Biochemistry (Moscow) (v.82, #5)

Molecular mechanisms of ovarian carcinoma metastasis: Key genes and regulatory microRNAs by E. A. Braga; M. V. Fridman; N. E. Kushlinskii (529-541).
Metastasis of primary tumors progresses stepwise — from change in biochemistry, morphology, and migratory patterns of tumor cells to the emergence of receptors on their surface that facilitate directional migration to target organs followed by the formation of a specific microenvironment in a target organ that helps attachment and survival of metastatic cells. A set of specific genes and signaling pathways mediate this process under control of microRNA. The molecular mechanisms underlying biological processes associated with tumor metastasis are reviewed in this publication using ovarian cancer, which exhibits high metastatic potential, as an example. Information and data on the genes and regulatory microRNAs involved in the formation of cancer stem cells, epithelial–mesenchymal transition, reducing focal adhesion, degradation of extracellular matrix, increasing migration activity of cancer cells, formation of spheroids, apoptosis, autophagy, angiogenesis, formation of metastases, and development of ascites are presented. Clusters of microRNAs (miR-145, miR-31, miR-506, miR-101) most essential for metastasis of ovarian cancer including the families of microRNAs (miR-200, miR-214, miR-25) with dual role, which is different in different histological types of ovarian cancer, are discussed in detail in a section of the review.
Keywords: regulatory miRNAs; key genes; ovarian cancer; metastasis

Types of immune-inflammatory responses as a reflection of cell–cell interactions under conditions of tissue regeneration and tumor growth by L. A. Tashireva; V. M. Perelmuter; V. N. Manskikh; E. V. Denisov; O. E. Savelieva; E. V. Kaygorodova; M. V. Zavyalova (542-555).
Inflammatory infiltration of tumor stroma is an integral reflection of reactions that develop in response to any damage to tumor cells including immune responses to antigens or necrosis caused by vascular disorders. In this review, we use the term “immune-inflammatory response” (IIR) that allows us to give an integral assessment of the cellular composition of the tumor microenvironment. Two main types of IIRs are discussed: type 1 and 2 T-helper reactions (Th1 and Th2), as well as their inducers: immunosuppressive responses and reactions mediated by Th22 and Th17 lymphocytes and capable of modifying the main types of IIRs. Cellular and molecular manifestations of each IIR type are analyzed and their general characteristics and roles in tissue regeneration and tumor growth are presented. Since inflammatory responses in a tumor can also be initiated by innate immunity mechanisms, special attention is given to inflammation based on them. We emphasize that processes accompanying tissue regeneration are prototypes of processes underlying cancer progression, and these processes have the same cellular and molecular substrates. We focus on evidence that tumor progression is mainly contributed by processes specific for the second phase of “wound healing” that are based on the Th2-type IIR. We emphasize that the effect of various types of immune and stroma cells on tumor progression is determined by the ability of the cells and their cytokines to promote or prevent the development of Th1- or Th2-type of IIR. Finally, we supposed that the nonspecific influence on the tumor caused by the cytokine context of the Th1- or Th2-type microenvironment should play a decisive role for suppression or stimulation of tumor growth and metastasis.
Keywords: immune-inflammatory response; lymphocyte subpopulations; macrophages; fibroblasts; tissue regeneration; tumor progression

Mazes of Nrf2 regulation by N. K. Zenkov; P. M. Kozhin; A. V. Chechushkov; G. G. Martinovich; N. V. Kandalintseva; E. B. Menshchikova (556-564).
Nrf2 transcription factor plays a key role in maintaining cellular redox balance under stress and is a perspective target for oxidative stress-associated diseases. Under normal conditions, Nrf2 transcriptional activity is low due to its rapid ubiquitination and degradation in the 26S proteasome, as well as through various modifications of amino acid residues of this transcription factor that regulate its transport to the nucleus and binding to DNA. Continuous activation of Nrf2 is possible due to autophagy and epigenetic regulation that may underlie the increased resistance of tumor cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This review deals with the mechanisms of regulation of Nrf2 transcriptional activity and its main elements, and pharmacological approaches to activation of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE system.
Keywords: Nrf2 transcription factor; ubiquitination; autophagy; epigenetic regulation

Induction of transposon silencing in the Drosophila germline by S. S. Ryazansky; A. D. Stolyarenko; M. S. Klenov; V. A. Gvozdev (565-571).
In this review we consider the role of the piRNA system in transposable element silencing in the Drosophila melanogaster germline. We focus on new data that demonstrate the mechanisms of initiation of piRNA biogenesis in ovarian germinal cells and the role of Piwi protein in this process, including our own results.
Keywords: transposon; Piwi protein; piRNA; Drosophila ; small RNAs

Minicircle kinetoplast genome of insect trypanosomatid Leptomonas pyrrhocoris by E. S. Gerasimov; A. A. Gasparyan; I. A. Litus; M. D. Logacheva; A. A. Kolesnikov (572-578).
We present here the structure of a minicircle population based on transcriptome sequencing of Leptomonas pyrrhocoris. We show that minicircle DNA molecules are dimeric. As in dixenous species, the entire molecule of minicircle DNA is transcribed. This is the first minicircle transcriptome of monoxenous trypanosomatid species determined using NGS technology.
Keywords: trypanosomatids; kinetoplast; minicircle DNA; transcriptome; assembly

Prevalence of autoantibodies against 3-DG-glycated H2A protein in type 2 diabetes by J. M. Ashraf; S. M. S. Abdullah; S. Ahmad; S. Fatma; M. H. Baig; J. Iqbal; A. M. Madkhali; A. B. A. Jerah (579-586).
Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) have been found to be critically involved in initiation or progression of diabetes secondary complications (nephropathy, retinopathy, neuropathy, and angiopathy). Various hyper-glycating carbonyl compounds such as 3-deoxyglucosone (3-DG) are produced in pathophysiological conditions that form AGEs in high quantity both in vivo and in vitro. In the first stage of this study, we glycated histone H2A protein by 3-DG, and the results showed the formation of various intermediates and AGEs as well as structural changes in the protein. In the second stage, we studied the immunogenicity of native and 3-DG-glycated H2A protein in female rabbits. The modified H2A was highly immunogenic, eliciting high titer immunogen-specific antibodies, while the unmodified form was almost nonimmunogenic. Antibodies against standard carboxymethyllysine (CML) and pentosidine were detected in the immunized female rabbits, which demonstrates the immunogenic nature of AGEs (CML and pentosidine) as well. The results show both structural perturbation and AGEs have the capacity of triggering the immune system due to the generation of neoepitopes that render the molecule immunogenic. This study shows the presence of autoantibodies against 3-DG-modified H2A, CML, and pentosidine in the sera of type 2 diabetes patients having secondary complications. Autoantibodies against damaged H2A and AGEs may be significant in the assessment of initiation/progression of secondary complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients or may be used as a marker for early detection of secondary complications in diabetes.
Keywords: advanced glycation end-products; anti-AGE antibodies; ELISA; autoantibodies; immunogenicity; type 2 diabetes

The purple non-sulfur bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus B10 can grow on acetate as the sole carbon source under photoheterotrophic conditions. It is known that the bacterium can use the glyoxylate cycle and, in addition to it, or alternatively to it, an unknown pathway for acetate assimilation. We analyzed the genetic potential for functioning of additional metabolic pathways of oxaloacetic acid (OAA) pool replenishment in R. capsulatus. Using published microarray data of more than 4000 transcripts of genes for R. capsulatus, the genes necessary for acetate assimilation were analyzed. The results of the analysis showed the presence of all genes necessary for functioning of the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway, and also a combination of pathways of formation of pyruvic acid/phosphoenol pyruvate (PA/PEP) (from acetyl-CoA and formate, from acetyl-CoA and CO2, as well as from 3-phosphoglyceric acid formed in the Calvin–Benson cycle) with their subsequent carboxylation. Using expression analysis, we showed that OAA pool replenishment on acetate medium could be achieved via a combination of PA/PEP synthesis from Calvin–Benson cycle intermediates and their carboxylation (with participation of pyruvate carboxylase, two reversible malate dehydrogenases (decarboxylating) and PEP-carboxykinase) to tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, the glyoxylate cycle, and a modified ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway in R. capsulatus under these experimental conditions. It was found that analogs of ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway enzymes exist. These enzymes differ in their specificity for S-enantiomers.
Keywords: Rhodobacter capsulatus ; acetate assimilation; glyoxylate cycle; Calvin–Benson cycle; pyruvate oxidoreductase; ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway; methylcitrate cycle

Sex-determining region Y-box 9 (Sox9) is an important transcription factor that has been identified as a key regulator of several types of diseases. In this study, we explored the correlation of Sox9 with cell proliferation, apoptosis, inflammatory factor expression, and the possible signaling pathway in human lung fibroblast cell line to investigate the possible mechanism of neonatal pneumonia. Therefore, in the present study, pc-Sox9 and si-Sox9 were transfected into MRC-5 (human fetal lung fibroblast cell line) to promote or inhibit expression of Sox-9. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were used to determine the expression level of Sox-9 at mRNA and protein level. Then 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometry were used to explore, respectively, proliferation and apoptosis in vitro. We found that Sox9 could significantly upregulate the proliferation rate and inhibit apoptosis rate and inflammatory factor expression of MRC-5 cells compared with a control group. Moreover, the signaling pathway study confirmed that Sox9 protected MRC-5 from lipopolysaccharide injury through the AKT/GSK3β pathway. All these findings suggest that Sox9 acts as a novel marker for neonatal pneumonia and could be a new therapeutic target for this disease.
Keywords: Sox9; neonatal pneumonia; MRC-5; LPS; cell apoptosis

Two variants of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) with additional protein domains: Synthesis in an Escherichia coli heterologous expression system by A. S. Karyagina; I. S. Boksha; T. M. Grunina; A. V. Demidenko; M. S. Poponova; O. V. Sergienko; A. M. Lyashchuk; Z. M. Galushkina; L. A. Soboleva; E. O. Osidak; M. S. Bartov; A. V. Gromov; V. G. Lunin (613-624).
Two variants of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) with additional N-terminal protein domains were obtained by expression in E. coli. The N-terminal domains were s-tag (15-a.a. oligopeptide from bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A) and lz (leucine zipper dimerization domain from yeast transcription factor GCN4). The s-tag-BMP-2 and lz-BMP-2 were purified by a procedure that excluded a long refolding stage. The resulting dimeric proteins displayed higher solubility compared to rhBMP-2 without additional protein domains. Biological activity of both proteins was demonstrated in vitro by induction of alkaline phosphatase in C2C12 cells, and the activity of s-tag-BMP-2 in vivo was shown in various experimental animal models.
Keywords: recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2; heterologous expression; Escherichia coli

Intermediate states of apomyoglobin: Are they parts of the same area of conformations diagram? by V. A. Balobanov; N. S. Katina; A. V. Finkelstein; V. E. Bychkova (625-631).
Several research teams have reported detection and characterization of various apomyoglobin intermediate states different in their accumulation mode, thus putting a natural question as to proportions of these intermediates. The current report presents spectral properties of sperm whale apomyoglobin studied over a wide range of conditions with the use of circular dichroism and fluorescence techniques. Based on the experimental data, a diagram of apomyoglobin conformational states has been constructed. It shows that though induced by various denaturants, all the observed intermediates belong to one and the same area in the diagram.
Keywords: apomyoglobin; conformational transitions; conformations diagram; intermediate state

Role of Na+/K+-ATPase in natriuretic effect of prolactin in a model of cholestasis of pregnancy by P. A. Abramicheva; T. A. Balakina; O. A. Bulaeva; A. A. Guseva; O. D. Lopina; O. V. Smirnova (632-641).
Participation of Na+/K+-ATPase in the natriuretic effect of prolactin in a cholestasis of pregnancy model was investigated. The Na+/K+-ATPase activity in rat kidney medulla, where active sodium reabsorption occurs, decreased in the model of cholestasis of pregnancy and other hyperprolactinemia types compared with intact animals. This effect was not connected with the protein level of α1- and β-subunits of Na+/K+-ATPase measured by Western blotting in the kidney medulla. Decrease in Na+/K+-ATPase activity in the kidney cortex was not significant, as well as decrease in the quantity of mRNA and proteins of the α1- and β-subunits of Na+/K+-ATPase. There were no correlations between the Na+/K+-ATPase activity and sodium clearance, although sodium clearance increased significantly in the model of cholestasis of pregnancy and other hyperprolactinemia groups under conditions of stable glomerular filtration rate measured by creatinine clearance. We conclude that the Na+/K+-ATPase is not the only mediator of the natriuretic effect of prolactin in the model of cholesta- sis of pregnancy.
Keywords: Na+/K+-ATPase; prolactin; natriuresis; cholestasis of pregnancy; kidney; rat