igneous rocks. Sulfur in the sulfides in the late epoch was derived mainly from magmatic hydrothermal fluids formed in the process of remelting of the basement metamorphic igneous rocks.
Keywords: Bainiuchang Ag-polymetallic deposit; sulfur isotopic composition; ore-forming fluid; Yunnan Province; China

High efficiency of heavy metal removal in mine water by limestone by Zhigang Ya; Lifa Zhou; Zhengyu Bao; Pu Gao; Xingwang Sun (293-298).
The removal of Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn from dilute mine water by using several geological materials including pure limestone, sand, carbonaceous limestone and brecciated limestone was performed on a laboratory scale. The results showed that to add geological materials in combination with sodium carbonate injection would notably enhance the efficiency of heavy metal removal to varying degrees. Pure limestone was found the best one among the four materials mentioned above for removing heavy metals from mine water. The removal efficiencies of pure limestone when it is ground as fine as 30–60 meshes are 58.6% for Cd, 100% for Cu, 47.8% for Ni, and 36.8% for Zn at 20°C. The optimum pH is about 8.9 to 9.1. The mechanism of higher effective removal, perhaps, is primarily due to co-precipitation under the control of calcite-related pH value. According to this research, Na2CO3 injection manners, including slug dosing and drip-wise, seemed to have little impact on the efficiency of heavy metal removal.
Keywords: heavy metal removal; mine water; geochemical method; limestone

Ordovician natural gases in the Tahe Oilfield are composed predominantly of hydrocarbon gases dominated by methane with a significant amount of heavy hydrocarbon gas component. The non-hydrocarbon gases include N2, CO2 and minor H2S. The Ordovician natural gases are believed to have originated from the same source rocks, and are composite of gases differing in thermal maturity. Carbon dioxide was derived from thermal metamorphism of Ordovician carbonate rocks. The generation of natural gases involves multiple stages from mature normal oil and condensate-associated gas to thermally cracked gas at the maturity to over-maturity stages. In the main part of the Tahe Oilfield, the Ordovician natural gases appear to be filled in two major phases with a typical petroleum-associated gas from southeast to northwest and from east to west in the early stage; and a thermally cracked gas from east to west in the late stage. At the same time, the oil/gas filling boundary has been primarily established between the two stages.
Keywords: Tahe Oilfield; Ordovician system; gas migration; carbon and hydrogen isotopes; genetic feature

Geochemical constraints on mixed source and hydrocarbon filling process in the Yingjisu Sag, Tarim Basin, Xinjiang by Lingyun Pang; Xiangchun Chang; Mingzhen Wang; Xinghe Yu; Lixin Ma; Yunge Duan (308-313).
The Yingjisu Sag was petroliferous for normal oil, condensate oil, reservoir bitumen and natural gases. Geochemical studies showed that natural gases in the Yingjisu Sag were a gas mixture consisting mainly of Cambrian pyrolysis gas, Jurassic condensate oil in well Yingnan 2 and normal oil in well Tadong 2, reflecting the characteristics of marine-phase gases and oils, while crude oils in well Longkou 1 demonstrated the characteristics of both marine and terrestrial oils, which were derived from lower algae and higher plants. Jurassic oils from wells Longkou 1 and Huayingcan 1 and Cambrian crude oils from well Tadong 2 were derived mainly from Cambrian-Lower Ordovician source rocks. Jurassic and Silurian reservoir bitumens from well Yingnan 2 were biodegradated, suggesting they are of marine and terrestrial origins. The bitumens have similar geochemical characteristics, which are correlated well with Ordovician crude oils from well Tadong 2 and Jurassic condensate oil from well Yingnan 2. Based on the characteristics of tectonic evolution in this area and the analysis of hydrocarbon accumulation, the constraints on the mixed source and hydrocarbon filling process in the Yingjisu Sag were brought forward.
Keywords: Yingjisu Sag; geochemistry; oil-source correlation; multiple accumulation process

Research on the molecular fossil characteristics of heavy oil from Well Tadong-2 is of great importance to constrain the source of marine crude oils in the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China. The authors synthetically applied the isotope mass spectrograph, chromatography and chromatography-mass spectrography to the studies of molecular fossil characteristics of heavy oil from Well Tadong-2 in the Tarim Basin, and the results obtained revealed that heavy oil from Well Tadong-2 is characterized by high gammacerane, high C28 sterane, low rearranged sterane and high C27-triaromatic steroid, these characteristics are similar to those of Cambrian-Lower Ordovician source rocks, demonstrating that Cambrian crude oils came from Cambrian-Lower Ordovician source rocks; condensed compounds (fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[a]anthracene, bow, benzo fluoranthene, benzopyrene) of high abundance were detected in heavy oil from Well Tadong-2, and the carbon isotopic values of whole oil are evidently heavy, all the above characteristics revealed that hydrocarbons in the crude oils became densified in response to thermal alteration.
Keywords: molecular fossil; oil-source rock correlation; thermal alteration; heavy oil; Tarim Basin

The contents of the platinum-group elements (PGEs: Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, Pd) in the Abulangdang ultramafic intrusion have been determined using ICP-MS after nickel sulfide fire assay preconcentration. Different samples show significant differences in absolute PGE abundance. They display a pronounced negative incline in mantle-normalized patterns which are characterized by strong enrichment in IPGEs (Os, Ir, Ru) and depleting to slight enrichment in PPGEs (Rh, Pt, Pd). The characteristics of PGE distribution in the Abulangdang rocks are due to the combined action of sulfide and non-sulfide (spinel/chromite or alloy or micro-granular aggregation of metals). In comparison with the mafic-ultramafic rocks which host Ni-Cu-PGE deposits in the Emeishan Large Igneous Province (ELIP), it is assumed that the Abulangdang ultramafic intrusion may be the product of early-stage magma activity in the ELIP.
Keywords: platinum-group elements (PGEs); sulfide; ultramafic rock; ELIP

The physical properties and group compositions of crude oils in the western depression of the Liaohe Basin possess such characteristics as to increase gradually in density, viscosity and wax contents, and decrease in saturated hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon and bitumen contents from the deep level to the shallow level and from the center of the depression to its boundary. Saturated hydrocarbons have various spectra, such as single peak and double peak patterns, front peak and rear peak patterns, and smooth peak and serated peak patterns, as well as the chromatograms of biodegraded n-alkanes. The ratios of Pr/Ph in crude oils from the southern part of the depression are generally higher than those in the northern part. The distribution of regular steranes C27–C29 is predominantly of the ramp type, and only a few samples have relatively high C28 contents in the southern part of the depression. As viewed from their physical properties and geochemical characteristics, crude oils in the study area can be divided into two types (I and II) based on oil-generating sources and sedimentary environments, and then further divided into three sub-types (Ia, Ib and Ic:IIa, IIb and IIIc, respectively) based on their degrees of maturation and secondary transformation. This will provide the reliable basis for oil-source correlation and petroleum exploration and prediction.
Keywords: the western depression of the Liaohe Basin; geochemistry; biomarker; genetic type; Lower Tertiary