Biochemistry (Moscow) (v.80, #7)

Malignant transformation is tightly connected with changes in the glycosylation of proteins and lipids, which in turn are contributing to the invasive and metastatic behavior of tumor cells. One example of such changes is demasking of the otherwise hidden core-1 structure, also known as Thomsen–Friedenreich antigen, which is a highly tumor-specific glycotope and potentially a cancer stem cell marker. This review summarizes what is known about the mechanism(s) of its expression on tumor cells. New data reveal a close connection between tumor metabolism and Golgi function. Based on these data, we suggest that the expression of this antigen is also a marker of aerobic glycolysis.
Keywords: glycosylation; Golgi; core-1; Thomsen–Friedenreich; glycolysis; tumor metabolism; pH

Gangliosides in breast cancer: New perspectives by S. Groux-Degroote; Y. Guérardel; S. Julien; P. Delannoy (808-819).
Abstract—Gangliosides are essential compounds of the plasma membrane involved in cell adhesion, proliferation, and recognition processes, as well as in the modulation of signal transduction pathways. These functions are mainly supported by the glycan moiety, and changes in the structure of gangliosides occur under pathological conditions including cancers. With progress in mass spectrometric analysis of gangliosides, the role of gangliosides in breast cancer progression was recently demonstrated. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the biosynthesis of gangliosides and of the role of disialogangliosides in triple-negative breast cancer progression and metastasis. New perspectives in breast cancer therapy targeting gangliosides are also discussed.
Keywords: gangliosides; breast cancer; mass spectrometry; metastasis; c-Met; GD3 synthase

It is generally accepted that the generation of antibodies proceeds due to immunization of an organism by alien antigens, and the level and affinity of antibodies are directly correlated to the presence of immunogen. At the same time, vast experimental material has been obtained providing evidence of antibodies whose level remains unchanged and affinity is constant during a lifetime. In contrast to the first, adaptive immunoglobulins, the latter are named natural antibodies (nAbs). The nAbs are produced by B1 cells, whereas adaptive Abs are produced by B2. This review summarizes general data on nAbs and presents in more detail data on antigens of carbohydrate origin. Hypotheses on the origin of nAbs and their activation mechanisms are discussed. We present our thoughts on this matter supported by our experimental data on nAbs to glycans.
Keywords: natural antibodies; B1 cells; bacterial antigens; autoantibodies; polysaccharides; molecular patterns; DAMP

Natural anti-carbohydrate antibodies (NAbC) are antibodies that target glycans and are continuously produced without apparent external antigen stimulation. Clinically, NAbC are recognized by the adverse reactions to ABO mismatched blood transfusions or organ transplantation and the rejection of xenografts. These clinical effects do not reflect the biological functions of NAbC. However, they launch the possibility of using NAbC for boosting immunity in different clinical settings by means of: 1) expression of glycan antigens in elements that do not hold them to allow the binding and reactivity of existing NAbC; 2) removal of existing NAbC; 3) manipulation of the glycosylation pattern of NAbC.
Keywords: natural antibodies; anti-carbohydrate antibodies; anti-blood group antibodies; anti-galactose α 1,3 galactose antibodies

Specificity of human galectins on cell surfaces by E. M. Rapoport; N. V. Bovin (846-856).
Galectins are ß-galactoside-binding proteins sharing homology in amino acid sequence of their carbohydraterecognition domain. Their carbohydrate specificity outside cells has been studied previously. The main conclusion of these studies was that several levels of glycan ligand recognition exist for galectins: (i) disaccharide Galß1-4GlcNAc (LN, Nacetyllactosamine) binds stronger than ß-galactopyranose; (ii) substitution at 0 -2 and 0 -3 of galactose residue as well as core fragments (“right” from GlcNAc) provides significant increase in affinity; (iii) similarly glycosylated proteins can differ significantly in affinity to galectins. Information about the natural cellular receptors of galectins is limited. Until recently, it was impossible to study specificity of cell-bound galectins. A model based on controlled incorporation of a single protein into glycocalyx of cells and subsequent interaction of loaded cells with synthetic glycoprobes measured by flow cytometry made this possible recently. In this review, data about glycan specificity of proto-, chimera-, and tandem-repeat type galectins on the cell surface are systematized, and comparative analysis of the results with data on specificity of galectins in artificial systems was performed. The following conclusions from these studies were made: (i) cellular galectins have practically no ability to bind disaccharide LNn, but display affinity to 3'-substituted oligolactosamines and oligomers LNn; (ii) tandem-repeat type galectins recognize another disaccharide, namely Galß1-3GlcNAc (Lec); (iii) on the cell surface, tandemrepeat type galectins conserve the ability to display high affinity to blood group antigens of ABH system; (iv) in general, when galectins are immersed into glycocalyx, they are more selective regarding glycan interactions. Thus, we conclude that competitive interaction of galectins with cell microenvironment (endogenous cell glycans) is the main factor providing selectivity of galectins in vivo.
Keywords: galectins; glycans; cells; carbohydrate specificity; carbohydrate-recognition domain

Function—spacer—lipid (FSL) constructs are amphiphilic molecules that are able to disperse in water and then self-assemble into cell membranes or onto solid surfaces. Modification of a biological or non-biological surface is very easy and achieved by simple contact of the surface with an appropriately buffered solution containing one or more FSLs. When the functional head group of the FSL is a glycan, glycan modified surfaces can be rapidly formed. Once cells, viruses, or solid surfaces are FSL modified with either simple or complex glycans, they can be used in vitro and/or in vivo to measure interactions with cells, viruses, antibodies, and lectins. FSLs have already been used in a variety of techniques including antibody specificity mapping, antibody/toxin neutralization, diagnostic assays, immune system manipulation, and animal modeling of transfusion reactions. FSLs offer the easiest and fastest method available to achieve a glycan-modified surface.
Keywords: function-spacer-lipid; KODE technology; kodecyte; neoglycolipid

Wild ducks serve as the primary host for numerous and various influenza type A viruses. Occasionally, viruses from this reservoir can be transferred to other host species and cause outbreaks of influenza in fowl, swine, and horses, as well as result in novel human pandemics. Cellular tropism and range of susceptible host species are determined by interaction between virus and receptor molecules on cells. Here we discuss modern data regarding molecular features underlying interactions of influenza viruses with cellular receptors as well as a role for receptor specificity in interspecies transmission. By analyzing the earliest available pandemic influenza viruses (1918, 1957, 1968, 2009), we found that hemagglutinin reconfigured to recognize 2-6 sialic acid-containing receptors in the human upper airway tract together with altered enzymatic activity of neuraminidase necessary for maintaining functional balance with hemagglutinin are responsible for effective spread of influenza viruses in human populations. Resistance to low pH also contributes to this. Thus, a combination of such parameters makes it possible that influenza viruses give rise to novel pandemics.
Keywords: influenza virus; receptor specificity; pandemic

Plant oligosaccharides — outsiders among elicitors? by I. A. Larskaya; T. A. Gorshkova (881-900).
This review substantiates the need to study the plant oligoglycome. The available information on oligosaccharins - physiologically active fragments of plant cell wall polysaccharides - is summarized. The diversity of such compounds in chemical composition, origin, and proved biological activity is highlighted. At the same time, plant oligosaccharides can be considered as outsiders among elicitors of various natures in research intensity of recent decades. This review discusses the reasons for such attitude towards these regulators, which are largely connected with difficulties in isolation and identification. Together with that, approaches are suggested whose potentials can be used to study oligosaccharins. The topics of oligosaccharide metabolism in plants, including the ways of formation, transport, and inactivation are presented, together with data on biological activity and interaction with plant hormones. The current viewpoints on the mode of oligosaccharin action — perception, signal transduction, and possible “targets” — are considered. The potential uses of such compounds in medicine, food industry, agriculture, and biotechnology are discussed.
Keywords: plant oligosaccharides; oligosaccharins; cell wall; oligoglycome

O-Antigen modifications providing antigenic diversity of Shigella flexneri and underlying genetic mechanisms by Y. A. Knirel; Qiangzheng Sun; S. N. Senchenkova; A. V. Perepelov; A. S. Shashkov; Jianguo Xu (901-914).
O-Antigens (O-specific polysaccharides) of Shigella flexneri, a primary cause of shigellosis, are distinguished by a wide diversity of chemical modifications following the oligosaccharide O-unit assembly. The present review is devoted to structural, serological, and genetic aspects of these modifications, including O-acetylation and phosphorylation with phosphoethanolamine that have been identified recently. The modifications confer the host with specific immunodeterminants (O-factors or O-antigen epitopes), which accounts for the antigenic diversity of S. flexneri considered as a virulence factor of the pathogen. Totally, 30 O-antigen variants have been recognized in these bacteria, the corresponding O-factors characterized using specific antibodies, and a significant extension of the serotyping scheme of S. flexneri on this basis is suggested. Multiple genes responsible for the O-antigen modifications and the resultant serotype conversions of S. flexneri have been identified. The genetic mechanisms of the O-antigen diversification by acquisition of mobile genetic elements, including prophages and plasmids, followed occasionally by gene mobilization and inactivation have been revealed. These findings further our understanding of the genetics and antigenicity of S. flexneri and assist control of shigellosis.
Keywords: Shigella flexneri ; O-antigen; O-polysaccharide structure; serotype-converting bacteriophage; transposon; plasmid; serotyping; immunodeterminant

Tissue-specific rhamnogalacturonan I forms the gel with hyperelastic properties by P. V. Mikshina; A. A. Petrova; D. A. Faizullin; Yu. F. Zuev; T. A. Gorshkova (915-924).
Rhamnogalacturonans I are complex pectin polysaccharides extremely variable in structure and properties and widely represented in various sources. The complexity and diversity of the structure of rhamnogalacturonans I are the reasons for the limited information about the properties and supramolecular organization of these polysaccharides, including the relationship between these parameters and the functions of rhamnogalacturonans I in plant cells. In the present work, on the example of rhamnogalacturonan I from flax gelatinous fibers, the ability of this type of pectic polysaccharides to form at physiological concentrations hydrogels with hyperelastic properties was revealed for the first time. According to IR spectroscopy, water molecules are more tightly retained in the gelling rhamnogalacturonan I from flax fiber cell wall in comparison with the non-gelling rhamnogalacturonan I from primary cell wall of potato. With increase in strength of water binding by rhamnogalacturonan I, there is an increase in elastic modulus and decrease in Poisson’s ratio of gel formed by this polysaccharide. The model of hyperelastic rhamnogalacturonan I capture by laterally interacting cellulose microfibrils, constructed using the finite element method, confirmed the suitability of rhamnogalacturonan I gel with the established properties for the function in the gelatinous cell wall, allowing consideration of this tissue- and stage-specific pectic polysaccharide as an important factor in creation of gelatinous fiber contractility.
Keywords: gelatinous fibers; polysaccharides; rhamnogalacturonan I; water sorption; gel; elastoplastic properties

Influence of fucoidans and their derivatives on antitumor and phagocytic activity of human blood leucocytes by N. Yu. Anisimova; N. E. Ustyuzhanina; F. V. Donenko; M. I. Bilan; N. A. Ushakova; A. I. Usov; N. E. Nifantiev; M. V. Kiselevskiy (925-933).
The immunotropic activity of structurally different fucoidans and their derivatives towards isolated immune blood cells, effectors of innate immune system, was studied. The most potent effect was observed for high molecular weight fucoidan CF from the alga Chordaria flagelliformis, whose backbone is built of (1→3)-linked units of α-L-fucopyranose, and branches included residues of α-D-glucuronic acid and α-L-fucofuranose. This compound at the concentration of 0.05 mg/ml potentiated phagocytosis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Lactobacillus acidophilus by neutrophils, increasing relative quantity of phagocytes as well as their effectiveness. Along with this, 14% increase in the concentration of membrane-bound integrin CD11c molecules was observed. The systemic effect of CF at the dose of 0.01 mg/mouse i.p. led to potentiation of cytotoxic activity of spleen mononuclear leucocytes towards melanoma cells of line B16 by 1.9-fold and towards chronic myelogenous leukemia cells of line K-562 by 1.7-fold. These results indicate that fucoidan CF can stimulate anti-infective and antitumor activity of effectors of the innate immune system via CD11c integrins.
Keywords: fucoidans; leucocytes; natural killers; phagocytosis; cytotoxicity

High-throughput glycomics: Optimization of sample preparation by I. Trbojević Akmačić; I. Ugrina; J. Štambuk; I. Gudelj; F. Vučković; G. Lauc; M. Pučić-Baković (934-942).
Glycosylation affects structure, folding, and function of numerous proteins. Aberrant glycosylation has been shown to be associated with different diseases. A wide range of analytical methods is available for glycan analysis of antibodies (mainly IgG), but analysis of plasma glycans is less established due to additional challenges encountered with higher complexity of the sample. Here we describe development and optimization of a high-throughput sample preparation method for hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography and ultra-performance liquid chromatography analysis of plasma N-glycans. Clean-up of labeled glycans was found to be the largest source of variation, and we tested cellulose, silica gel, Bio-Gel, and hydrophilic GHP filter as stationary phases for solid-phase extraction. All stationary phases were shown to be suitable for purification of labeled glycans, but GHP filter plate in combination with cold 96% acetonitrile had the highest reproducibility and was easiest to work with. The method was further optimized with Plackett—Burman screening design and validated in terms of analysis of major step variation and between-day and between-person variation. The developed method is fast, cost-effective, and easy to perform, and it has very good reproducibility during long period of time, enabling the detection of biological variability of the plasma N-glycome.
Keywords: plasma; glycans; high-throughput; glycome analysis; HILIC; UPLC

The specific interaction of ganglioside GM1 with the homodimeric (prototype) endogenous lectin galectin-1 triggers growth regulation in tumor and activated effector T cells. This proven biorelevance directed interest to studying association of the lectin to a model surface, i.e. a 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine/ganglioside GM1 (80: 20 mol%) monolayer, at a bioeffective concentration. Surface expansion by the lectin insertion was detected at a surface pressure of 20 mN/m. On combining the methods of grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and X-ray reflectivity, a transient decrease in lipid-ordered phase of the monolayer was observed. The measured electron density distribution indicated that galectin-1 is oriented with its long axis in the surface plane, ideal for cis-crosslinking. The data reveal a conspicuous difference to the way the pentameric lectin part of the cholera toxin, another GM1-specific lectin, is bound to the monolayer. They also encourage further efforts to monitor effects of structurally different members of the galectin family such as the functionally antagonistic chimera-type galectin-3.
Keywords: agglutinin; Bragg peaks; ganglioside; lectin; X-ray diffraction/reflectivity