Photosynthesis Research (v.96, #1)

Jack Edgar Myers (1913–2006), an algal physiologist par excellence by Jerry J. Brand; David W. Krogmann; C. O. Patterson (9-14).

The photoenzymatic cycle of the light-dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (LPOR) was investigated in situ during early stages of development of bean leaves under light-dark cycles (LDC). In the experimental system used in this study, prolamellar bodies developed during night periods and disappeared during light periods. This was accompanied by changes in the photoactive to non-photoactive Pchlide ratio, which was higher at the end of the light period, and tended to increase with the number of LDC’s. Flash-induced absorbance changes in the Chlide absorption region (700 nm) were used in order to monitor the formation of short- and long-wavelength forms of Chlide (C670–675 and C682–694), which correspond to free Chlide and aggregated Chlide-NADPH-LPOR complexes, respectively. The ratio of long-wavelength to short-wavelength Chlides after one flash increased with the number of LDC’s, and was higher in leaves collected at the end of light periods, compared to leaves collected at the end of night periods. During light periods, photoactive Pchlide regeneration and Chlide phytylation were completed within 1 min after flash-induced formation of long-wavelength Chlide. The results show for the first time that the photoenzymatic LPOR cycle proceeds through similar steps, but at much faster rates, during photoperiodic greening than in the previously studied leaves of etiolated plants. In particular, the parallel formation of two Chlide species always occurs, but the ratio of the two species depends on the ratio of photoactive to non-photoactive Pchlide and on light or dark adaptation.
Keywords: Chlorophyll biosynthesis; Chlorophyllide spectral forms; Chloroplast development; Prolamellar body; Protochlorophyllide photoreduction; Shibata shift

Early detection of bean infection by Pseudomonas syringae in asymptomatic leaf areas using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging by Luis Rodríguez-Moreno; Mónica Pineda; Julia Soukupová; Alberto P. Macho; Carmen R. Beuzón; Matilde Barón; Cayo Ramos (27-35).
Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging has been used to analyse the response elicited in Phaseolus vulgaris after inoculation with Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola 1448A (compatible interaction) and P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (incompatible interaction). With the aim of modulating timing of symptom development, different cell densities were used to inoculate bean plants and the population dynamics of both bacterial strains was followed within the leaf tissue. Fluorescence quenching analysis was carried out and images of the different chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were obtained for infected as well as control plants at different timepoints post-infection. Among the different parameters analysed, we observed that non-photochemical quenching maximised the differences between the compatible and the incompatible interaction before the appearance of visual symptom. A decrease in non-photochemical quenching, evident in both infiltrated and non-infiltrated leaf areas, was observed in P. syringae pv. phaseolicola-infected plants as compared with corresponding values from controls and P. syringae pv. tomato-infected plants. No photoinhibitory damage was detected, as the maximum photosystem II quantum yield remained stable during the infection period analysed.
Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging; Hypersensitive response; Phaseolus vulgaris ; Pseudomonas syringae

The prolamellar body (PLB) proteome of dark-grown wheat leaves was characterized. PLBs are formed not only in etioplasts but also in chloroplasts in young developing leaves during the night, yet their function is not fully understood. Highly purified PLBs were prepared from 7-day-old dark-grown leaves and identified by their spectral properties as revealed by low-temperature fluorescence spectroscopy. The PLB preparation had no contamination of extra-plastidal proteins, and only two envelope proteins were found. The PLB proteome was analysed by a combination of 1-D SDS-PAGE and nano-LC FTICR MS. The identification of chlorophyll synthase in the PLB fraction is the first time this enzyme protein was found in extracts of dark-grown plants. This finding is in agreement with its previous localization to PLBs using activity studies. NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A (PORA), which catalyses the reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide, dominates the proteome of PLBs. Besides the identification of the PORA protein, the PORB protein was identified for the first time in dark-grown wheat. Altogether 64 unique proteins, representing pigment biosynthesis, photosynthetic light reaction, Calvin cycle proteins, chaperones and protein synthesis, were identified. The in number of proteins’ largest group was the one involved in photosynthetic light reactions. This fact strengthens the assumption that the PLB membranes are precursors to the thylakoids and used for the formation of the photosynthetic membranes during greening. The present work is important to enhance our understanding of the significance of PLBs in chloroplast development.
Keywords: Chlorophyll synthase; Chloroplast development; Etioplast; NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase; Prolamellar body

Purification of His6-tagged Photosystem I from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii by Galina Gulis; Kuppala V. Narasimhulu; Lisa N. Fox; Kevin E. Redding (51-60).
We have developed a rapid method for isolation of the Photosystem I (PS1) complex from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii using epitope tagging. Six histidine residues were genetically added to the N-terminus of the PsaA core subunit of PS1. The His6-tagged PS1 could be purified with a yield of 80–90% from detergent-solubilized thylakoid membranes within 3 h in a single step using a Ni-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) column. Immunoblots and low-temperature fluorescence analysis indicated that the His6-tagged PS1 preparation was highly pure and extremely low in uncoupled pigments. Moreover, the introduced tag appeared to have no adverse effect upon PS1 structure/function, as judged by photochemical assays and EPR spectroscopy of isolated particles, as well as photosynthetic growth tests of the tagged strain.
Keywords: His-tag; Epitope tagging; Membrane protein; Reaction center; Photosystem 1; Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

Excess copper induces anoxygenic photosynthesis in Anabaena doliolum: a homology based proteomic assessment of its survival strategy by Poonam Bhargava; Yogesh Mishra; Ashish Kumar Srivastava; Om Prakash Narayan; Lal Chand Rai (61-74).
This study is the first to demonstrate operation of anoxygenic photosynthesis in copper acclimated Anabaena doliolum and to offer proteomic comparison with the control cells. The Cu-treated control strain showed a negative correlation in growth and intracellular Cu, partial inhibition of O2-evolution, PS II, PS I, whole chain, chlorophyll absorption, and nitrogenase activity. However, the acclimated strain growing in 250-fold excess Cu exhibited near normal growth, ATP content, PS I activity, carbon fixation, and almost complete inhibition of O2-evolution, PS II and chlorophyll absorption, but increased nitrogenase activity as compared to control. Proteomic decoding of the survival strategy of Cu-treated control and the acclimated strain using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF MS analysis of proteins displaying significant and reproducible changes demonstrated involvement of transketolase, phycoerythrocyanin α-chain, iron superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD), hypothetical protein alr 0803, manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), phosphoribulokinase, and plastocyanin (PLC). Expression pattern of these proteins was attested at the transcriptional level using RT-PCR. Time course analysis of proteins of Cu-treated control strain revealed almost no change in PLC level, and a minor accumulation of transketolase, phycoerythrocyanin α-chain and both isoforms of SOD after 7 and recovery after 10 days. Acclimated strain under excess Cu, however, exhibited significant accumulation of both isoforms of SOD, plastocyanin, phosphoribulokinase and transketolase, which seem to counteract oxidative damage, serve as an alternate electron carrier from cytochrome b6/f complex to photosystem I and meet the NADPH and ATP requirements, respectively, under anoxygenic photosynthesis. In view of the kinetics of the hypothetical protein alr0803 (no change in expression level for 7, maximum after 10 and decline after 15 days) its involvement in metal homeostasis is suggested.
Keywords: Anabaena doliolum ; Anoxygenic photosynthesis; Copper-induced protein; Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis; MALDI-TOF MS/MS; RT-PCR

Characterization of chlorophyll–protein complexes isolated from a Siphonous green alga, Bryopsis corticulans by Guiying Chen; Xiaodong Niu; Xiaobo Chen; Liangbi Li; Tingyun Kuang; Shuqin Li (75-81).
Six chlorophyll–protein complexes are isolated from thylakoid membranes of Bryopsis corticulans by dodecyl-β-d-maltoside polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Unlike that of higher plants, the 77 K fluorescence emission spectrum of the CP1 band, the PSI core complexes of B. corticulans, presents two peaks, one at 675 nm and the other at 715–717 nm. The emission peak at 715–717 nm is slightly higher than that at 675 nm in the CP1 band when excited at 438 or 540 nm. However, the peak at 715 nm is obviously lower than that at 675 nm when excited at 480 nm. The excitation spectra of CP1 demonstrate that the peak at 675 nm is mainly attributed to energy from Chl b while it is the energy from Chl a that plays an important role in exciting the peak at 715–717 nm. Siphonaxanthin is found to contribute to both the 675 nm and 715–717 nm peaks. We propose from the above results that chlorophyll a and siphonaxanthin are mainly responsible for the transfer of energy to the far-red region of PSI while it is Chl b that contributes most of the transfer of energy to the red region of PSI. The analysis of chlorophyll composition and spectral characteristics of LHCP1 and LHCP3 also indicate that higher content of Chl b and siphonaxanthin, mainly presented in LHCP1, the trimeric form of LHCII, are evolved by B. corticulans to absorb an appropriate amount of light energy so as to adapt to their natural habitats.
Keywords: Bryopsis corticulans ; Chlorophyll–protein complexes; Siphonaceous green algae; Siphonaxanthin and siphonein

The fluorescence induction F(t) of dark-adapted chloroplasts has been studied in multi-turnover 1 s light flashes (MTFs). A theoretical expression for the initial fluorescence rise is derived from a set of rate equations that describes the sequence of transfer steps associated with the reduction of the primary quinone acceptor Q A and the release of photochemical fluorescence quenching of photosystem II (PSII). The initial F(t) rise in the hundreds of μs time range is shown to follow the theoretical function dictated by the rate constants of light excitation (k L) and release of donor side quenching (k si ). The bi-exponential function shows sigmoidicity when one of the two rate constants differs by less than one order of magnitude from the other. It is shown, in agreement with the theory, that the sigmoidicity of the fluorescence rise is variable with light intensity and mainly, if not exclusively, determined by the ratio between rate of light excitation and the rate constant of donor side quenching release.
Keywords: Photosystem II; Chlorophyll fluorescence induction; Donor side quenching; Sigmoidicity; Intersystem energy transfer

Two isoforms of ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase from wheat leaves: purification and initial biochemical characterization by Joanna Grzyb; Przemysław Malec; Izabela Rumak; Maciej Garstka; Kazimierz Strzałka (99-112).
Ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase is an enzyme associated with the stromal side of the thylakoid membrane in the chloroplast. It is involved in photosynthetic linear electron transport to produce NADPH and is supposed to play a role in cyclic electron transfer, generating a transmembrane pH gradient allowing ATP production, if photosystem II is non-functional or no NADP+ is available for reduction. Different FNR isoforms have been described in non-photosynthetic tissues, where the enzyme catalyses the NADPH-dependent reduction of ferredoxin (Fd), necessary for some biosynthetic pathways. Here, we report the isolation and purification of two FNR isoproteins from wheat leaves, called FNR-A and FNR-B. These forms of the enzyme were identified as products of two different genes, as confirmed by mass spectrometry. The molecular masses of FNR-A and FNR-B were 34.3 kDa and 35.5 kDa, respectively. The isoelectric point of both FNR-A and FNR-B was about 5, but FNR-B appeared more acidic (of about 0.2 pH unit) than FNR-A. Both isoenzymes were able to catalyse a NADPH-dependent reduction of dibromothymoquinone and the mixture of isoforms catalysed reduction of cytochrome c in the presence of Fd. For the first time, the pH- and ionic strength dependent oligomerization of FNRs is observed. No other protein was necessary for complex formation. The putative role of the two FNR isoforms in photosynthesis is discussed based on current knowledge of electron transport in chloroplasts.
Keywords: Diaphorase; Ferredoxin:NADP+ oxidoreductase; Isoforms; Oligomerization; Photosynthesis; Wheat

Evolution of redoxin genes in the green lineage by Yves Meyer; Christophe Riondet; Laure Constans; Mohamed Ragab Abdelgawwad; Jean Philippe Reichheld; Florence Vignols (113-114).

Growth enhancement of soybean (Glycine max) upon exclusion of UV-B and UV-B/A components of solar radiation: characterization of photosynthetic parameters in leaves by Kadur Guruprasad; Swapan Bhattacharjee; Sunita Kataria; Sanjeev Yadav; Arjun Tiwari; Sanjay Baroniya; Abhinav Rajiv; Prasanna Mohanty (115-115).