Biochemistry (Moscow) (v.82, #6)

Role of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in DNA repair by A. A. Kosova; S. N. Khodyreva; O. I. Lavrik (643-654).
Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is widely known as a glycolytic enzyme. Nevertheless, various functions of GAPDH have been found that are unrelated to glycolysis. Some of these functions presume interaction of GAPDH with DNA, but the mechanism of its translocation to the nucleus is not fully understood. When in the nucleus, GAPDH participates in the initiation of apoptosis and transcription of genes involved in antiapoptotic pathways and cell proliferation and plays a role in the regulation of telomere length. Several authors have shown that GAPDH displays the uracil-DNA glycosylase activity and interacts with some types of DNA damages, such as apurinic/apyrimidinic sites, nucleotide analogs, and covalent DNA adducts with alkylating agents. Moreover, GAPDH can interact with proteins participating in DNA repair, such as APE1, PARP1, HMGB1, and HMGB2. In this review, the functions of GAPDH associated with DNA repair are discussed in detail.
Keywords: GAPDH; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; protein–DNA interactions; DNA repair; AP site

Virus-mediated gene delivery has been, to date, the most successful and efficient method for gene therapy. However, this method has been challenged because of serious safety concerns. Over the past decade, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have attracted much attention for intracellular delivery of nucleic acids. Delivery of cellular plasmid DNA (pDNA) is designed to replace the function of a defective gene and restore its normal function in the cell. Delivery of small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) can selectively knockdown genes by targeting specific mRNAs. The biocompatibility and unique structures of MSNs make these nanoparticles ideal candidates to act as biomolecule carriers. This concise review highlights current progress in the field of nucleic acid delivery using MSNs, specifically for delivery of pDNA, siRNA, and combinatorial delivery of nucleic acids and drugs. The review describes important design parameters presently being applied to MSNs to administer drugs and therapeutic nucleic acids.
Keywords: silica nanoparticles; siRNA; pDNA; MSN; intracellular; gene therapy

The centrosome is an intracellular structure of the animal cell responsible for organization of cytoplasmic microtubules. According to modern concepts, the centrosome is a very important integral element of the living cell whose functions are not limited to its ability to polymerize microtubules. The centrosome localization in the geometric center of the interphase cell, the high concentration of various regulatory proteins in this area, the centrosome-organized radial system of microtubules for intracellular transport by motor proteins, the centrosome involvement in the perception of external signals and their transmission–all these features make this cellular structure a unique regulation and distribution center managing dynamic morphology of the animal cell. In conjunction with the tissue-specific features of the centrosome structure, this suggests the direct involvement of the centrosome in execution of cell functions. This review discusses the involvement of the centrosome in the vital activity of endothelial cells, as well as its possible participation in the implementation of barrier function, the major function of endothelium.
Keywords: endothelium; endothelial cell; centrosome; centriole; primary cilium

Structure of plastid genomes of photosynthetic eukaryotes by N. P. Yurina; L. S. Sharapova; M. S. Odintsova (678-691).
This review presents current views on the plastid genomes of higher plants and summarizes data on the size, structural organization, gene content, and other features of plastid DNAs. Special emphasis is placed on the properties of organization of land plant plastid genomes (nucleoids) that distinguish them from bacterial genomes. The prospects of genetic engineering of chloroplast genomes are discussed.
Keywords: plastids; photosynthetic eukaryotes; chloroplast genome

In the absorption spectrum of Rhodobacter sphaeroides reaction centers, a minor absorption band was found with a maximum at 1053 nm. The amplitude of this band is ~10,000 times less and its half-width is comparable to that of the long-wavelength absorption band of the primary electron donor P870. When the primary electron donor is excited by femtosecond light pulses at 870 nm, the absorption band at 1053 nm is increased manifold during the earliest stages of charge separation. The growth of this absorption band in difference absorption spectra precedes the appearance of stimulated emission at 935 nm and the appearance of the absorption band of anion-radical BA at 1020 nm, reported earlier by several researchers. When reaction centers are illuminated with 1064 nm light, the absorption spectrum undergoes changes indicating reduction of the primary electron acceptor QA, with the primary electron donor P870 remaining neutral. These photoinduced absorption changes reflect the formation of the long-lived radical state PBAHAQA .
Keywords: femtosecond spectroscopy; bacterial reaction centers; electron transfer

Variability of methylation profiles of CpG sites in microRNA genes in leukocytes and vascular tissues of patients with atherosclerosis by A. N. Kucher; M. S. Nazarenko; A. V. Markov; I. A. Koroleva; O. L. Barbarash (698-706).
In this study, we for the first time described the variability of methylation levels of 71 CpG sites in microRNA genes in leukocytes and blood vessels (coronary artery atherosclerotic plaques, intact internal thoracic arteries, and great saphenous veins) in patients with atherosclerosis using the Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip microarray. Most of the analyzed CpG sites were characterized by the low variability, and most of these low-variable sites were hypomethylated in all tissue samples. CpG sites in coronary artery atherosclerotic plaques and leukocytes were similar in their methylation status. The highest variability of CpG methylation levels between different tissues was found for the CpG sites of the MIR10B gene; the methylation levels of these sites in leukocytes and atherosclerotic arteries were lower than in intact blood vessels. We also found that several cardiovascular disease risk factors, as well as medications, might affect methylation levels of CpG sites in microRNAs.
Keywords: atherosclerosis; microRNA; methylation

MicroRNA-630 suppresses epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by regulating FoxM1 in gastric cancer cells by Jing Feng; Xiaojuan Wang; Weihua Zhu; Si Chen; Changwei Feng (707-714).
In the present study, we investigated the functional role of microRNA (miR)-630 in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of gastric cancer (GC) cells, as well as the regulatory mechanism. Cells of human GC cell line SGC 7901 were transfected with miR-630 mimic or miR-630 inhibitor. The transfection efficiency was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Cell migration and invasion were determined by Transwell assay. Protein expression of E-cadherin, vimentin, and Forkhead box protein M1 (FoxM1) was tested by Western blot. Moreover, the expression of FoxM1 was elevated or suppressed, and then the effects of miR-630 abnormal expression on EMT and properties of migration and invasion were examined again, as well as protein expression of Ras/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT related factors. The results showed that (i) the EMT and properties of migration and invasion were statistically decreased by overexpression of miR-630 compared to the control group but markedly increased by suppression of miR-630. However, (ii) abnormal expression of FoxM1 reversed these effects in GC cells. Moreover, (iii) expression of GTP-Rac1, p-PI3K, and p-AKT was decreased by miR-630 overexpression but increased by FoxM1 overexpression. (iv) The decreased levels of GTP-Rac1, p-PI3K, and p-AKT induced by miR-630 overexpression were dramatically elevated by simultaneous overexpression of FoxM1. In conclusion, our results suggest that miR-630 might be a tumor suppressor in GC cells. MiR-630 suppresses EMT by regulating FoxM1 in GC cells, supposedly via inactivation of the Ras/PI3K/AKT pathway.
Keywords: microRNA-630; gastric cancer; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; Forkhead box protein M1; migration and invasion

Transcription factors OCT4 and NANOG are main constituents of a functional network that controls proliferation and pluripotency maintenance of stem cells as well as early lineage decisions. We investigated expression profiles of OCT4 and NANOG during the early phases of neural differentiation using NT2/D1 cells induced by retinoic acid as an in vitro model system of human neurogenesis. We demonstrated decrease in OCT4 and NANOG mRNA and protein levels following exposure to retinoic acid. Next, by employing chromatin immunoprecipitation, we investigated profiles of selected H3 and H2B histone marks deposited on the promoters of the OCT4 and NANOG genes. We found decline in H3K4me3, H2BK5ac, and H2BK120ac on both promoters, which paralleled the decrease in OCT4 and NANOG expression. Moreover, we found that the H2BK16ac mark is differentially enriched on these two promoters, pointing to differences in epigenetic regulation of OCT4 and NANOG gene expression. Finally, based on our data, we suggest that the early response of pluripotency genes OCT4 and NANOG to the differentiation-inducing stimuli is mediated by dynamic changes in chromatin marks, while DNA methylation is acquired in the later stages of neurogenesis.
Keywords: OCT4; NANOG; NT2/D1 cell line; histone modifications

Thiamine induces long-term changes in amino acid profiles and activities of 2-oxoglutarate and 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenases in rat brain by P. M. Tsepkova; A. V. Artiukhov; A. I. Boyko; V. A. Aleshin; G. V. Mkrtchyan; M. A. Zvyagintseva; S. I. Ryabov; A. L. Ksenofontov; L. A. Baratova; A. V. Graf; V. I. Bunik (723-736).
Molecular mechanisms of long-term changes in brain metabolism after thiamine administration (single i.p. injection, 400 mg/kg) were investigated. Protocols for discrimination of the activities of the thiamine diphosphate (ThDP)-dependent 2-oxoglutarate and 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenases were developed to characterize specific regulation of the multienzyme complexes of the 2-oxoglutarate (OGDHC) and 2-oxoadipate (OADHC) dehydrogenases by thiamine. The thiamine-induced changes depended on the brain-region-specific expression of the ThDP-dependent dehydrogenases. In the cerebral cortex, the original levels of OGDHC and OADHC were relatively high and not increased by thiamine, whereas in the cerebellum thiamine upregulated the OGDHC and OADHC activities, whose original levels were relatively low. The effects of thiamine on each of the complexes were different and associated with metabolic rearrangements, which included (i) the brain-region-specific alterations of glutamine synthase and/or glutamate dehydrogenase and NADP+-dependent malic enzyme, (ii) the brain-region-specific changes of the amino acid profiles, and (iii) decreased levels of a number of amino acids in blood plasma. Along with the assays of enzymatic activities and average levels of amino acids in the blood and brain, the thiamine-induced metabolic rearrangements were assessed by analysis of correlations between the levels of amino acids. The set and parameters of the correlations were tissue-specific, and their responses to the thiamine treatment provided additional information on metabolic changes, compared to that gained from the average levels of amino acids. Taken together, the data suggest that thiamine decreases catabolism of amino acids by means of a complex and long-term regulation of metabolic flux through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, which includes coupled changes in activities of the ThDP-dependent dehydrogenases of 2-oxoglutarate and 2-oxoadipate and adjacent enzymes.
Keywords: dhtkd1 ; multienzyme complexes of 2-oxo acid dehydrogenases; ogdh ; ogdhl ; 2-oxoadipate; 2-oxoglutarate; thiamine

Disruption of functional activity of mitochondria during MTT assay of viability of cultured neurons by A. M. Surin; R. R. Sharipov; I. A. Krasil’nikova; D. P. Boyarkin; O. Yu. Lisina; L. R. Gorbacheva; A. V. Avetisyan; V. G. Pinelis (737-749).
The MTT assay based on the reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium in the cell cytoplasm to a strongly light absorbing formazan is among the most commonly used methods for determination of cell viability and activity of NAD-dependent oxidoreductases. In the present study, the effects of MTT (0.1 mg/ml) on mitochondrial potential (ΔΨm), intracellular NADH, and respiration of cultured rat cerebellum neurons and isolated rat liver mitochondria were investigated. MTT caused rapid quenching of NADH autofluorescence, fluorescence of MitoTracker Green (MTG) and ΔΨm-sensitive probes Rh123 (rhodamine 123) and TMRM (tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester). The Rh123 signal, unlike that of NADH, MTG, and TMRM, increased in the nucleoplasm after 5-10 min, and this was accompanied by the formation of opaque aggregates of formazan in the cytoplasm and neurites. Increase in the Rh123 signal indicated diffusion of the probe from mitochondria to cytosol and nucleus due to ΔΨm decrease. Inhibition of complex I of the respiratory chain decreased the rate of formazan formation, while inhibition of complex IV increased it. Inhibition of complex III and ATP-synthase affected only insignificantly the rate of formazan formation. Inhibition of glycolysis by 2-deoxy-D-glucose blocked the MTT reduction, whereas pyruvate increased the rate of formazan formation in a concentration-dependent manner. MTT reduced the rate of oxygen consumption by cultured neurons to the value observed when respiratory chain complexes I and III were simultaneously blocked, and it suppressed respiration of isolated mitochondria if substrates oxidized by NAD-dependent dehydrogenases were used. These results demonstrate that formazan formation in cultured rat cerebellum neurons occurs primarily in mitochondria. The initial rate of formazan formation may serve as an indicator of complex I activity and pyruvate transport rate.
Keywords: MTT assay; neurons; mitochondria; membrane potential; fluorescence microscopy