Inorganic Materials (v.51, #13)

The review discusses methods to manufacture osteoconductive inorganic materials based mainly on calcium phosphates with given macroscopic porosity using rapid prototyping. Requirements for composition and morphological architectonic of these materials are considered, and three-dimensional printing techniques that are most often used to achieve this are described.
Keywords: additive technologies; ceramics; cements; calcium phosphates; rapid prototyping; forming; osteoconductive macroporosity; permeability; resorbability; topology optimization

The present review details the results of studies that showcase the capacity of the molecular dynamics method to analyze the atomic structure of small-sized metallic objects: nanoparticles, thin films, and film heterostructures.
Keywords: molecular dynamics; modeling; atomic structure; thin films; nanoparticle

The experimental and theoretical concepts of the physical and chemical properties of tin dioxide which favor its use in semiconductor gas sensors are systematized. The interrelations of the band structure, the nature of intrinsic defects, microstructure parameters, and reactivity of nanocrystalline SnO2 during the detection of gases of different chemical nature are considered. The existing concepts which describe the change in electrical properties and the mechanism of the sensor signal formation are analyzed.
Keywords: tin dioxide; nanocrystalline materials; semiconductor oxides; gas sensors

Glasses on the basis of heavy metal fluorides by M. N. Brekhovskikh; L. V. Moiseeva; S. Kh. Batygov; I. A. Zhidkova; V. A. Fedorov (1348-1361).
In this review, the information on glass-forming fluoride systems is presented, and the main methods for synthesizing glasses on the basis of fluorides of the metals of Groups I–IV, their physicochemical properties, techniques for producing fibers and areas of application, and the techniques for purifying them from undesired impurities are discussed. Modern materials science studies in the area of fluoride glasses are aimed at searching for glasses activated with rare-earth elements (REEs) with a broad IR transmission range and high optical homogeneity with the purpose of creating efficient active optical media in a wide spectral range, as well as converters of IR radiation into the visible range for enhancing the efficiency of solar cells and exciting photocatalysts. The analysis of the influence of impurities on the optical transparency, crystallization, and phase purity of the glasses under study is presented. The methods for the deep purification of the initial substances for preparing fluoride glasses with the minimum content of impurities are considered. Original procedures for synthesizing fluorides of elements and glasses free from oxygen-containing impurities are created on the basis of physicochemical studies of the interactions of fluorinating agents with the components of fluoride glasses.
Keywords: fluoride glasses; glass formation; IR spectroscopy; luminescence properties