Phytochemistry Reviews (v.16, #3)

2nd international symposium on phytochemicals in medicine and food (2-ISPMF) by Jianbo Xiao; Zhenya Yordanova; Ming Miao (375-377).

Phytochemicals from fern species: potential for medicine applications by Hui Cao; Tsun-Thai Chai; Xin Wang; Maria Flaviana B. Morais-Braga; Jing-Hua Yang; Fai-Chu Wong; Ruibing Wang; Huankai Yao; Jianguo Cao; Laura Cornara; Bruno Burlando; Yitao Wang; Jianbo Xiao; Henrique D. M. Coutinho (379-440).
Ferns are an important phytogenetic bridge between lower and higher plants. Historically they have been used in many ways by humans, including as ornamental plants, domestic utensils, foods, and in handicrafts. In addition, they have found uses as medicinal herbs. Ferns produce a wide array of secondary metabolites endowed with different bioactivities that could potentially be useful in the treatment of many diseases. However, there is currently relatively little information in the literature on the phytochemicals present in ferns and their pharmacological applications, and the most recent review of the literature on the occurrence, chemotaxonomy and physiological activity of fern secondary metabolites was published over 20 years ago, by Soeder (Bot Rev 51:442–536, 1985). Here, we provide an updated review of this field, covering recent findings concerning the bioactive phytochemicals and pharmacology of fern species.
Keywords: Ferns; Phytochemicals; Pharmacology; Medicine; Food

Phytochemicals and biological activities of Artemisia sieversiana by Shi-Jun Liu; Zhi-Xin Liao; Zhi-Shu Tang; Chun-Li Cui; Hong-Bo Liu; Yan-Ni Liang; Yu Zhang; Huan-Xian Shi; Yao-Run Liu (441-460).
This review discusses a whole plant’s chemical nature and biological effects of Artemisia sieversiana Ehrhart ex willd (ASS). Several types of chemical compositions have been isolated from A. sieversiana, including 26 terpenoids (21 guaiane-type sesquiterpenes, 3 germacrane-type sesquiterpenes, 1 muurolane-type sesquiterpene, and 1 diterpenoid), 16 sesamin-type lignans, 9 flavonoids, 3 steroids, and 3 alkaloids. Some of them have shown promising bioactivities, such as anti-tumour, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant functions and so on. Herein, we have summarized the phytochemical and pharmacological progress of ASS.
Keywords: Artemisia sieversiana ; Secondary metabolites; Biological effects

Trianthema portulacastrum L. (giant pigweed): phytochemistry and pharmacological properties by Kumeshini Sukalingam; Kumar Ganesan; Baojun Xu (461-478).
Trianthema portulacastrum L. (Aizoaceae) commonly called as black pigweed or giant pigweed, which is a yearly herb, utilized as purgative, pain relieving, stomachic and provide as alternative heal for lung disease, cardiovascular disease, anemia and edema. In the Ayurvedic system of medicine, the plant is used in the treatment of inflammation in the peripheral organs, uteralgia and cough. Taking into account exploratory study, the present review aims to provide up-to date data about the routine uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacological actions of T. portulacastrum to explore their therapeutic value for future clinical settings. All data of T. portulacastrum were collected from library database and electronic search (ScienceDirect, Pubmed, and GoogleScholar). The different pharmacological information was gathered and orchestrated in a suitable spot on the paper. The genus Trianthema comprises of 64 species. Among them, the species of T. portulacastrum has been easily known for their customary uses. Phytochemical studies showed that T. portulacastrum included trianthamine, ecdysterone, flavonoid (5,2 dihydroxy-7methoxy-6,8 dimethyl flavone), leptorumol (5,7 dihydroxy-6,8 dimethyl chromone), and other intermediary bioactive compounds such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and their β-glucopyranosides, β-cyanin, 3,4-dimethoxy cinnamic acid, 5-hydroxy-2-methoxy benzaldehyde, 3-acetyl aleuritolic acid, pmethoxy benzoic acid, and p-propoxy benzoic acid. The plant extracts showed significant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antihyperglycemic, antimicrobial, and anticancer activities. The toxicity study conducted in animals and no noteworthy mortality found till 4 g/kg b.w. Taking into account on animal studies, T. portulacastrum have different bioactivities including antihyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, anticancer, antimicrobial and modulate different cellular signals related to control of oxidative stress and inflammation. The phytoconstituents of T. portulacastrum have a various potential to exact pharmacological benefits and possible chemotherapeutic mediator. Nevertheless, more support for such properties/dynamic constituents have been obtained from cellular and molecular studies, while clinical studies are as yet deficient. Since animal research do not constantly interpret to human conditions, additional clinical studies are also warranted to infer the full interpretation impact of T. portulacastrum for prevention of human diseases. Hence, future comprehensive clinical studies are required to warrant the therapeutic usefulness of the T. portulacastrum.
Keywords: Trianthema portulacastrum ; Phytochemistry; Pharmacology; Toxicity; Therapeutic uses

Epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse relationship between increased consumption of fruits and reduced risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes. Citrus fruit is one of the mostly consumed fruits worldwide, and numerous studies have revealed its remarkable health-promoting activities, such as antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protection activities. These activities largely depend upon the diverse chemical constituents of Citrus fruits, including vitamins, minerals, terpenoids, and flavonoids. Notably, dietary flavonoids occurring in Citrus fruits have attracted growing interest due to their distinct beneficial effects on human health. In this review, we outlined the main health-related properties of Citrus flavonoids, with a focus on antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammation, and cardiovascular protection activities. Also the bioavailability, a critical factor that influences the biological efficacy, of Citrus flavonoids was discussed. It was believed that insights about these advances may encourage researchers to discover new phytochemical components and further study specific bioactivities from Citrus fruits.
Keywords: Citrus flavonoids; Bioavailability; Health-promoting effects; Anticancer; Cardioprotective

Anticancer potential of labdane diterpenoid lactone “andrographolide” and its derivatives: a semi-synthetic approach by Venu Sharma; Tanwi Sharma; Sanjana Kaul; Kamal K. Kapoor; Manoj K. Dhar (513-526).
Natural products have been a great source of pharmaceuticals since ages. Vast screening of natural products from different sources has led to the discovery of plethora of chemotherapeutic drugs and other compounds for the betterment of human life. Several bioactive entities have been generated by the structural modifications of the natural products or by using the natives as key models in synthetic chemistry. Nonetheless, a number of natural compounds with potential bioactivities remain unexploited in the medicinal field due to their stringent chemical properties. Andrographis paniculata Nees., a traditional medicinal herb from family Acanthaceae is known for its multiple pharmacological activities. It’s major bioactive constituent “andrographolide”, possesses promising anticancer potential and is one such unexploited treasure. The architecture of the molecule consists of an α-alkylidene γ-butyrolactone moiety, two olefin bond [Δ8(17) and Δ12(13)], three hydroxyls at C-3, C-19, and C-14 and highly substituted trans decalin. Of the three hydroxyl groups, one is allylic at C-14, and the others are secondary and primary at C-3 and C-19, respectively. By modification of the above structural features a number of andrographolide derivatives have been synthesized. The intricacy of the molecule has always been a constraint in developing a commercialized drug, nevertheless the efforts in this direction via synthetic chemistry are still continuous and prominent. The present review highlights the chemistry and anticancer activity of andrographolide. It discusses the limitations of the molecule as a pharmacological agent. Modifications in the key molecule along different moieties has been discussed which might lead to desirable bioactive molecules. The compiled information will be helpful in further developing specific modifications in andrographolide moiety which will have significant contribution in semi synthesis of anti-cancer agents.
Keywords: Anti-cancer drugs; Natural products; Andrographolide; Semi-synthetic derivatives

Health effects of phloretin: from chemistry to medicine by Sahar Behzad; Antoni Sureda; Davide Barreca; Seyed Fazel Nabavi; Luca Rastrelli; Seyed Mohammad Nabavi (527-533).
Dihydrochalcones are a class of secondary metabolites, whose demand in biological and pharmacological applications is rapidly growing. Phloretin is one of the best known and abundant dihydrochalcone characterized by the presence of 2,6-dihydroxyacetophenone pharmacophore. It is a versatile molecule with anticancer, antiosteoclastogenic, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and estrogenic activities and able to increase the fluidity of biological membranes and penetration of administered drugs. In this review we have performed a critical evaluation of available literature as far as phloretin beneficial effects and activation/block of intracellular signal cascade are of concern. In addition, we supply useful information on its chemical properties, sources and bioavailability.
Keywords: Anticancer; Dihydrochalcones; Phenolic compound; Phloretin

An insight into anti-diabetic properties of dietary phytochemicals by Ramachandran Vinayagam; Jianbo Xiao; Baojun Xu (535-553).
Diabetes are a serious metabolic diseases characterized by abnormally increased plasma glucose levels. Botanical food products have been used for combating human diseases for thousands of years, since they exhibit a wide range of biological properties that can be exploited for medical application. Phytochemicals from foods, including flavonoids, monoterpenes, terpenoids, stilbenes, lignans, coumarins, alkaloids, and others, have been proposed as effective supplements for diabetes management and prevention of its long-term complications in vitro and in vivo. The mechanism of antidiabetic activity of dietary phytochemicals could be summarized as: stimulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cell, reduction of insulin resistance and increasing of insulin sensitivity, stimulation of glycogenesis and hepatic glycolysis, activation of PPARγ, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, inhibition of α-amylase, β-galactocidase and α-glucocidase, and inhibition intestinal absorption of glucose. Therefore the anti-diabetic effects and their mechanism of action of phytochemicals from botanical foods used traditionally in the treatment of diabetes mellitus are critically reviewed.
Keywords: Diabetes mellitius; Botanical foods; Phytochemicals; Anti-diabetic; Mechanism

Influence of phytochemicals on the biocompatibility of inorganic nanoparticles: a state-of-the-art review by Yi Cao; Yixi Xie; Liangliang Liu; Aiping Xiao; Yining Li; Cao Zhang; Xin Fang; Yiwei Zhou (555-563).
Inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are among the most produced NPs that could be used in consumer products and as healthcare materials, however, the intrinsic toxicity particularly through the mechanism associated oxidative stress raises the health concern about inorganic NP exposure. Phytochemicals are bioactive metabolites derived from plants as well as non-pathogenic microorganisms living within plants and have been shown to be beneficial to human health with their anti-aging, anti-cancer, anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant properties. In the present review, the influence of on the biocompatibility of inorganic NPs was discussed. It has been shown that phytochemicals could be used as bio-friendly capping agents for green synthesis of inorganic NPs, and phytochemical coated inorganic NPs were remarkable stable and biocompatible with high therapeutic efficiency. Meanwhile, the presence of phytochemicals was also able to reduce the side effects and enhance the therapeutic abilities of inorganic NPs, which is likely attributed to the anti-oxidative properties of phytochemicals. Thus, using phytochemicals could be a promising and plausible way to reduce side effects and increase the biocompatibility of inorganic NPs for biomedical applications.
Keywords: Nanoparticles (NPs); Phytochemicals; Surface coating; Biocompatibility; Oxidative stress

Wine aroma is defined as the cumulative effect of smell, taste and mouth-feel. Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds (GBAC) were found in wine. The glycosidic aroma precursors are non-odorous. Most advances have been made in free aroma compounds from wine in recent decades. However, the glycosidically bound aroma compounds have received much less consideration than free aroma compounds. Acids and enzymes are responsible for transferring these glycosidic aroma precursors to aromatic compounds. This review provides an overview of recent developments in isolation, hydrolysis and characterization for glycosidic aroma precursors in wines, as well as their biological applications. It looks like that the GBAC had important biological applications, such as, genetic engineering, immobilization, aroma enhancement and biosynthesis. It will help to better understand the GBAC and free aroma compounds of wines.
Keywords: Wine; Volatile compounds; Glycosidic aroma precursors; Characterization; Applications

Bioactivity, toxicity and detoxification assessment of Dioscorea bulbifera L.: a comprehensive review by Xiao-Rui Guan; Lin Zhu; Zhan-Gang Xiao; Yi-Lin Zhang; Hu-Biao Chen; Tao Yi (573-601).
Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Chinese: Huangdu, common name: air potato) is a traditional herbal medicine in China, and it is also one of the most widely consumed yam species, especially in West Africa. Studies have verified that D. bulbifera is effective in treating a wide range of diseases, such as pharyngitis, goitre, pyogenic skin infections, orchitis and cancer. However, more and more studies have also reported liver and kidney damage caused by D. bulbifera. To promote understanding of the bioactivity, toxicity and methods for detoxification of this medicinal and edible plant, the present article reviews the most valuable recent reports on its phytochemistry and pharmacological effects. The possible reasons for its toxicity include the toxic effects of diosbulbin B and D on hepatocytes, the inhibition of antioxidant enzymes in liver mitochondria, and inhibition of enzymes that ordinarily metabolize the herb’s components. Synergistic compatibility detoxification may help to reduce toxic effects and improve therapeutic effects. More clinical trials are also required to fully achieve its therapeutic potential.
Keywords: Dioscorea bulbifera ; Pharmacological effects; Toxicity; Detoxification