Biochemistry (Moscow) (v.83, #10)

ADP-Inhibition of H+-FOF1-ATP Synthase by A. S. Lapashina; B. A. Feniouk (1141-1160).
H+-FOF1-ATP synthase (F-ATPase, F-type ATPase, FOF1 complex) catalyzes ATP synthesis from ADP and inorganic phosphate in eubacteria, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and some archaea. ATP synthesis is powered by the transmembrane proton transport driven by the proton motive force (PMF) generated by the respiratory or photosynthetic electron transport chains. When the PMF is decreased or absent, ATP synthase catalyzes the reverse reaction, working as an ATP-dependent proton pump. The ATPase activity of the enzyme is regulated by several mechanisms, of which the most conserved is the non-competitive inhibition by the MgADP complex (ADP-inhibition). When ADP binds to the catalytic site without phosphate, the enzyme may undergo conformational changes that lock bound ADP, resulting in enzyme inactivation. PMF can induce release of inhibitory ADP and reactivate ATP synthase; the threshold PMF value required for enzyme reactivation might exceed the PMF for ATP synthesis. Moreover, membrane energization increases the catalytic site affinity to phosphate, thereby reducing the probability of ADP binding without phosphate and preventing enzyme transition to the ADP-inhibited state. Besides phosphate, oxyanions (e.g., sulfite and bicarbonate), alcohols, lauryldimethylamine oxide, and a number of other detergents can weaken ADP-inhibition and increase ATPase activity of the enzyme. In this paper, we review the data on ADP-inhibition of ATP synthases from different organisms and discuss the in vivo role of this phenomenon and its relationship with other regulatory mechanisms, such as ATPase activity inhibition by subunit ε and nucleotide binding in the noncatalytic sites of the enzyme. It should be noted that in Escherichia coli enzyme, ADP-inhibition is relatively weak and rather enhanced than prevented by phosphate.
Keywords: ATP synthase; F-ATPase; ADP-inhibition; regulation; LDAO; sulfite; bioenergetics; FOF1 ; proton-motive force; phosphate; ATP hydrolysis

Advances in the Application of Modified Nucleotides in SELEX Technology by O. M. Antipova; E. G. Zavyalova; A. V. Golovin; G. V. Pavlova; A. M. Kopylov; R. V. Reshetnikov (1161-1172).
Aptamers are widely used as molecular recognition elements for detecting and blocking functional biological molecules. Since the common “alphabet” of DNA and RNA consists of only four letters, the chemical diversity of aptamers is less than the diversity of protein recognition elements built of 20 amino acids. Chemical modification of nucleotides enlarges the potential of DNA/RNA aptamers. This review describes the latest achievements in a variety of approaches to aptamers selection with an extended genetic alphabet.
Keywords: aptamers; modified nucleotides; mod-SELEX

Calcium-Dependent Desensitization of NMDA Receptors by D. A. Sibarov; S. M. Antonov (1173-1183).
Glutamate receptors play the key role in excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system (CNS). N-methyl-D-aspartate-activated glutamate receptors (NMDARs) are ion channels permeable to sodium, potassium, and calcium ions that localize to the pre- and postsynaptic membranes, as well as extrasynaptic neuronal membrane. Calcium entry into dendritic spines is essential for long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission. Both LTP and LTD represent morphological and functional changes occurring in the process of memory formation. NMDAR dysfunction is associated with epilepsy, schizophrenia, migraine, dementia, and neurodegenerative diseases. Prolonged activation of extrasynaptic NMDARs causes calcium overload and apoptosis of neurons. Here, we review recent findings on the molecular mechanisms of calcium-dependent NMDAR desensitization that ensures fast modulation of NMDAR conductance in the CNS and limits calcium entry into the cells under pathological conditions. We present the data on molecular determinants related to calcium-dependent NMDAR desensitization and functional interaction of NMDARs with other ion channels and transporters. We also describe association of NMDARs with lipid membrane microdomains.
Keywords: NMDA receptors; desensitization; calcium; sodium/calcium exchanger; lipid rafts; microdomains

Prions and Non-infectious Amyloids of Mammals – Similarities and Differences by A. P. Galkin; M. E. Velizhanina; Yu. V. Sopova; A. A. Shenfeld; S. P. Zadorsky (1184-1195).
Amyloids are highly ordered aggregates of protein fibrils exhibiting cross-β structure formed by intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Pathological amyloid deposition is associated with the development of several socially significant incurable human diseases. Of particular interest are infectious amyloids, or prions, that cause several lethal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and can be transmitted from one organism to another. Because of almost complete absence of criteria for infectious and non-infectious amyloids, there is a lack of consensus, especially, in the definition of similarities and differences between prions and non-infectious amyloids. In this review, we formulated contemporary molecular-biological criteria for identification of prions and non-infectious amyloids and focused on explaining the differences between these two types of molecules.
Keywords: protein aggregates; fibrils; amyloids; prions; infectivity

αB-Crystallin Phosphorylation: Advances and Problems by L. K. Muranova; M. V. Sudnitsyna; N. B. Gusev (1196-1206).
The review is dedicated to phosphorylation of αB-crystallin (HspB5), one of ubiquitously expressed small heat shock proteins. We describe the structure and properties of αB-crystallin and protein kinases involved in its phosphorylation in different cells and tissues, advantages and drawbacks of pseudophosphorylation mutants in elucidation of the mechanism of αB-crystallin functioning, effects of phosphorylation on the quaternary structure and intracellular location of αB-crystallin, interactions of αB-crystallin with different elements of the cytoskeleton, and effect of phosphorylation on the chap-erone-like activity of αB-crystallin. We also discuss the validity of experimental data obtained by overexpression of pseudophosphorylation mutants for understanding the effect of phosphorylation on physiologically important properties of αB-crystallin, as well as the question why multiple attempts to phosphorylate αB-crystallin in vitro have been unsuccessful so far.
Keywords: small heat shock proteins; crystallins; phosphorylation; protein kinases

Synthesis in Escherichia coli and Characterization of Human Recombinant Erythropoietin with Additional Heparin-Binding Domain by A. S. Karyagina; T. M. Grunina; M. S. Poponova; P. A. Orlova; V. N. Manskikh; A. V. Demidenko; N. V. Strukova; M. S. Manukhina; K. E. Nikitin; A. M. Lyaschuk; Z. M. Galushkina; S. A. Cherepushkin; N. B. Polyakov; A. I. Solovyev; V. G. Zhukhovitsky; D. A. Tretyak; I. S. Boksha; A. V. Gromov; V. G. Lunin (1207-1221).
Recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) with additional N-terminal heparin-binding protein domain (HBD) from bone morphogenetic protein 2 was synthesized in Escherichia coli cells. A procedure for HBD-EPO purification and refolding was developed for obtaining highly-purified HBD-EPO. The structure of recombinant HBD-EPO was close to that of the native EPO protein. HBD-EPO contained two disulfide bonds, as shown by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The protein demonstrated in vitro biological activity in the proliferation of human erythroleukemia TF-1 cell test and in vivo activity in animal models. HBD-EPO increased the number of reticulocytes in the blood after subcutaneous injection and displayed local angiogenic activity after subcutaneous implantation of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) discs with immobilized HBD-EPO. We developed a quantitative sandwich ELISA method for measuring HBD-EPO concentration in solution using rabbit polyclonal serum and commercial monoclonal anti-EPO antibodies. Pharmacokinetic properties of HBD-EPO were typical for bacterially produced EPO. Under physiological conditions, HBD-EPO can reversibly bind to DBM, which is often used as an osteoplastic material for treatment of bone pathologies. The data on HBD-EPO binding to DBM and local angiogenic activity of this protein give hope for successful application of HBD-EPO immobilized on DBM in experiments on bone regeneration.
Keywords: erythropoietin; Escherichia coli ; heparin-binding domain

Hydrophobic Derivatives of Glycopeptide Antibiotics as Inhibitors of Protein Kinases by G. Cozza; M. Fortuna; F. Meggio; S. Sarno; M. H. G. Kubbutat; F. Totzke; C. Schaechtele; L. A. Pinna; E. N. Olsufyeva; M. N. Preobrazhenskaya (1222-1230).
As key regulators of cell signaling, protein kinases (PKs) are attractive targets for therapeutic intervention in a variety of diseases. Herein, we report for the first time the inhibitory activity of polycyclic peptides, particularly, derivatives of glycopeptide antibiotics teicoplanin and eremomycin, against a panel of 12 recombinant human protein kinases and two protein kinases (CK1 and CK2) isolated from rat liver. Several of the investigated compounds inhibited various PKs with IC50 values below 10 μM and caused >90% suppression of the enzyme activity at 10 μM concentration. Kinetic analysis of the protein kinase CK2α inhibition by the teicoplanin aglycon analogue (7) demonstrated the non-competitive mechanism of inhibition (with regard to ATP). Interestingly, the inhibitory activity of some investigated compounds correlated with the earlier described antiviral activity against HIV, HCV, and other corona- and flaviviruses.
Keywords: polycyclic glycopeptide derivatives; protein kinases; antiviral activity

We studied the thermodynamics of melting of isolated rat liver nuclei with different degrees of chromatin condensation determined by the concentration of polyamines (PA) and the solution ionic strength, as well as the effect of the antibiotic distamycin A (DM) on melting. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) profiles of nuclear preparations contained three peaks that reflected melting of three main chromatin domains. The number of peaks did not depend on the degree of condensation; however, nuclei with more condensed chromatin had a higher total enthalpy. DM stabilized peaks II and III corresponding to the melting of relaxed and topologically strained DNA, respectively, but destabilized peak I corresponding to the melting of nucleosome core histones. At the saturating concentration (DM/DNA molar ratio = 0.1), DM increased T m of peaks II and III by ~5°C and decreased T m of peak I by ~2.5°C. Based on the dependence of ΔH on DM concentration, we established that at low DM/DNA ratio (⩽0.03), when DM interacted predominantly with AT-rich DNA regions, the enthalpy of peak II decreased in parallel with the increase in the enthalpy of peak III, which indicated that DM induces structural transitions in the nuclear chromatin associated with the increase in torsional stress in DNA. An increase in free energy under saturation conditions was equal to the change in the free energy of DM interaction with DNA. However, the increase in the enthalpy of melting of the nuclei in the presence of DM was much greater than the enthalpy of titration of nuclei with DM. This indicates a significant increase in the strength of interaction between the two DNA strands apparently due, among other things, to changes in the torsional stress of DNA in the nuclei. Titration of the nuclei with increasing PA concentrations resulted in the decrease in the number of DM-binding sites and the non-monotonous dependence of the enthalpy and entropy contribution to the binding free energy on the PA content. We suggested that the observed differences in the thermodynamic parameters were due to the different width of the minor groove in the nuclear chromatin DNA, which depends on PA concentration.
Keywords: nucleus; chromatin; distamycin A; differential scanning calorimetry; isothermal calorimetric titration; polyamines; DNA torsional stress

SkQ1 Controls CASP3 Gene Expression and Caspase-3-Like Activity in the Brain of Rats under Oxidative Stress by S. B. Panina; O. I. Gutsenko; N. P. Milyutina; I. V. Kornienko; A. A. Ananyan; D. Yu. Gvaldin; A. A. Plotnikov; V. V. Vnukov (1245-1254).
Here, we studied the effect of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 (plastoquinone cationic derivative) on the CASP3 gene expression and caspase-3 activity in rat cerebral cortex and brain mitochondria under normal conditions and in oxidative stress induced by hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO). Under physiological conditions, SkQ1 administration (50 nmol/kg, 5 days) did not affect the CASP3 gene expression and caspase-3-like activity in the cortical cells, as well as caspase-3-like activity in brain mitochondria, but caused a moderate decrease in the content of primary products of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and an increase in the reduced glutathione (GSH) level. HBO-induced oxidative stress (0.5 MPa, 90 min) was accompanied by significant upregulation of CASP3 mRNA and caspase-3-like activity in the cerebral cortex, activation of the mitochondrial enzyme with simultaneous decrease in the GSH content, increase in the glutathione reductase activity, and stimulation of LPO. Administration of SkQ1 before the HBO session maintained the basal levels of the CASP3 gene expression and enzyme activity in the cerebral cortex cells and led to the normalization of caspase-3-like activity and redox parameters in brain mitochondria. We hypothesize that SkQ1 protects brain cells from the HBO-induced oxidative stress due to its antioxidant activity and stimulation of antiapoptotic mechanisms.
Keywords: mitochondria-targeted antioxidant; brain; mitochondria; CASP3 gene expression; caspase-3; hyperoxia

The Expression of Matryoshka Gene Encoding a Homologue of Kunitz Peptidase Inhibitor Is Regulated Both at the Level of Transcription and Translation by E. V. Sheshukova; T. V. Komarova; N. M. Ershova; A. M. Bronstein; Y. L. Dorokhov (1255-1262).
The gene for Kunitz peptidase inhibitor-like protein (KPILP) contains nested alternative open reading frame (aORF) that controls expression of the maternal mRNA. The content of NbKPILP mRNA in intact leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana plant is low but increases significantly upon extended dark exposure or when foreign nucleic acid is overexpressed in the cells. The NbKPILP gene promoter along with the expressed nested aORF are likely to play an important role in maintaining the levels of NbKPILP mRNA. To elucidate the role of NbKPILP promoter, we isolated a fragment of N. benthamiana chromosomal DNA upstream of the NbKPILP transcription start, sequenced it, and created constructs in which reporter E. coli uidA gene coding for β-D-glucuronidase (GUS) was placed under control of the NbKPILP promoter. By assessing the efficacy of uidA mRNA synthesis directed by the NbKPILP promoter and 35S promoter of the cauliflower mosaic virus in a transient expression system, we showed that the levels of GUS accumulation were comparable for both promoters. Prolonged incubation of the agroinjected plants in the darkness stimulated accumulation of the uidA mRNA directed by the NbKPILP promoter. Our experiments indicate that along with regulation at the transcriptional level, expression of NbKPILP mRNA can be affected by expression of the nested aORF controlled by the polypurine block (PPB) located upstream of its start codon, since introduction of mutations in the PPB resulted in significant accumulation of the NbKPILP mRNA. Nucleotide replacement in the aORF start codon led to the drastic increase in the amounts of NbKPILP mRNA and its protein product.
Keywords: Agrobacterium tumefaciens ; transient expression; Kunitz peptidase inhibitor; matryoshka gene; promoter; translation; abiotic factor; polypurine block

Does Oxidation of Mitochondrial Cardiolipin Trigger a Chain of Antiapoptotic Reactions? by A. Y. Mulkidjanian; D. N. Shalaeva; K. G. Lyamzaev; B. V. Chernyak (1263-1278).
Oxidative stress causes selective oxidation of cardiolipin (CL), a fourtail lipid specific for the inner mitochondrial membrane. Interaction with oxidized CL transforms cytochrome c into peroxidase capable of oxidizing even more CL molecules. Ultimately, this chain of events leads to the pore formation in the outer mitochondrial membrane and release of mitochondrial proteins, including cytochrome c, into the cytoplasm. In the cytoplasm, cytochrome c promotes apoptosome assembly that triggers apoptosis (programmed cell death). Because of this amplification cascade, even an occasional oxidation of a single CL molecule by endogenously formed reactive oxygen species (ROS) might cause cell death, unless the same CL oxidation triggers a separate chain of antiapoptotic reactions that would prevent the CL-mediated apoptotic cascade. Here, we argue that the key function of CL in mitochondria and other coupling membranes is to prevent proton leak along the interface of interacting membrane proteins. Therefore, CL oxidation should increase proton permeability through the CL-rich clusters of membrane proteins (CL islands) and cause a drop in the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). On one hand, the MMP drop should hinder ROS generation and further CL oxidation in the entire mitochondrion. On the other hand, it is known to cause rapid fission of the mitochondrial network and formation of many small mitochondria, only some of which would contain oxidized CL islands. The fission of mitochondrial network would hinder apoptosome formation by preventing cytochrome c release from healthy mitochondria, so that slowly working protein quality control mechanisms would have enough time to eliminate mitochondria with the oxidized CL. Because of these two oppositely directed regulatory pathways, both triggered by CL oxidation, the fate of the cell appears to be determined by the balance between the CL-mediated proapoptotic and antiapoptotic reactions. Since this balance depends on the extent of CL oxidation, mito-chondria-targeted antioxidants might be able to ensure cell survival in many pathologies by preventing CL oxidation.
Keywords: reactive oxygen species; mitochondria-targeted antioxidants; lipid peroxidation; proton leak; membrane potential; mitophagy

Inhibition of Cannabinoid Receptor 1 Can Influence the Lipid Metabolism in Mice with Diet-Induced Obesity by L. W. Wei; Z. Q. Yuan; M. D. Zhao; C. W. Gu; J. H. Han; L. Fu (1279-1287).
A growing number of evidences accumulated about critical metabolic role of cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in some peripheral tissues, including adipose tissue, liver, skeletal muscle and heart. To better understand the interactions of CB1, CPT1 and PPARs in these tissues, 30 diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J male mice were obtained, weight-matched and divided into two groups (15 in each group): (i) DIO/vehicle mice (D-Veh) and (ii) DIO/SR141716 mice (D-SR) treated with SR141716 (or rimonabant, a selective CB1 receptor blocker) administered orally (10 mg/kg daily). Another 15 mice fed standard diet (STD) formed the STD/vehicle group (S-Veh). At the end of 3-week treatment, mean body weight was 28.4 ± 0.5, 36.5 ± 0.8, and 30.3 ± 1.2 g for the S-Veh, D-Veh, and D-SR group, respectively (p < 0.05; D-Veh vs. D-SR). Liver weight in the D-SR group was also decreased significantly compared to the D-Veh group (p < 0.05). Serum levels of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, leptin and adiponectin in the D-SR group were ameliorated compared to the D-Veh group (p < 0.05). Both qRT-PCR and Western blot assay revealed that CB1 expression levels were efficiently blocked by SR141716 in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), skeletal muscles and liver (D-SR vs. D-Veh; p < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference between S-Veh and D-Veh mice (p > 0.05). Simultaneously with the reduction of CB1 expression in the D-SR group, the expression levels of CPT1A isoform (protein) in the liver and heart and CPT1B isoform (protein) in the SAT, VAT, liver and skeletal muscles were significantly increased (p < 0.05; D-SR vs. D-Veh). Interestingly, the CPT1A and CPT1B expression levels in heart were detected slightly. The expression levels of PPARα in the SAT, VAT, liver and skeletal muscles and PPARγ in the SAT and skeletal muscles in the D-SR group were significantly increased compared to the D-Veh mice (p < 0.05). However, the PPARβ expression level differed from that of PPARα and PPARγ. Taken together, these data indicate that the inhibition of CB1 could ameliorate lipid metabolism via the stimulation of the CPT1A and CPT1B expression in vivo. Simultaneously, the PPARα and PPARγ expression levels significantly differed compared to that of PPARβ in obesity and lipid metabolism-related disorders under blockade of CB1. Both the mechanism of the influence of CB1 inhibition on lipid metabolism in the examined tissues and the specific mechanism of PPARα, PPARγ and PPARβ involvement in lipid exchange under these conditions remain to be further elucidated.
Keywords: CB1; CPT1; PPARs; obesity; lipid metabolism