Biochemistry (Moscow) (v.78, #7)

Glycobiology: Progress, problems, and perspectives by G. Ya. Wiederschain (679-696).
This review highlights different aspects of glycobiology with analysis of recent progress in the study of biosynthesis, degradation, and biological role of glycoconjugates and of hereditary diseases related to the metabolism of these compounds. In addition, the review presents some analysis of the papers of other authors who have contributed to this special issue.
Keywords: glycobiology; glycans; glycoconjugates; glycosyltransferases; glycosidases; lectins; receptors; lysosomes; glycosidoses; lysosomal storage diseases; hereditary disorders; biosynthesis and degradation of glycoconjugates

High-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD) is an established technique for the carbohydrate analysis of glycoproteins. HPAE-PAD is routinely used for determinations of monosaccharide, sialic acid, mannose-6-phosphate (M-6-P), and oligosaccharide contents of a glycoprotein. This is true for both the initial investigation of a glycoprotein and routine assays of recombinant therapeutic glycoproteins. This contribution reviews the fundamentals of HPAE-PAD, recent technological improvements, and advances in the last ten years in its application to carbohydrate analysis of glycoproteins. The application areas reviewed include monosaccharide determinations, sialic acid determinations, M-6-P determinations, sugar alcohol determinations, analysis of polysialic acids, neutral and charged oligosaccharide analysis, following glycosidase and glycosyltransferase reactions, and coupling HPAE-PAD to mass spectrometry (MS).
Keywords: monosaccharide; sialic acid; oligosaccharide; glycoprotein; carbohydrate; mannose-6-phosphate; HPAE-PAD

Mass spectrometry of glycans by Liang Han; Catherine E. Costello (710-720).
Powerful new strategies based on mass spectrometry are revolutionizing the structural analysis and profiling of glycans and glycoconjugates. We survey here the major biosynthetic pathways that underlie the biological diversity in glycobiology, with emphasis on glycoproteins, and the approaches that can be used to address the resulting heterogeneity. Included among these are derivatizations, on- and off-line chromatography, electrospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization, and a variety of dissociation methods, the recently introduced electron-based techniques being of particular interest.
Keywords: mass spectrometry; MS/MS; glycobiology; structural determinations; biosynthesis; chromatography; derivatives

Animal models for lysosomal storage disorders by G. M. Pastores; P. A. Torres; B. -J. Zeng (721-725).
The lysosomal storage disorders (LSD) represent a heterogeneous group of inherited diseases characterized by the accumulation of non-metabolized macromolecules (by-products of cellular turnover) in different tissues and organs. LSDs primarily develop as a consequence of a deficiency in a lysosomal hydrolase or its co-factor. The majority of these enzymes are glycosidases and sulfatases, which in normal conditions participate in degradation of glycoconjugates: glycoproteins, glycosaminoproteoglycans, and glycolipids. Significant insights have been gained from studies of animal models, both in understanding mechanisms of disease and in establishing proof of therapeutic concept. These studies have led to the introduction of therapy for certain LSD subtypes, primarily by enzyme replacement or substrate reduction therapy. Animal models have been useful in elucidating molecular changes, particularly prior to onset of symptoms. On the other hand, it should be noted certain animal (mouse) models may have the underlying biochemical defect, but not show the course of disease observed in human patients. There is interest in examining therapeutic options in the larger spontaneous animal models that may more closely mimic the brain size and pathology of humans. This review will highlight lessons learned from studies of animal models of disease, drawing primarily from publications in 2011–2012.
Keywords: inherited diseases; lysosomes; lysosomal storage disorders (LSD); animal model

Heparan sulfate-protein binding specificity by M. A. Nugent; J. Zaia; J. L. Spencer (726-735).
Heparan sulfate (HS) represents a large class of linear polysaccharides that are required for the function of all mammalian physiological systems. HS is characterized by a repeating disaccharide backbone that is subject to a wide range of modifications, making this class of macromolecules arguably the most information dense in all of biology. The majority of HS functions are associated with the ability to bind and regulate a wide range of proteins. Indeed, recent years have seen an explosion in the discovery of new activities for HS where it is now recognized that this class of glycans functions as co-receptors for growth factors and cytokines, modulates cellular uptake of lipoproteins, regulates protease activity, is critical to amyloid plaque formation, is used by opportunistic pathogens to enter cells, and may even participate in epigenetic regulation. This review will discuss the current state of understanding regarding the specificity of HS-protein binding and will describe the concept that protein binding to HS depends on the overall organization of domains within HS rather than fine structure.
Keywords: heparin; heparan sulfate; glycosaminoglycans; proteoglycans; protein binding; bioinformatics

Desialylation of surface receptors as a new dimension in cell signaling by A. V. Pshezhetsky; L. I. Ashmarina (736-745).
Terminal sialic acid residues are found in abundance in glycan chains of glycoproteins and glycolipids on the surface of all live cells forming an outer layer of the cell originally known as glycocalyx. Their presence affects the molecular properties and structure of glycoconjugates, modifying their function and interactions with other molecules. Consequently, the sialylation state of glycoproteins and glycolipids has been recognized as a critical factor modulating molecular recognitions inside the cell, between the cells, between the cells and the extracellular matrix, and between the cells and certain exogenous pathogens. Until recently sialyltransferases that catalyze transfer of sialic acid residues to the glycan chains in the process of their biosynthesis were thought to be mainly responsible for the creation and maintenance of a temporal and spatial diversity of sialylated moieties. However, the growing evidence suggests that in mammalian cells, at least equally important roles belong to sialidases/neuraminidases, which are located on the cell surface and in intracellular compartments, and may either initiate the catabolism of sialoglycoconjugates or just cleave their sialic acid residues, and thereby contribute to temporal changes in their structure and functions. The current review summarizes emerging data demonstrating that mammalian neuraminidase 1, well known for its lysosomal catabolic function, is also targeted to the cell surface and assumes the previously unrecognized role as a structural and functional modulator of cellular receptors.
Keywords: sialylation; neuraminidase; lysosome; plasma membrane; immune response; cell growth; insulin

Glycosidases of marine organisms by V. V. Sova; M. S. Pesentseva; A. M. Zakharenko; S. N. Kovalchuk; T. N. Zvyagintseva (746-759).
This review discusses the catalytic properties, activity regulation, structure, and functions of O-glycoside hydrolases from marine organisms exemplified by endo-1→3-β-D-glucanases of marine invertebrates.
Keywords: glycosidases; O-glycoside hydrolases; endo-1→3-β-D-glucanases; catalytic properties; structure; transglycosylation; marine organisms

Lectins of marine hydrobionts by O. V. Chernikov; V. I. Molchanova; I. V. Chikalovets; A. S. Kondrashina; W. Li; P. A. Lukyanov (760-770).
Data from the literature and results of our research on lectins isolated from some kinds of marine hydrobionts such as clams, ascidians, sea worms, sponges, and algae are presented in this review. Results of comparative analysis of the basic physicochemical properties and biological activity of lectins isolated from various sources are discussed.
Keywords: lectins; marine invertebrates; marine algae

Glycobiology of human milk by D. S. Newburg (771-785).
Glycans are characteristic components of milk, and each species has unique patterns of specific carbohydrates. Human milk is unusually rich in glycans, with the major components being lactose and oligosaccharides, representing approximately 6.8 and 1% of the milk, respectively. Other sources of glycans in human milk include monosaccharides, mucins, glycosaminoglycans, glycoproteins, glycopeptides, and glycolipids. In human milk, the presence and patterns of these glycans vary depending upon the stage of lactation and the maternal genes and their genetic polymorphisms that control glycosyl transferases. The synthesis of milk glycans utilizes a significant portion of the metabolic energy that the mother expends when producing her milk, but other than lactose, these glycans contribute little to the nutritional needs of the infant. The data herein support several functions. 1) Many human milk glycans inhibit pathogens from binding to the intestinal mucosa. 2) Human milk glycans attenuate inflammation. 3) Glycans also directly stimulate the growth of beneficial (mutualist) bacteria of the microbiota (formerly considered commensal microflora of the intestine); these mutualists and their fermentation products can, in turn, (a) inhibit pathogens, (b) modulate signaling and inflammation, and (c) the fermentation products can be absorbed and utilized as a source of dietary calories. These functions can help direct and support intestinal postnatal growth, development, and ontogeny of colonization. The many functions of the milk glycans may synergistically protect infants from disease. Hence, human milk glycans and their homologs may serve as novel prophylactic or therapeutic agents for a diverse range of deleterious conditions.
Keywords: human milk glycans; lactose; oligosaccharides; glycoproteins; mucins; glycosaminoglycans; glycolipid

Natural antibodies to glycans by N. V. Bovin (786-797).
A wide variety of so-called natural antibodies (nAbs), i.e. immunoglobulins generated by B-1 cells, are directed to glycans. nAbs to glycans can be divided in three groups: 1) conservative nAbs, i.e. practically the same in all healthy donors with respect to their epitope specificity and level in blood; 2) allo-antibodies to blood group antigens; 3) plastic antibodies related to the first or the second group but discussed separately because their level changes considerably during diseases and some temporary conditions, in particular inflammation and pregnancy. Antibodies from the third group proved to be prospective markers of a number of diseases, whereas their unusual level (below or above the norm) is not necessarily the consequence of disease/state. Modern microarrays allowed the determination of the human repertoire, which proved to be unexpectedly broad. It was observed that the content of some nAbs reaches about 0.1% of total immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulins of M class dominate for most nAbs, constituting up to 80-90%. Their affinity (to a monovalent glycan, in K D terms) was found to be within the range 10−4–10−6 M. Antibodies to Galβ1-3GlcNAc (LeC), 4-HSO3Galβ1-4GalNAc (4′-O-SuLN), Fucα1-3GlcNAc, Fucα1-4GlcNAc, GalNAcα1-3Gal (Adi), Galα1-4Galβ1-4Glc (Pk), Galα1-4Galβ1-4GlcNAc (P1), GlcNAcα-terminated glycans, and hyaluronic acid should be noted among the nAbs revealed and studied during the last decade. At the same time, a kind of “taboo” is observed for a number of glycans: antibodies to LeX and LeY, and almost all gangliosides have not been observed in healthy persons. Many of the revealed nAbs were directed to constrained inner (core) part of glycan, directly adjoined to lipid of cell membrane or protein. The biological function of these nAbs remains unclear; for anti-core antibodies, a role of surveillance on appearance of aberrant, especially cancer, antigens is supposed. The first data related to oncodiagnostics based on quantitation of anti-glycan nAbs are reported.
Keywords: glycans; glycan array; microchip; natural antibodies

O-antigens of bacteria of the genus Providencia: Structure, serology, genetics, and biosynthesis by O. G. Ovchinnikova; A. Rozalski; B. Liu; Y. A. Knirel (798-817).
The genus Providencia consists of eight species of opportunistic pathogenic enterobacteria that can cause enteric diseases and urinary tract infections. The existing combined serological classification scheme of three species, P. alcalifaciens, P. stuartii, and P. rustigianii, is based on the specificity of O-antigens (O-polysaccharides) and comprises 63 O-serogroups. Differences between serogroups are related to polymorphism at a specific genome locus, the O-antigen gene cluster, responsible for O-antigen biosynthesis. This review presents data on structures of 36 O-antigens of Providencia, many of which contain unusual monosaccharides and non-carbohydrate components. The structural data correlate with the immunospecificity of the O-antigens and enable substantiation on a molecular level of serological relationships within the genus Providencia and between strains of Providencia and bacteria of the genera Proteus, Escherichia, and Salmonella. Peculiar features of the O-antigen gene cluster organization in 10 Providencia serogroups and biosynthetic pathways of nucleotide precursors of specific monosaccharide components of the O-antigens also are discussed.
Keywords: Providencia ; lipopolysaccharide; O-antigen; gene cluster; biosynthesis; serological specificity

A conjugate of a synthetic hexasaccharide fragment of the Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14 capsular polysaccharide with bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been prepared. The antigenic activity and specificity of this conjugate are comparable with those of natural antigens of S. pneumoniae type 14. The data suggest that the resulting synthetic conjugate can be used as a coating antigen in an experimental test system (based on enzyme immunoassay) for evaluating the antigenic activity and specificity of synthetic oligosaccharide ligands and for testing specimens of natural capsular polysaccharides and immune sera.
Keywords: Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14; capsular polysaccharide; synthetic oligosaccharide fragment; oligosaccharide-BSA conjugate; antigenic activity

Polypotency of the immunomodulatory effect of pectins by S. V. Popov; Yu. S. Ovodov (823-835).
Pectins are the major component of plant cell walls, and they display diverse biological activities including immunomodulation. The pectin macromolecule contains fragments of linear and branched regions of polysaccharides such as homogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan-I, xylogalacturonan, and apiogalacturonan. These structural features determine the effect of pectins on the immune system. The backbones of pectic macromolecules have immunosuppressive activity. Pectins containing greater than 80% galacturonic acid residues were found to decrease macrophage activity and inhibit the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction. Branched galacturonan fragments result in a biphasic immunomodulatory action. The branched region of pectins mediates both increased phagocytosis and antibody production. The fine structure of the galactan, arabinan, and apiogalacturonan side chains determines the stimulating interaction between pectin and immune cells. This review summarizes data regarding the relationship between the structure and immunomodulatory activity of pectins isolated from the plants of the European north of Russia and elucidates the concept of polypotency of pectins in native plant cell walls to both stimulate and suppress the immune response. The possible mechanisms of the immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of pectins are also discussed.
Keywords: pectic polysaccharides; structure-activity relations; immunomodulatory effect; polypotency

Spatial structure of plant cell wall polysaccharides and its functional significance by T. A. Gorshkova; L. V. Kozlova; P. V. Mikshina (836-853).
Plant polysaccharides comprise the major portion of organic matter in the biosphere. The cell wall built on the basis of polysaccharides is the key feature of a plant organism largely determining its biology. All together, around 10 types of polysaccharide backbones, which can be decorated by different substituents giving rise to endless diversity of carbohydrate structures, are present in cell walls of higher plants. Each of the numerous cell types present in plants has cell wall with specific parameters, the features of which mostly arise from the structure of polymeric components. The structure of polysaccharides is not directly encoded by the genome and has variability in many parameters (molecular weight, length, and location of side chains, presence of modifying groups, etc.). The extent of such variability is limited by the “functional fitting” of the polymer, which is largely based on spatial organization of the polysaccharide and its ability to form supramolecular complexes of an appropriate type. Consequently, the carrier of the functional specificity is not the certain molecular structure but the certain type of the molecules having a certain degree of heterogeneity. This review summarizes the data on structural features of plant cell wall polysaccharides, considers formation of supramolecular complexes, gives examples of tissue- and stage-specific polysaccharides and functionally significant carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions in plant cell wall, and presents approaches to analyze the spatial structure of polysaccharides and their complexes.
Keywords: higher plants; cell wall; polysaccharides; spatial structure; cellulose; xylan; rhamnogalacturonan I