Metallurgist (v.58, #5-6)

This article presents an example of the end-to-end simulation of the casting of a steel ingot in an ingot mold and solid forging of the ingot. The simulation is performed using the software products ProCAST (ESIGroup, France) and QForm (Quantor Form, Russia). The formulation and solution of problems is examined and data are obtained on the temperature field and shrinkage defects of the ingot. The effects of these factors on the metal-forming operation are taken into account in the solution of the problems.
Keywords: computer simulation; casting in ingot molds; metal-forming; solid forging; interdisciplinary design; solidification shrinkage

The essence of a modern automated information system for metallurgical companies (AISMC) is explained and its place in the company’s hierarchy of information systems is discussed. The composition and main functions of the system are described along with the principles by which it interacts with equipment and other systems at the company’s factory. An example is given of an existing information system used by a metallurgical plant and its economic impact is examined.
Keywords: information system; enterprise control; real-time cost of a production heat; AIST

Nickel Sulfide Concentrate Processing Using Low-Temperature Roasting with Sodium Chloride by V. A. Imideev; P. V. Aleksandrov; A. S. Medvedev; O. V. Bazhenova; A. R. Khanapieva (353-359).
A method is proposed for processing nickel sulfide concentrates based on low-temperature roasting with sodium chloride. In the course of research, the dependence of valuable component extraction on excess sodium chloride and roasting temperature and duration is determined, and also cinder water and sulphuric acid leaching regimes are optimized. Optimum results are achieved with the following roasting regimes: temperature 400°C, duration 1.5 h, and excess NaCl 50–200% of concentrate weight. A production scheme is proven on a laboratory scale with subsequent two-stage water and sulphuric acid leaching with calculation of the material balance for nickel, copper, cobalt, and iron. Complete extraction into solution is, %: Ni 95, Cu 99, Co 96.
Keywords: nickel sulfide; nickel concentrate; low-temperature roasting; sodium chloride; extraction; optimum conditions

Resources-Saving Technology for Recycling Off-Grade Waste Products Cast from Superalloys by V. V. Sidorov; V. E. Rigin; A. V. Goryunov; P. G. Min (360-366).
Research results are used to develop a resources-saving technology that can be used to obtain cast charge-grade semifinished products of superalloys from materials which consist of up to 100% off-grade waste products (scrap, etc.). The technology can use all types of wastes in recycling the alloys through refining, saves costly and scarce alloying metals, and reduces the production cost of the alloys without affecting their quality.
Keywords: superalloy; waste products; filtration; impurities; properties

Results are presented from a study of the use of bentonite clay from the Voskresensk deposit to make iron-ore pellets from concentrate obtained from the Mikhailov Mining-Concentration Combine.
Keywords: iron-ore pellets; bentonite clay; pellet production technology; the quality of iron-ore pellets

The productivity of a blast furnace is determined by the gas permeability of the stock and the amount of gas formed for each ton of pig iron that is made, i.e., it is determined by the amount of fuel consumed and the oxygen content of the blast. The indices used to characterize the unit productivity of blast furnaces and the smelting rate inside them per square meter of their volume formally depend on the height of the furnace. It is incorrect to use these indices to compare the performance of furnaces which are of different volumes. Use of the indices by the authors of [3] to compare smelting rates on blast furnaces in the 1940–1950s and modern furnaces led them to conclude that smelting rate is not increased by increasing the furnace’s topgas pressure and enriching the air blast with oxygen. In order to objectively compare the efficiency of blast furnaces that differ in volume, it is necessary to use unit-productivity and smelting-rate indices that are calculated for each square meter of the cross section of the hearth. The methods currently used to operate blast furnaces at the Nizhniy Tagil Metallurgical Combine and Novolipetsk Metallurgical Combine show that as long as the coke and iron-ore-bearing charge materials which are used are of acceptable quality, raising the top-gas pressure and the increasing the oxygen content of the blast make it possible to achieve record values for blast furnaces’ productivity and smelting-rate indices.
Keywords: blast furnace; efficiency; unit productivity; smelting rate; calculation of smelting-rate indices; high pressure; oxygen; smelting intensifiers

Evaluation of the Effect of Modifier Composition with Nanostructured Additives on Grey Cast Iron Properties by V. V. Kondrat’ev; A. E. Balanovskii; N. A. Ivanov; V. A. Ershov; M. V. Kornyakov (377-387).
Production and use of modifiers for cast iron and steel are analyzed. Compositions of standard industrial modifiers are considered with evaluation of trends in their development. It is shown that a promising area for creating a new generation of fundamentally different types of modifier is nanomodification of molten iron-carbon alloys.
Keywords: modifiers; cast iron; steel; nanotubes

Determination of the Integral Emissivity of a Periclase-Carbon Lining by M. V. Krasnyanskii; Ya. L. Kats (388-391).
Experimental values have been determined for the integral emissivity (blackness) of periclase-carbon refractories used in the working layer of the lining of steel-pouring ladles. The values were found for the range 500–900°C. It was established that the emissivity of periclase-carbon refractories is considerably higher than that of periclase refractories. Use of the data which were obtained is making it possible to more accurately measure the temperature of such linings by the pyrometric method.
Keywords: emissivity; radiation temperature; periclase-carbon refractories; steel-pouring ladle; lining

The Formation of Sulfide Inclusions and Their Location Within Grains in Relation to Steel 20 Deoxidation Conditions by O. A. Shevtsova; N. A. Zyuban; S. A. Pegisheva; D. V. Rutskii; K. E. Titov; N. V. Klyachina (392-396).
Features of sulfide inclusion formation during metal solidification under different deoxidation conditions are considered. Correlation is established between low-alloy structural steel oxidation level and sulfide and oxysulfide inclusion morphology, and features of their location within grains giving rise to a possible reduction in object ductility properties.
Keywords: oxide inclusions; sulfide inclusions; deoxidation; oxidation level; degassing; inclusion morphology

It is shown that it is expedient to apply thermal spray coatings to the working surface of the narrow walls of continuous-caster molds in order to improve the quality of the cast semifinished products. It was confirmed experimentally that the application of such coatings decreases the number of longitudinal, transverse, and reticular cracks on the surface of slabs, which in turn increases usable output in the subsequent rolling operations.
Keywords: thermal spray coating; mold; wear of narrow walls; cracks; quality of semifinished products

NLMK-DanSteel: Production of Plates and Heavy Slabs by Yu. A. Bokachev; I. G. Sarkits; E. A. Goli-Oglu (401-405).
A description is given of the specifications and technical capabilities of new equipment on a 4200 hot-rolling mill designed to roll plates of low-carbon steels.
Keywords: 4200 hot-rolling mill; rolled plates; low-carbon steel

Principles are established for controlling low-alloy steel structure formation during thermomechanical treatment for the possibility of creating steels for different purposes from slabs of a single chemical composition. Technology is developed for manufacturing high-strength shipbuilding steels with a yield strength of 460 MPa and strength category K65 pipe steels of unified chemical composition.
Keywords: ferritic-bainitic steel; ultrafine grained structure; hot plastic deformation; fragmentation

Relations are presented to determine the tractive force exerted on strip by a straightening machine in a continuous hot-galvanizing unit. The working rollers of the machine have different radii. The relations take this difference into account along with the coefficient of rolling friction in the bearings of the rollers, the number of rollers in the straightening machine, the curvature of the strip, unit back tension, and the strip's mechanical properties and geometric dimensions. Results are presented from a study of how the tractive forces are affected by the cross-sectional area of the strip and the unit back tension. The results are obtained for the straightening of strips with different mechanical properties.
Keywords: galvanized strip; straightening machine; tractive force

Heat Treatment as a Method for Excluding IGSCC for Dn300 RBMK-1000 Pipeline Welded Joints by A. N. Romanov; A. G. Derzhavin; K. I. Shut’ko; M. V. Bortnikov; A. B. Korostelev (421-425).
Results are given for research performed in order to substantiate an optimum heat treatment regime with the aim of eliminating defect development by an intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) mechanism in a Dn300 pipeline welded joint heat-affected zone.
Keywords: corrosion cracking; high-temperature heat treatment; pipelines; RBMK-1000; residual stresses; welded joints; recrystallization; sensitization

Factors That Affect the Quality of Hot-Forged Bimetallic Powder Products by E. N. Bessarabov; M. Q. K. Yasi; Yu. G. Dorofeyev; V. Yu. Dorofeyev (426-430).
This article examines questions related to improving the quality of hot-worked bimetallic powder materials. It analyzes the technological factors in the first stage of the process of producing a bimetal – cold pressing of the outer layer. A description is given of a technology that eliminates the need for auxiliary structural elements for the compression mold (shells, connectors, etc.), better protects the preform from oxidation while it is being heated prior to finish forging, and improves the quality of the transition layer and the bimetal as a whole.
Keywords: bimetals; hot forging; metal powders

Results are presented from studies of the elemental and phase compositions of dust from the electrostatic precipitators of a Vanyukov furnace operated at the Middle Ural Copper Smelter The size and shape of the dust particles were evaluated and the dust's elemental composition was examined at local probe points. The results were generalized, and it was determined that there is a correlation between the copper and lead contents of the dust and between the copper and arsenic contents of the sulfide phases.
Keywords: gases; fumes; composition; microanalysis; phases; structure

EZRAZ ZSMK – 50 Years of Success by A. B. Yuryev (439-442).
EVRAZ Consolidated West-Siberian Metallurgical Combine is one of the largest metallurgical enterprises in Russia. It is part of the vertically integrated international mining-metallurgical company EVRAZ, which operates facilities in Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, the U.S., Canada, Italy, and South Africa.
Keywords: ■■■

Computer Modeling, Volume Prototyping, and Non-contact Optical Scanning in an Integrated Technology for Pre-production Casting. Trial Use by A. K. Shmakov; E. I. Unagaev; I. V. Kolmogortsev; S. A. Osipov; V. V. Kotov (443-449).
This article describes the trial use of a new integrated technology for pre-production casting in sand-clay molds. Virtual modeling of the casting operation is performed, the casting is designed, and the casting regimes are determined. A master model of the casting is constructed with the use of 3D printing. Non-contact optical scanning is used to check the geometric characteristic of the plastic master model and the actual casting made from it.
Keywords: casting in sand-clay molds; volume prototyping; non-contact optical scanning; master model; 3D printing; 3D printer; 3D scanning; 3D scanner; casting defects; virtual analysis of a production process; casting; deviations of the geometric characteristics

Engineers and scientists in Russia and abroad are giving a considerable amount of attention to improving the quality of the rails being made by metallurgical plants. Rolling 100-m-long rails requires proper preheating of the continuous-cast semifinished products with a minimal temperature gradient along and across the products. A heating operation of the requisite quality is assured by the use of a level-2 automation system to heat the metal in the furnace.
Keywords: heating; semifinished rail; reconstruction; automation

Improving the Effectiveness of Industrial Lighting by V. V. Bogatishchev (454-458).
This article describes work done at the EZRAZ ZSMK on improving the efficiency of the combine's lighting systems and finding optimum ways to upgrade them. The objectives and initial results of a program for making the systems more efficient are also discussed.
Keywords: energy efficiency; lighting

Development of Methods and Technologies at the Sinter Plant by A. I. Shentsov; A. A. Odintsov; E. B. Svirin (459-463).
are presented from the implementation of several technical and technological measures aimed at making sinter production at EZRAZ ZSMK more efficient. The measures have elevated the technical-economic indices of the sinter plant, increased sinter output, reduced sintering-machine downtime, and improved the sinter's quality characteristics.
Keywords: sinter plant; sinter; sintering machine; iron-ore concentrate; charge

Introduction of a Unit for Dust-Free Coke Discharge by S. N. Golubtsov; K. P. Karakash (464-468).
One environmental problem that has become particularly important is reducing pollution from coke production. One of the steps that has been taken to help solve the problem is the introduction of a dust-free coke discharge unit at EVRAZ ZSMK.
Keywords: dust; coke; dust-free coke discharge unit

Making more Efficient Use of Solid Fuel in Two-Layer Sintering by A. V. Feoktistov; A. A. Odintsov (469-477).
Results are presented from laboratory studies of the sintering of a two-layer charge in which the solid fuel is separated into different fractions. It was established that a reduction in the top layer’s content of the –0.5-mm fraction from 45% to zero is accompanied by a decrease in the unit productivity of the sintering machine and increases in the output of sinter and its strength characteristics. The indices of the sintering operation and sinter quality remain the same as in the standard technology when fuel content is decreased from 7.5 to 7.1–7.2%. Introduction of the technology that was developed will makes it possible to decrease the unit consumption of solid fuel for sinter production by 4%.
Keywords: sintering; solid fuel; granulometric composition; sinter; charge

Improving Blast-Furnace Smelting Indices Through More Efficient Screening of Sinter Fines by L. V. Portnov; A. M. Koverzin; V. I. Kutran’; L. D. Nikitin (478-481).
Reducing the amount of fines in a blast-furnace charge significantly increases furnace productivity while also decreasing coke rate and the cost of making pig iron. The agglomeration facility at the metallurgical combine of EZRAZ ZSMK was originally designed to make one type of concentrate for blast-furnace smelting. The capacity of the warehouses where raw materials are averaged and the capacities of the equipment for crushing, screening, and delivering limestone to the facility were planned accordingly. The charge which is currently used for the sintering machines contains up to 10 iron-bearing components (concentrates, ores, additives) that differ significantly from one another in their chemical composition and physicochemical properties (granulometric composition, initial and final melting points, etc.). Irregular deliveries of iron-ore-based raw materials, the small reserves of these materials, and the inadequate storage capacity of the warehouses are adversely affecting the conditions under which the materials are averaged, thus leading to a reduction in the sinter’s mechanical strength and an increase in its content of fines. Implementation of a plan to improve the designs of the screens and screening surfaces and introduce measures to reduce the sinter’s content of fines has made it possible to lower the amount of fines in skip coke by 0.4–0.6 abs.%, improve the gasdynamic regime of the blast furnaces, increase productivity by 0.1–0.3%, and reduce the coke rate by 0.1–0.2%.
Keywords: sinter; screening; fines; screen; efficiency

Technology Development and Efficiency Assessment for Waste Utilization in Pig-Iron Production by A. M. Koverzin; L. D. Nikitin; L. V. Portnov; A. A. Drozhzhin (482-487).
The EVRAZ ZSMK combine is looking for ways to use ironmaking wastes in blast furnaces in order to reduce the cost of making pig iron. To this end, the combine is also evaluating the properties of the wastes and the expediency and effectiveness of their use. Utilizing wastes in pig iron production is efficient because it reduces pollution and the amounts of natural raw materials used in smelting while also improving the indices of the smelting operation. The use of different types of wastes in a blast furnace is effective because the furnace contains a high-temperature oxidizing zone and there is a high potential for reduction reactions to take place over a large part of the furnace's volume. A new blast-furnace smelting technology has been developed, the technology making it possible to improve environmental conditions and reduce (by 0.2–2.1%) the quantities of natural materials used in the process. The technology being proposed for utilizing technogenic wastes can be employed on the blast furnaces at metallurgical plants in Russia. It does not require a capital investment and ensures the production of conversion pig iron at low cost. The technology is consistent with the modern practices now being used throughout the world to improve the environment and is recommended as a means of making use of technogenic wastes at metallurgical plants.
Keywords: smelting of pig iron; wastes; technology; hearth blockage; coke rate; productivity

Improving the Durability of Blast-Furnace Tuyeres by L. V. Portnov; L. D. Nikitin; S. F. Bugaev; V. G. Shchipitsyn (488-491).
When blast furnaces are forced to run at high speed, one way of reducing their downtime, increasing their productivity, and lowering the cost of making pig iron is to improve the durability of the tuyeres. Experience shows that the main causes of tuyere failure are crack formation, wear, and burn-throughs. The durability of a tuyere and the type of problems encountered with it are significantly affected by the sophistication of the smelting technology that is used and the quality of the charge materials. Most tuyeres do not last longer than three months when the supply of raw materials to the furnace is unstable, and 20% of tuyeres (out of the total number that are replaced) have lasted less than half a month under such conditions. The amount of furnace downtime necessitated by the replacement of failed tuyere parts has reached 2.0–2.5% of nominal operating time, which has seriously hurt furnaces’ technical-economic indices. Stabilization of the operation of blast furnaces at EZRAZ ZSMK has allowed the combine to work on improving the durability of the tuyeres by redesigning them, improving the quality of the work done in making them, and applying protective coatings (by plasma deposition, electron-beam hard facing, etc.). The combine’s introduction of a new technology for making tuyeres and the strengthening of these pieces of equipment while ensuring a satisfactory cooling rate have made it possible to reduce the incidence of tuyere failure due to cracking. The number of tuyere replacements has declined during both normal and high-speed operation of the furnaces, which has in turn elevated tuyere service life to an average of 5–7 months and a maximum of 14–15 months.
Keywords: tuyere; hardening; design; protective coatings; service life

Parameters are developed for combined extra-furnace treatment of molten blast-furnace iron using pulsating blowing by inert gas. The new technology provides a marked improvement in operating life of replacement components of metallurgical equipment (molds, pallets, slag pots). The possibility is demonstrated of repeated use of naturally-alloyed pig iron in the form of mold scrap under induction melting conditions for heat-resistant components.
Keywords: blast-furnace iron; extra-furnace treatment; pulsating blowing; molds; pallets; properties; operating life

Development of Steelmaking by A. V. Amelin; A. M. Koverzin; M. V. Utrobin; A. N. Ivanov; D. B. Foygt (496-499).
BOF shop No. 2 at the EVRAZ ZSMK combine is working on increasing its capacity to improve productivity, changing over completely to continuous casting, improving the quality of the steel, and expanding the ranges of grades and product sizes. The combine's equipment as a whole is also undergoing an extensive upgrade, with this change including the black-plate production unit and the steelmaking and rolling divisions. The ultimate result will be a more diversified product mix.
Keywords: construction and reconstruction of facilities; continuous billet and slab casters; equipment configuration; performance specifications; productivity; grade and cut-to-length product ranges; product quality

Changing the Technical-Economic Indices of Rail-Steel Production by Sorting Scrap Based on its Content of Residual Elements by P. A. Shabanov; K. V. Volkov; E. P. Kuznetsov; I. V. Aleksandrov; A. Yu. Batalov (500-503).
Features of the technology used to make rail steel at the EVRAZ ZSMK combine are discussed along with the requirements on the steel’s contents of residual elements. A description is given of the step-by-step introduction of a process for sorting scrap to make rail steel, the sorting being based on the scrap’s content of residual elements. A comparative analysis is made of changes in the technical-economic indices of rail-steel production before and after the introduction of the sorting operation and the reasons for those changes are explained. The cost-effectiveness of the measures that were implemented is also evaluated.
Keywords: steelmaking; electric-arc furnace; rail steel; scrap metal; solid pig iron; residual elements; sorting of scrap metal; manufacturing efficiency

Development of Technology for the Secondary Treatment of Metal for Continuous Billet Casters by A. V. Amelin; A. M. Koverzin; Yu. N. Nosov; M. V. Utrobin; N. G. Matveev; V. V. Musokhranov (504-509).
A description is given of the stages in the development of technology at the EZRAZ ZSMK combine for the secondary treatment of steel destined for continuous casting. The description includes the equipment configuration, product mix, treatment technology, materials used, and results obtained in each stage.
Keywords: continuous-cast semifinished product; secondary treatment; steel-finishing unit; ladle-furnace unit; slag adjustment; deoxidation; desulfurization; alloying; inoculation

It is proposed that results obtained from the experimental-theoretical solution of a three-dimensional problem on the plastic flow of metal be used to determine the main reasons for variations in the output of usable metal products. The results were obtained on the basis of models of quality. Modeling was performed to analyze a technology for rolling a broad range of structural-grade carbon-steel rounds that then undergo cold extrusion and upsetting. The rounds are rolled on a light-section mill and a rod mill at the EVRAZ ZSMK combine. It is shown that under the given production conditions the value of the integral index of rolled-product quality which characterizes the output of usable metal over long periods of time is determined mainly by simultaneous processes that involve the healing (or deepening) of surface defects, the formation of cracks on the surface of the semifinished products, nonuniform wear of the grooves of the rolling-mill passes, and depletion of the reserve ductility of the metal in the region where it comes into contact with the grooves. The results have been used to substantiate corrective measures taken in the multi-stage manufacture of rolled products at the combine. The measures were substantiated within the context of the combine's existing quality-control system.
Keywords: output of usable metal; rounds; design rating; models of quality; modeling; section rolling; corrective measures

Optimizing the Rolling Conditions on a 250-2 Light-Section Mill by A. A. Umanskii; Yu. A. Mart’yanov (516-523).
Tests were performed on the continuous 250-2 light-section mill at the EVRAZ ZSMK combine to study the effect of the deformation regimes on the healability of surface defects on semifinished products. It was confirmed experimentally that increasing the degree of similarity between the pass and the cross-sectional shape of the initial semifinished product increases the healability of the defects. A new pass system was developed for the rolls in the roughing-stand group of the 250-2 mill. Introduction of the new system has increased usable output 3% by reducing the incidence of rejections due to surface defects.
Keywords: deformation; rolling; roll design; surface defects; experimental studies

Assimilation of Advanced Roll Materials in Rolling Production by Yu. O. V’yuntsov; A. M. Koverzin; A. Yu. Romadin; V. V. Salomykin; E. V. Saprykin (524-527).
The EVRAZ ZSMK 250-1 continuous small-section mill specializes in manufacture of rebars Nos. 10 and 12 and equal-flanged angles Nos. 2–4 from billets 100 ×× 100 mm in cross section. Rebar manufacture is carried out by a slitting process from carbon and low-alloy steels for different standards governing rib transverse shape. The life of finishing stand reinforcing passes is mostly determined by channel shape at the bottom of grooves within which transverse ribs are formed. The lowest life of finishing stand passes is observed in rolling crescent shaped ribs. There is surface breakdown in these passes with formation of cracks and spalling. Cracks form during the first use of a set of rolls. Cracks penetrate to a depth up to 15 mm in rolls with high hardness. Tests are performed for different grades of cast iron for rolls of the finishing group with a minimum hardness of 60 HRC to a controlled depth of 15 mm from the roll body surface. The best operating properties are obtained in rolls of cast iron with a spheroidal graphite shape, alloyed with chromium, nickel, molybdenum, and vanadium.
Keywords: roll; finishing mill; rebar; pass life; material hardness; crack; roll spalling; lamellar graphite; nodular graphite; spheroidal graphite; bainitic cast iron

Analysis of Experimental Dependence of Rail Steel E78KhSF Deformation Resistance on Deformation Temperature, Rate, and Degree by A. V. Golovatenko; V. V. Dorofeev; V. A. Trusov; K. V. Volkov; A. V. Dobryanskii (528-534).
Experimental studies are performed for determining the effect of hot rolling process parameters on structure formation and a set of mechanical properties for R65 type rails made from steel E78KhSF under EVRAZ ZSMK conditions. The effect of processing parameters of the existing production scheme (temperature-time, deformation rate and energy and force parameters) for production of R65 type rails made from steel E78KhSF is studied using a Gleeble System 3800 simulation unit.
Keywords: rolling; rails; dilatometer; deformation resistance; specimens

Cold-Resistant Steel Rebar by E. A. Ivanov; O. V. Dikan’; Yu. O. V’yuntsov; E. V. Chinokalov; S. A. Dyubina (535-539).
Sensitivity of hot-rolled and thermomechanically strengthened rebar towards brittle failure in the temperature range from +20 to −70°C is evaluated; the dependence of failure energy at −70°C on rod diameter is studied. The change in rebar mechanical properties under the effect of temperature is studied. Recommendations for manufacture in EVRAZ ZSMK of cold-resistant rebar class As500S according to TU 14-1-5543 are developed from research results.
Keywords: brittle failure; impact strength; mechanical properties; thermomechanically strengthened rebar

Cold-Drawn Reinforcing Wire with Screw Profile by A. R. Fastykovskii; E. V. Chinokalov; A. G. Milovanov; N. V. Myskova; A. A. Shumkin (540-544).
Evolution of structure and mechanical properties during manufacture of multithread screw profile using a special drawing tool is studied. Geometric dimension stability, screw surface pitch, and finished profile cross sectional area are evaluated. Finished profile mechanical properties are determined.
Keywords: reinforcing wire; multithread screw profile; drawing; cross sectional area

Stages in the realization of the Repairs project at the EVRAZ ZSMK combine are examined. Data are presented on the tools of lean manufacturing and the methods used to implement it. The problems typically encountered at the different stages of the project are discussed.
Keywords: lean manufacturing; value stream analysis (VSA); overall equipment effectiveness (OEE); single-minute exchange of die (SMED)

Zsmk Reinforcement Steel – Challenge Accepted by O. O. Tsyba; V. V. Kovalenko (550-553).

Erratum to: Analysis of Pore Formation and Impeded Shrinkage of an Alloy in the System ProCast by I. N. Erdakov; A. V. Karpinskii; V. V. Novokreshchenov (554-554).