Biochemistry (Moscow) (v.83, #8)

Translation factor eIF5A participates in protein synthesis at the stage of polypeptide chain elongation. Two eIF5A isoforms are known that are encoded by related genes whose expression varies significantly in different tissues. The eIF5A1 isoform is a constitutively and ubiquitously expressed gene, while the eIF5A2 isoform is expressed in few normal tissues and is an oncogene by a number of parameters. Unique feature of eIF5A isoforms is that they are the only two proteins that contain amino acid hypusine. Modification with hypusine is critical requirement for eIF5A activity. Another distinctive feature of eIF5A is its involvement in the translation of only a subset of the total population of cell mRNAs. The genes for which mRNAs translation requires eIF5A are the members of certain functional groups and are involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, inflammatory processes, and regulation of transcription and RNA metabolism. The involvement of eIF5A is necessary for the translation of proteins containing oligoproline fragments and some other structures. Modification of eIF5A by hypusine is implemented by two highly specialized enzymes, deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS) and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH), which are not involved in other biochemical reactions. Intracellular activity of these enzymes is closely associated with systems of protein acetylation, polyamine metabolism and other biochemical processes. Inhibition of DHS and DOHH activity provides the possibility of pharmacological control of eIF5A activity and expression of eIF5A-dependent genes.
Keywords: eIF5A; hypusine; polyamines; translation; regulation of gene expression

Inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase (statins) are the major group of lipid-lowering drugs. Along with hypocholesterolemic activity, statins exhibit anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties that expand their clinical use, particularly, in the treatment of chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. In this review, we critically analyze the data of statin effects on immune cells (e.g., monocytes and T cells) involved in the development of atherosclerosis and other chronic inflammatory diseases. We (i) discuss the properties of statins and routes of cell entry, as well as their major intracellular targets; (ii) evaluate the data on the effects of statins on the subset composition of circulatory monocytes, ability of monocytes to migrate to the site of inflammation (cell motility and expression of adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors), production of cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases, and reactive oxygen species by monocytes/macrophages, and antigen-presenting activity in peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells; and (iii) summarize the data on the regulation of proliferation and differentiation of various CD4+ T cell subsets (type 1/2/17 helper T cells and regulatory T cells) by statins.
Keywords: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors; statins; monocytes; macrophages; T cells

Biochemical mechanisms for the orchestration of cell populations are discussed in view of direct cell−cell inter-actions and composition of the intercellular medium. In our works of the last 20 years, we used circahoralian (ultradian) rhythm of protein synthesis as a marker of cell interactions. Experiments in cell cultures are described; some influences on the organism native medium were performed. Information is presented on the signaling membrane factors that trigger a cascade of processes in the cytoplasm and lead to the orchestration of cell activity in vitro and in vivo. Among these factors are blood serum neurotransmitters, gangliosides, and some hormones. Studying protein synthesis kinetics allowed us to understand the importance of maintaining the constant levels of signaling factors in mammalian blood. The literature on protein phosphorylation as a key process of cell organization is reviewed. The persistence of the organizing signal for several days is described as a type of cell “memory”. It seems promising to extend the area for application of direct cell−cell interactions (respiration of cells, proliferation, etc.) to study possibilities of epigenetic regulation. It is important to continue the studies on the mechanisms of biochemical action of the known drugs as signaling factors.
Keywords: biochemistry of cell−cell communication; kinetics of protein synthesis; gangliosides; prenervous neurotransmit-ters; serotonin; norepinephrine; glutamic acid; melatonin; gangliosides

Structure and Function of Multidrug Resistance Protein 1 by E. N. Yakusheva; D. S. Titov (907-929).
This review considers one of the most clinically relevant representatives of the ABC transporters–multidrug resistance protein 1 (P-glycoprotein 1 or Pgp). Data on the primary, secondary, and tertiary structure of the protein, its synthesis and degradation, and roles of its fragments in transporter activity are presented. Particular attention is given to the mechanism of functioning of Pgp. In view of the absence of a generally recognized mechanism of action of Pgp, several existing models of the protein transport cycle are discussed. Epigenetic regulation of the ABCB1 gene and modulation of Pgp expression by microRNAs are discussed.
Keywords: multidrug resistance protein 1; P-glycoprotein 1; structure; ABCB1 gene; transport cycle

Structural Alterations in Human Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptors in Carcinogenesis by D. S. Mikhaylenko; B. Y. Alekseev; D. V. Zaletaev; R. I. Goncharova; M. V. Nemtsova (930-943).
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) plays an important role in human embryogenesis, angiogenesis, cell proliferation, and differentiation. Carcinogenesis is accompanied by aberrant constitutive activation of FGF receptors (FGFRs) resulting from missense mutation in the FGFR1-4 genes, generation of chimeric oncogenes, FGFR1-4 gene amplification, alternative splicing shift toward formation of mesenchymal FGFR isoforms, and FGFR overexpression. Altogether, these alterations contribute to auto-and paracrine stimulation of cancer cells and neoangiogenesis. Certain missense mutations are found at a high rate in urinary bladder cancer and can be used for non-invasive cancer recurrence diagnostics by analyzing urine cell pellet DNA. Chimeric FGFR1/3 and amplified FGFR1/2 genes can predict cell response to the targeted therapy in various oncological diseases. In recent years, high-throughput sequencing has been used to analyze exomes of virtually all human tumors, which allowed to construct phylogenetic trees of clonal cancer evolution with special emphasis on driver mutations in FGFR1-4 genes. At present, FGFR blockers, such as multi-kinase inhibitors, specific FGFR inhibitors, and FGF ligand traps are being tested in clinical trials. In this review, we discuss current data on the functioning of the FGFR family proteins in both normal and cancer cells, mutations in the FGFR1-4 genes, and mechanisms underlying their oncogenic potential, which might be interesting to a broad range of scientists searching for specific tumor markers and targeted anti-cancer drugs.
Keywords: fibroblast growth factor receptor; oncogene; somatic mutation; clonal evolution; targeted therapy

This review summarizes current data on the structure and functions of myosin essential light chains (ELCs) and on their role in functioning of the myosin head as a molecular motor. The data on structural and functional features of the N-terminal extension of myosin ELC from skeletal and cardiac muscles are analyzed; the role of this extension in the ATP- dependent interaction of myosin heads with actin in the molecular mechanism of muscle contraction is discussed. The data on possible interactions of the ELC N-terminal extension with the myosin head motor domain in the myosin ATPase cycle are presented, including the results of the authors’ studies that are in favor of such interactions.
Keywords: myosin; myosin essential light chains; actin; molecular mechanism of muscle contraction

Inorganic Polyphosphate and Cancer by E. V. Kulakovskaya; M. Yu. Zemskova; T. V. Kulakovskaya (961-968).
This review presents data on the relationship between inorganic polyphosphate metabolism and carcinogenesis including participation of polyphosphates in the regulation of activity of mTOR and other proteins involved in carcinogenesis, the role of h-prune protein (human polyphosphatase) in cell migration and metastasis formation, the prospects for using polyphosphates and inhibitors of polyphosphate metabolism enzymes as agents for controlling cell proliferation and migration.
Keywords: inorganic polyphosphates; cancer; metastasis; cell motility; h-prune protein; mTOR

Glutathionylation of Na,K-ATPase Alpha-Subunit Alters Enzyme Conformation and Sensitivity to Trypsinolysis by E. A. Dergousova; Y. M. Poluektov; E. A. Klimanova; I. Y. Petrushanko; V. A. Mitkevich; A. A. Makarov; O. D. Lopina (969-981).
We found earlier that Na,K-ATPase is purified from duck salt glands in partially glutathionylated state (up to 13 of the 23 cysteine residues of the Na,K-ATPase catalytic α-subunit can be S-glutathionylated). To determine the effect of glutathionylation on the enzyme conformation, we have analyzed the products of trypsinolysis of Na,K-ATPase α-subunit in different conformations with different extent of glutathionylation. Incubation of the protein in the E1 conformation with trypsin produced a large fragment with a molecular mass (MM) of 80 kDa with the following formation of smaller fragments with MM 40, 35.5, and 23 kDa. Tryptic digestion of Na,K-ATPase in the E2 conformation also resulted in the generation of the fragments with MM 40, 35.5, and 23 kDa. Deglutathionylation of Na,K-ATPase α-subunit increases the rate of proteolysis of the enzyme in both E1 and E2 conformations. The pattern of tryptic digestion of the α-subunit in E2 conformation additionally glutathionylated with oxidized glutathione is similar to that of partially deglutathionylated Na,K-ATPase. The pattern of tryptic digestion of the additionally glutathionylated α-subunit in E1 conformation is similar to that of the native enzyme. The highest rate of trypsinolysis was observed for the α-subunit in complex with ouabain (E2-OBN conformation). Additional glutathionylation increased the content of high-molecular-weight fragments among the digestion products, as compared to the native and deglutathionylated enzymes. The data obtained were confirmed using molecular mod-eling that revealed that number of sites accessible for trypsinolysis is higher in the E2P-OBN conformation than in the E1-and E2-conformations and that glutathionylation decreases the number of sites accessible for trypsin. Therefore, glu-tathionylation affects enzyme conformation and its sensitivity to trypsinolysis. The mechanisms responsible for the changes in the Na,K-ATPase sensitivity to trypsinolysis depending on the level of enzyme glutathionylation and increase in the enzyme sensitivity to proteolysis upon its binding to ouabain, as well as physiological role of these phenomena, are discussed.
Keywords: Na,K-ATPase; glutathionylation; trypsinolysis

Amphipathic CRAC-Containing Peptides Derived from the Influenza Virus A M1 Protein Modulate Cholesterol-Dependent Activity of Cultured IC-21 Macrophages by A. Ya. Dunina-Barkovskaya; Kh. S. Vishnyakova; A. O. Golovko; A. M. Arutyunyan; L. A. Baratova; O. V. Bathishchev; V. A. Radyukhin (982-991).
On p. 982 in the list of authors instead of:O. V. BathishchevShould read:O. V. BatishchevEntry of many viral and bacterial pathogens into host cells depends on cholesterol and/or cholesterol-enriched domains (lipid rafts) in the cell membrane. Earlier, we showed that influenza virus A matrix protein M1 contains amphipathic α-helices with exposed cholesterol-recognizing amino acid consensus (CRAC) motifs. In order to test possible functional activity of these motifs, we studied the effects of three synthetic peptides corresponding to the CRAC-containing α-helices of the viral M1 protein on the phagocytic activity of cultured mouse IC-21 macrophages. The following peptides were used: LEVLMEWLKTR (M1 α-helix 3, a.a. 39–49; further referred to as peptide 1), NNMDKAVKLYRKLK (M1 α-helix 6, a.a. 91–105; peptide 2), and GLKNDLLENLQAYQKR (M1 α-helix 13, a.a. 228–243; peptide 3). We found that all three peptides modulated interactions of IC-21 macrophages with non-opsonized 2-μm target particles. The greatest effect was demonstrated by peptide 2: in the presence of 35 μM peptide 2, the phagocytic index of IC-21 macrophages exceeded the control value by 60%; 10–11 mM methyl-β-cyclodextrin abolished this effect. Peptides 1 and 3 exerted weak inhibitory effect in a narrow concentration range of 5–10 μM. The dose-response curves could be approximated by a sum of two (stimulatory and inhibitory) components with different Hill coefficients, suggesting existence of at least two peptide-binding sites with different affinities on the cell surface. CD spectroscopy confirmed that the peptides exhibit structural flexibility in solutions. Altogether, our data indicate that amphipathic CRAC-containing peptides derived from the viral M1 protein modulate lipid raft-dependent processes in IC-21 macrophages.
Keywords: peptides; influenza virus protein M1; amphipathic helices; lipid rafts; cholesterol; macrophages; phagocytosis

Laccase-Catalyzed Heterocoupling of Dihydroquercetin and p-Aminobenzoic Acid: Effect of the Reaction Product on Cultured Cells by M. E. Khlupova; O. V. Morozova; I. S. Vasil’eva; G. P. Shumakovich; N. V. Pashintseva; L. I. Kovalev; S. S. Shishkin; V. A. Chertkov; A. K. Shestakova; A. V. Kisin; A. I. Yaropolov (992-1001).
Derivatization of the natural flavonoid dihydroquercetin with p-aminobenzoic acid was carried out in an ethyl acetate/citric buffer biphasic system using laccase from the fungus Trametes hirsuta. The main reaction product yield was ~68 mol %. The product was characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy, and its structure was elucidated. The reaction product affected viability of cultured human rhabdomyosarcoma cells (RD cell line) in a dose-dependent manner and, therefore, can be of interest to pharmaceutical industry.
Keywords: dihydroquercetin; p-aminobenzoic acid; laccase; biotransformation; 1H and 13C NMR spectra; proteomics

Effects of the Linear Fragments of Beta-(1→3)-Glucans on Cytokine Production in vitro by I. G. Akhapkina; A. B. Antropova; E. A. Akhmatov; T. M. Zheltikova (1002-1006).
Beta-glucans, homopolysaccharides composed of 3,6-branching β-(1→3)-D-glucan chains, attract great interest as inducers of cytokine synthesis. In this work, we studied the ability of linear fragments of beta-glucan chains to activate cytokine synthesis. Synthetic nona-β-(1→3)-D-glucoside (SO) representing a linear fragment of beta-glucan chain, endotoxin (ED), and natural β-(1→3)-D-glucan (GL) were tested for their role as inducers of cytokines in whole peripheral blood cultures collected from 17 individuals. The concentrations of IL-12p70, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-10, IL-8, IL-6, IL-4, IL-5, IL-1β, TNF-α, and TNF-β were measured in the supernatants after 2, 24, and 48 h of cell culturing. SO, ED, and GL stim- ulated production of pro-inflammatory IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and anti-inflammatory IL-10. The high- est levels of biosynthesis after stimulation with SO were registered for IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α. SO stimulated production of all cytokines (except IFN-γ) to a lesser extent than ED and GL. The IFN-γ/IL-10 (Th1/Th2) ratios after 24 and 48 h of culturing were 3.1 and 7.5 for SO; 0.03 and 0.1 for GL; and 0.06 and 0.2 for ED, respectively. The results indicate that lin- ear fragments of beta-glucans cause a more pronounced shift of immune response towards the pro-inflammatory (Th1) type than beta-glucan itself.
Keywords: cytokines; inducers; beta-glucans; linear fragments of beta-glucans; synthetic oligoglucosides