Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal (v.42, #11)

Esterification of lupinine with palmitic acid chloride yields their ester in a yield of 78%. It is shown that this compound exhibits a high (98%) antituberculosis activity against M. tuberculosis R37Rv in vitro at a concentration of 6.25 μg/mL.

Synthesis, toxicity, and percutaneous activity of silicon glycerolates and related hydrogels by T. G. Khonina; O. N. Chupakhin; L. P. Larionov; T. G. Boyakovskaya; A. L. Suvorov; E. V. Shadrina (609-613).
Silicon glycerolates of the general formula Si(C3H7O3)4xC3H8O3(3 ≤ x ≤ 10) and related hydrogels of the general formula Si(C3H7O3)4xC3H8O3yH2O (3 ≤ x ≤ 10, 20 ≤ y ≤ 40) were synthesized and some of their pharmacological properties were studied. The laws of gel formation were investigated and optimum conditions for the process were determined. High percutaneous (transdermal) activity of the synthesized compounds was revealed by measuring the diffusion of drugs through intact skin membrane in vitro. The acute and chronic toxicity was studied. It was established that all substances are nontoxic. The experimental results show that silicon glycerolates and related hydrogels can be recommended for further testing and investigation as effective biologically active percutaneous vehicles of medicinal preparations.

Antibacterial properties of coordination compounds of silver and tryptophan by G. M. Bobiev; T. D. Sufiev; A. N. Shakhmatov (614-615).
The antibacterial activity of a series of coordination compounds of silver (Ag) and tryptophan (Trp) with a Trp/Ag molar ratio of 1:1 [C(Trp) = C(Ag) = 0.001 M, C(Trp) = 0.0204%, C(Ag) = 0.0108%], 2:1 [C(Trp) = 0.00133 M, C(Ag) = 0.00067 M, C(Trp) = 0.0272%, C(Ag) = 0.0072%], and 1:2 [C(Trp) = 0.00067 M, C(Ag) = 0.00133 M, C(Trp) = 0.0136%, C(Ag) = 0.0144%], and an aqueous solution of AgNO3 [C = 0.002 M, C(Ag) = 0.0216%] have been studied by the method of diffusion into agar. It is established that all compounds show a clearly pronounced antibacterial effect that depends on the silver concentration.

Reactivity indices of a series of cinnamic acid derivatives with respect to active oxygen species have been investigated by semi-empirical quantum-chemical methods (PM3, AM1). A new characteristic, the total unsaturation index, is proposed and is determined using the values of bond orders, binding numbers, and valences of carbon atoms in the analyzed structures. On the basis of the quantum-chemical analysis data and the results of a pharmacological activity prognosis for the virtual structures (using the PASS program package), some new potentially active cinnamic acid hydroxy derivatives have been synthesized.

Theoretical investigation of the antituberculosis activity of compounds of the dihydropyrimidine series by E. S. Pereyaslavskaya; V. A. Potemkin; E. V. Bartashevich; M. A. Grishina; G. L. Rusinov; O. V. Fedorova; M. S. Zhidovinova; I. G. Ovchinnikova (622-625).
An analysis of the tuberculostatic activity of dihydropyrimidine derivatives has been carried out using the 3D QSAR algorithm BiS/MC. Conformers responsible for the biological action of these compounds have been found and their complexes with receptors have been modeled. It is shown that oxygen atoms of the podand chain or ether group of most biologically active compounds interact with postiviely charged atoms of the receptor. Pharmacophore and antipharmacophore fragments have been identified. The relationship of the tuberculostatic activity and characteristics of the receptor-ligand complexes have been established (correlation coefficient, 0.99). The results can be used for directed synthesis of effective antituberculosis agents and for predicting the tuberculostatic activity of new compounds.

Antidiabetic properties of gymnema sylvestre (a review) by A. A. Spasov; M. P. Samokhina; A. E. Bulanov (626-629).
Data on the chemical composition and pharmacological activity of Gymnema sylvestre are reviewed. Possible mechanisms of the hypoglycemic action are discussed. The physical and chemical properties, the proposed chemical nature, in addition to the role of triterpene saponins in the regulation of hyperglycemia and normalization of metabolic processes during diabetes mellitus are analyzed.

We have studied the qualitative and quantitative composition of β-carboline indole alkaloids that have been isolated for the first time from bark of Hippophaë rhamnoides L., Elaeagnus angustifolia L., E. orientalis L., E. umbellata Thunb., E. multiflora Thunb., and E. argentea Pursh. occurring in Russia. Results of a phytochemical study showed that the bark of all these plants contains β-carboline alkaloids and that the first four of them can be promising sources of β-carboline alkaloids for the creation of drugs.

A pure compound has been isolated and identified as coptisine on the basis of UV and NMR spectroscopy data using preparative separation of the extract from greater celandine (Chelidonium majus L.) herbs by column chromatography over short columns of silica gel. Qualitative and quantitative estimation of the total alkaloid contents in C. majus is performed using TLC analysis and spectrophotometry (analytical wavelength 360 nm). The need for using a state standard sample of coptisine is validated. The total content of alkaloids in C. majus herbs varies within 0.90–1.75% (calculated as coptisine). The relative error of the determination of the total alkaloid content using the proposed method at a confidence probability of 0.95 does not exceed ±4.40%.

The criteria (characteristics and their permissible values) for estimating the suitability of a chromatographic system intended for HPLC quality control of parent drugs and dosage forms are considered. Practical recommendations concering the HPLC system suitability criteria are formulated.

Sorption of highly toxic heavy-metal ions by natural schungites by V. V. Yagov; I. V. Yagova; O. U. Vasil’eva; A. V. Borodin; A. N. Zhuchkov; A. S. Berlyand (644-646).
We studied the sorption of Hg, Tl, and Pb on schungite under static conditions. It was shown that the centers of Hg adsorption are associated with the carbon framework of the sorbent. Effective adsorption was observed even from strongly acidic solutions. The centers of adsorption for the other metals were associated with the mineral part of schungite or an unambiguous conclusion could not be made.

Methods of standardization and quality control of homeopathic matrix tinctures of Coffea arabica and Coffea tosta obtained using green and roasted coffee beans are described. They include the organoleptic characteristics, qualitative reactions, TLC, quantitative estimation of caffeine and total phenolcarboxylic acids (calculated as caffeic acid), relative density, and percentage of dry residue. The period of expiration on storage is established at two years. These methods are included in drafts of pharmacopoeial monographs for homeopathic matrix tinctures of Coffea arabica and Coffea tosta.

Amino acids and cyclic dipeptides in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica and U. urens) homeopathic matrix tinctures by E. S. Lapinskaya; Ya. F. Kopyt’ko; E. A. Timokhina; B. A. Krapivkin; G. S. Levandovskii; T. D. Dargaeva; T. A. Sokol’skaya (650-653).
Qualitative and quantitative contents of amino acids and N-containing substances isolated from lipophilic fractions of tinctures derived from both freshly collected plants and dried material of Urtica dioica L. and U. urens L. in accordance with homeopathic technology were studied using amino-acid analysis and GC-MS techniques. The amino-acid composition includes 18 compounds. The content of free amino acids amounted to 0.02 – 0.21%; that of bound amino acids, 0.03 – 0.29%, both being higher in tinctures obtained from freshly collected raw material. A comparison of the amino-acid contents before and after hydrolysis shows that amino acids are present in tinctures mostly in the free form. The analyses of tinctures showed the presence of pyrazine and pyrazole derivatives, including 4-ethyl-4,5-dihydro-5-propyl-1H-pyrazol-1-carboxyaldehyde isomers and hexahydropyrrolo[1, 2-a]pyrazin-1,4-dione derivatives with 3-alkyl and 3-phenylmethyl substituents in addition to 5,10-diethoxy-2,3,7,8-tetrahydro-1H,6H-dipyrrolo[1,2-a; 1′,2′-d]pyrazine. These biologically active compounds may contribute to the pharmacological effect of urtica-based phytopreparations.

The technique of spectrophotometric determination of analginum, caffeine, and paracetamolum in medicinal preparations Solpadeine and Tetralginum with the use of three sets of analytical wavelengths (AWL) selected using a new criterion is developed. Components with small and large contents can be determined approximately with an identical error. Phenobarbital and codeine do not interfere with the determination of the basic components.