BioMetals (v.26, #5)

Iron binding β-hairpin peptides by Gillian Morris; Ian Robertson; Chad D. Tatko (667-675).
Posttranslational modification of tyrosine to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) yields a unique functional group in biomolecular systems. Oxidation produces a quinone, which can undergo cross linking while deprotonation is well suited to metal binding. Mussels, tunicates and bacteria chelate iron and other metals with multiple dopa subunits. Solution equilibria between catechols and iron indicate favorable assembly though this interaction has not been studied with highly structured biomolecules, such as peptides, despite their widespread biological applications. Here, a series of β-hairpin peptides are generated. Dopa is involved in an aromatic interaction as the edge position. Despite the presence of the surrounding secondary structure dopa readily undergoes oxidation and cross linking. Formation of bispeptide:iron complexes also occur in the presence of mild to significant aromatic interactions.
Keywords: Iron(III) complexes; Iron chelation; β-Hairpin peptide; Peptide bound dopa; Cross linking; Peptide binding

N(4)-Tolyl-2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazones and their platinum(II,IV) and gold(III) complexes: cytotoxicity against human glioma cells and studies on the mode of action by Karina S. O. Ferraz; Jeferson G. Da Silva; Flávia M. Costa; Bruno M. Mendes; Bernardo L. Rodrigues; Raquel G. dos Santos; Heloisa Beraldo (677-691).
Complexes [Au(2Ac4oT)Cl][AuCl2] (1), [Au(Hpy2Ac4mT)Cl2]Cl·H2O (2), [Au(Hpy2Ac4pT)Cl2]Cl (3), [Pt(H2Ac4oT)Cl]Cl (4), [Pt(2Ac4mT)Cl]·H2O (5), [Pt(2Ac4pT)Cl] (6) and [Pt(L)Cl2OH], L = 2Ac4mT (7), 2Ac4oT (8), 2Ac4pT (9) were prepared with N(4)-ortho- (H2Ac4oT), N(4)-meta- (H2Ac4mT) and N(4)-para- (H2Ac4pT) tolyl-2-acetylpyridine thiosemicarbazone. The cytotoxic activities of all compounds were assayed against U-87 and T-98 human malignant glioma cell lines. Upon coordination cytotoxicity improved in 2, 5 and 8. In general, the gold(III) complexes were more cytotoxic than those with platinum(II,IV). Several of these compounds proved to be more active than cisplatin and auranofin used as controls. The gold(III) complexes probably act by inhibiting the activity of thioredoxin reductase enzyme whereas the mode of action of the platinum(II,IV) complexes involves binding to DNA. Cells treated with the studied compounds presented morphological changes such as cell shrinkage and blebs formation, which indicate cell death by apoptosis induction.
Keywords: Thiosemicarbazones; Gold(III) complexes; Platinum(II,IV) complexes; Cytotoxicity; Mode of action

Cobalt binding in the photosynthetic bacterium R. sphaeroides by X-ray absorption spectroscopy by Benny D. Belviso; Francesca Italiano; Rocco Caliandro; Benedetta Carrozzini; Alessandra Costanza; Massimo Trotta (693-703).
Cobalt is an important oligoelement required for bacteria; if present in high concentration, exhibits toxic effects that, depending on the microorganism under investigation, may even result in growth inhibition. The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter (R.) sphaeroides tolerates high cobalt concentration and bioaccumulates Co2+ ion, mostly on the cellular surface. Very little is known on the chemical fate of the bioaccumulated cobalt, thus an X-ray absorption spectroscopy investigation was conducted on R. sphaeroides cells to gain structural insights into the Co2+ binding to cellular components. X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure measurements were performed on R. sphaeroides samples containing whole cells and cell-free fractions obtained from cultures exposed to 5 mM Co2+. An octahedral coordination geometry was found for the cobalt ion, with six oxygen-ligand atoms in the first shell. In the soluble portion of the cell, cobalt was found bound to carboxylate groups, while a mixed pattern containing equivalent amount of two sulfur and two carbon atoms was found in the cell envelope fraction, suggesting the presence of carboxylate and sulfonate metal-binding functional groups, the latter arising from sulfolipids of the cell envelope.
Keywords: Cobalt coordination; Membrane; Sulfolipids; Rhodobacter sphaeroides ; EXAFS

6-Hydroxydopamine promotes iron traffic in primary cultured astrocytes by Hao-Yun Zhang; Nai-Dong Wang; Ning Song; Hua-Min Xu; Li-Min Shi; Hong Jiang; Jun-Xia Xie (705-714).
It is well known that disrupted brain iron homeostasis was involved in Parkinson’s disease. We previously reported 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) could enhance iron influx and attenuate iron efflux process, thus promote iron accumulation in neurons. Astrocytes, the major glial cell type in the central nervous system, are largely responsible for iron distribution in the brain. However, how iron metabolism changes in astrocytes with 6-OHDA treatment are not fully elucidated. In the present study, we first observed that both iron influx and efflux were enhanced with 10 μM 6-OHDA treatment for 24 h in primary cultured astrocytes. In accordance with these iron traffic modulations, both mRNA and protein levels of iron importer divalent metal transporter 1 with iron responsive element (DMT1+IRE) and exporter ferroportin 1 (FPN1) were up-regulated in these cells. L-ferritin mRNA levels were increased. Iron regulatory protein 1 (IRP1) showed a dynamic regulation with 6-OHDA treatment, as indicated by a moderate up-regulation at 12 h, however, down-regulation at 24 h. We further demonstrated that 6-OHDA treatment could induce activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) p65. IκBα activation inhibitor BAY11-7082 fully blocked 6-OHDA induced NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and DMT1 + IRE up-regulation. These results suggest that 6-OHDA might promote iron transport rate in astrocytes by regulating iron transporters, IRP1 expression and NF-κB p65 activation, indicating a different response between neurons and astrocytes.
Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; Astrocytes; Iron; Iron transport; Oxidative stress

Zinc regulates the activity of kinase-phosphatase pair (BasPrkC/BasPrpC) in Bacillus anthracis by Gunjan Arora; Andaleeb Sajid; Mary Diana Arulanandh; Richa Misra; Anshika Singhal; Santosh Kumar; Lalit K. Singh; Abid R. Mattoo; Rishi Raj; Souvik Maiti; Sharmila Basu-Modak; Yogendra Singh (715-730).
Bacillus anthracis Ser/Thr protein kinase PrkC (BasPrkC) is important for virulence of the bacterium within the host. Homologs of PrkC and its cognate phosphatase PrpC (BasPrpC) are the most conserved mediators of signaling events in diverse bacteria. BasPrkC homolog in Bacillus subtilis regulates critical processes like spore germination and BasPrpC modulates the activity of BasPrkC by dephosphorylation. So far, biochemical and genetic studies have provided important insights into the roles of BasPrkC and BasPrpC; however, regulation of their activities is not known. We studied the regulation of BasPrkC/BasPrpC pair and observed that Zn2+ metal ions can alter their activities. Zn2+ promotes BasPrkC kinase activity while inhibits the BasPrpC phosphatase activity. Concentration of Zn2+ in growing B. anthracis cells was found to vary with growth phase. Zn2+ was found to be lowest in log phase cells while it was highest in spores. This variation in Zn2+ concentration is significant for understanding the antagonistic activities of BasPrkC/BasPrpC pair. Our results also show that BasPrkC activity is modulated by temperature changes and kinase inhibitors. Additionally, we identified Elongation Factor Tu (BasEf-Tu) as a substrate of BasPrkC/BasPrpC pair and assessed the impact of their regulation on BasEf-Tu phosphorylation. Based on these results, we propose Zn2+ as an important regulator of BasPrkC/BasPrpC mediated phosphorylation cascades. Thus, this study reveals additional means by which BasPrkC can be activated leading to autophosphorylation and substrate phosphorylation.
Keywords: Bacillus anthracis ; PrkC; PrpC; Zinc; Phosphorylation; Ef-Tu; Kinase inhibitors; Thermostability; ICP-OES

Copper toxicity in the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: an integrated approach by An Jamers; Ronny Blust; Wim De Coen; Julian L. Griffin; Oliver A. H. Jones (731-740).
The effects of copper exposure at five different concentrations on the freshwater alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were studied at the biochemical (metabolite), physiological (uptake kinetics and flow cytometry) and growth level. Changes at the physiological level were evident at the lowest exposure concentration while effects on the metabolome and on growth only occurred at the highest copper concentration tested. Flow cytometry revealed the presence of higher reactive oxygen species concentrations in algae exposed to higher copper concentrations and this was confirmed by a significant reduction in glutathione levels as part of the metabolomics assessment. Cu2+ uptake kinetic data contributed information on possible mechanisms of copper toxicity, revealing that, a decrease in efflux pumping might be at the basis of an increased metal accumulation at higher exposure levels. This study demonstrates the value of using a comparative approach to investigating the mechanisms of toxicity rather than focusing on a single level of organization or effect.
Keywords: Algae; Copper; Metabolomics; Transcriptomics; Systems toxicology

A series of hexa-coordinated ruthenium(II) complexes of the type [Ru(CO)(B)L n ] (n = 1–4; B = PPh3, AsPh3 or Py) have been synthesized by reacting dibasic quadridentate Schiff base ligands H2L n (n = 1–4) with starting complexes [RuHCl(CO)(EPh3)2(B)] (E = P or As; B = PPh3, AsPh3 or Py). The synthesized complexes were characterized using elemental and various spectral studies including UV–Vis, FT-IR, NMR (1H, 13C and 31P) and mass spectroscopy. An octahedral geometry was tentatively proposed for all the complexes based on the spectral data obtained. The experiments on antioxidant activity showed that the ruthenium(II) S-methylisothiosemicarbazone Schiff base complexes exhibited good scavenging activity against various free radicals (DPPH, OH and NO). The in vitro cytotoxicity of these complexes has been evaluated by MTT assay. The results demonstrate that the complexes have good anticancer activities against selected cancer cell line, human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and human skin carcinoma cell line (A431). The DNA cleavage studies showed that the complexes have better cleavage of pBR 322 DNA.
Keywords: Ruthenium(II) complexes; Spectral studies; Antioxidant; Anticancer activity; DNA cleavage

Plants offer the potential for selective removal and sequestration of toxic heavy metals from contaminated soil. Phytoextraction of metal ions involve their transport through the plant’s root system and into its shoots and leaves. This study investigates the thermodynamics of Eu(III) ion chemical interactions with Datura innoxia plant root materials under solution conditions of pH 4.0 and 5.0. Both changes in enthalpies (∆H) and entropies (∆S) of metal binding were elucidated from isotherms collected under varied temperature conditions using regularized regression data analysis and conditional affinity spectra. ∆H values for binding to root materials at pH 4.0 and 5.0 were each calculated to be +30 kJ/mol. Values of ΔS for these same materials were found to be +170 and +153 J/mol K for solution conditions of pH 4.0 and 5.0, respectively. These results suggest binding to the root material to be entropically driven (∆S° > 0 and ΔH > 0) through possible displacement of waters of solvation.
Keywords: Biosorption; Phytoextraction; Thermodynamics; Datura innoxia ; Conditional affinity spectra; Binding isotherms

Oxidant balance in brain of rats receiving different compounds of selenium by Irena Musik; Małgorzata Kiełczykowska; Joanna Kocot (763-771).
The influence of two organic selenocompounds and sodium selenite on oxidant processes in rat brain tissue was investigated. The study was performed on male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into four groups: I—control; II—administered with sodium selenite; III—provided with selenoorganic compound A of chain structure 4-(o-tolyl-)-selenosemicarbazide of 2-chlorobenzoic acid and IV—provided with selenoorganic compound B of ring structure 3-(2-chlorobenzoylamino-)-2-(o-tolylimino-)-4-methyl-4-selenazoline. Rats were treated by stomach tube at a dose of 5 × 10−4 mg of selenium/g of b.w. once a day for a period of 10 days. In brain homogenates total antioxidant status (TAS), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as concentration of malonyl dialdehyde (MDA) were determined. TAS was insignificantly diminished in all selenium-supplemented groups versus control. SOD was not significantly influenced by administration of selenium. GPx was markedly decreased in group III versus control, whereas increased in group IV versus control and group III. Selenosemicarbazide depleted AA in well-marked way versus group II. GSH was significantly depressed in group III versus both control and group II and diminished in group IV versus group II. MDA was significantly decreased in group III versus both control and group II, whereas in group IV increased versus group III. As selenazoline A did not decrease elements of antioxidant barrier and increased GPx activity, it seems to be a promising agent for future studies concerning its possible application as a selenium supplement.
Keywords: Selenium; Brain; Antioxidant defence; Lipid peroxidation; Male rats

Characterization of exudates released by the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum exposed to copper stress: a 3D-fluorescence spectroscopy approach by Faouzi Herzi; Asma Sakka Hlaili; Christophe Le Poupon; Hassine Hadj Mabrouk; Stéphane Mounier (773-781).
In a laboratory study, metal contamination experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of two free copper concentrations (10−9 and 10−8 M) on cell growth and on dissolved organic matter exudation by a marine diatom Skeletonema costatum. Throughout incubation, the growth kinetics and exudation of extracellular molecules (i.e. dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the fluorescent organic matter) were determined. Results revealed an inhibition of S. costatum growth when the free copper level increased (from 10−9 to 10−8). Furthermore, DOC release was more significant in cultures contaminated by 10−9 M Cu2+ than in control, suggesting a coping mechanism developed by this species. In this study, samples were daily analysed by 3D-fluorescence and PARAFAC algorithm, in order to compare the fluorescent material produced during growth under different contaminations. PARAFAC treatment revealed two main contributions: one related to the biological activity (C1), the other linked to the marine organic matter (C2). The third component C3 was typically protein-like. This fluorophore was considered as a tryptophan-like fluorophore, whereas the C1 and the C2 components were associated to marine production such as humic matter.
Keywords: Trace metals; 3D-fluorescence spectroscopy; Copper; Exudation; Fluorescence proteins; Diatoms

Treatment of mercury vapor toxicity by combining deferasirox and deferiprone in rats by Marzieh Iranmanesh; S. Jamil A. Fatemi; Mohammad Reza Golbafan; Faezeh Dahooee Balooch (783-788).
The hypothesis that combination of deferasirox and deferiprone chelators might be more efficient as combined therapy than single therapy in removing mercury from the body was considered. Male Wistar rats were exposed to mercury vapor for 2 weeks. After mercury administration some abnormal clinical signs such as red staining around the eyes, greenish mottling on the liver, weakness, loss of hair and weight, were observed in animals. Chelators were given orally after mercury vapor application for 2 weeks. Mercury toxicity symptoms in rats decreased after drug administration. After chelation therapy, these rats were anesthetized with ether vapor and immobilized by cervical dislocation and then their heart, liver, kidneys, intestine, spleen and testicles were sampled for determination of mercury and iron concentration. The combined chelation therapy results showed that these chelators are able to remove mercury from the body and toxicity symptoms decreased.
Keywords: Deferasirox; Deferiprone; Mercury toxicity; Chelation therapy; Rats

Human fibrinogen is a metal ion-binding protein, but its mechanism of binding with iron and heme has not been elucidated in detail. In this study, human fibrinogen was immobilized on CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B beads. The fibrinogen beads bound hemin (iron–protoporphyrin IX: PPIX) as well as iron ion released from ferrous ammonium sulfate (FAS) more efficiently than Sepharose 4B beads alone. Hemin bound to fibrinogen still exhibited pseudo-peroxidase activity. The affinity of fibrinogen binding to hemin, Sn–PPIX, Zn–PPIX and metal-free PPIX followed the order Sn–PPIX < metal-free PPIX < hemin < Zn–PPIX; PPIX bound more non-specifically to control beads. FAS significantly enhanced the binding of hemin to fibrinogen beads. These results suggest that human fibrinogen directly recognizes iron ion, the PPIX ring and metal ions complexed with the PPIX ring, and that the binding of hemin is augmented by iron ions.
Keywords: Fibrinogen; Hemin; Protoporphyrin; Iron

Characterization of two genes encoding metal tolerance proteins from Beta vulgaris subspecies maritima that confers manganese tolerance in yeast by Isil Erbasol; Gonensin Ozan Bozdag; Ahmet Koc; Pai Pedas; Huseyin Caglar Karakaya (795-804).
Manganese (Mn2+) is an essential micronutrient in plants. However increased Mn2+ levels are toxic to plant cells. Metal tolerance proteins (MTPs), member of cation diffusion facilitator protein (CDF) family, have important roles in metal homeostatis in different plant species and catalyse efflux of excess metal ions. In this study, we identified and characterized two MTP genes from Beta vulgaris spp. maritima (B. v. ssp. maritima). Overexpression of these two genes provided Mn tolerance in yeast cells. Sequence analyses displayed BmMTP10 and BmMTP11as members of the Mn-CDF family. Functional analyses of these proteins indicated that they are specific to Mn2+ with a role in reducing excess cellular Mn2+ levels when expressed in yeast. GFP-fusion constructs of both proteins localized to the Golgi apparatus as a punctuated pattern. Finally, Q-RT-PCR results showed that BmMTP10 expression was induced threefold in response to the excess Mn2+ treatment. On the other hand BmMTP11 expression was not affected in response to excess Mn2+ levels. Thus, our results suggest that the BmMTP10 and BmMTP11 proteins from B. v. ssp. maritima have non-redundant functions in terms of Mn2+ detoxification with a similar in planta localization and function as the Arabidopsis Mn-CDF homolog AtMTP11 and this conservation shows the evolutionary importance of these vesicular proteins in heavy metal homeostatis among plant species.
Keywords: MTP; Heavy metal tolerance; Manganese; Yeast; Golgi; Plant

Catalytic and regulatory roles of species involved in metal–nucleotide equilibriums in human pyridoxal kinase by Freddy Navarro; César A. Ramírez-Sarmiento; Victoria Guixé (805-812).
Pyridoxal 5′-phosphate is the active form of vitamin B6 and its deficiency is directly related with several human disorders, which make human pyridoxal kinase (hPLK) an important pharmacologic target. In spite of this, a carefully kinetic characterization of hPLK including the main species that regulates the enzymatic activity is at date missing. Here we analyse the catalytic and regulatory mechanisms of hPLK as a function of a precise determination of the species involved in metal–nucleotide equilibriums and describe new regulatory mechanisms for this enzyme. hPLK activity is supported by several metals, being Zn2+ the most effective, although the magnitude of the effect observed is highly dependent on the relative concentrations of metal and nucleotide used. The true substrate for the reaction catalyzed by hPLK is the metal nucleotide complex, while ATP4− and HATP3− did not affect the activity. The enzyme presents substrate inhibition by both pyridoxal (PL) and ZnATP2−, although the latter behaves as a weakly inhibitor. Our study also established, for the first time, a dual role for free Zn2+; as an activator at low concentrations (19 μM optimal concentration) and as a potent inhibitor with a IC50 of 37 μM. These results highlighted the importance of an accurate estimation of the actual concentration of the species involved in metal–nucleotide equilibriums in order to obtain reliable values for the kinetic parameters, and for determine the true regulators of the PLK activity. They also help to explain the dissimilar kinetic parameters reported in the literature for this enzyme.
Keywords: Human pyridoxal kinase; Divalent metal cation; Enzyme inhibition; Metal–nucleotide complex; Zinc

Norfloxacin Zn(II)-based complexes: acid base ionization constant determination, DNA and albumin binding properties and the biological effect against Trypanosoma cruzi by Ligiane R. Gouvea; Darliane A. Martins; Denise da Gama Jean Batista; Maria de Nazaré C. Soeiro; Sonia R. W. Louro; Paulo J. S. Barbeira; Letícia R. Teixeira (813-825).
Zn(II) complexes with norfloxacin (NOR) in the absence or in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) were obtained and characterized. In both complexes, the ligand NOR was coordinated through a keto and a carboxyl oxygen. Tetrahedral and octahedral geometries were proposed for [ZnCl2(NOR)]·H2O (1) and [ZnCl2(NOR)(phen)]·2H2O (2), respectively. Since the biological activity of the chemicals depends on the pH value, pH titrations of the Zn(II) complexes were performed. UV spectroscopic studies of the interaction of the complexes with calf-thymus DNA (CT DNA) have suggested that they can bind to CT DNA with moderate affinity in an intercalative mode. The interactions between the Zn(II) complexes and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy at pH 7.4. The experimental data showed static quenching of BSA fluorescence, indicating that both complexes bind to BSA. A modified Stern–Volmer plot for the quenching by complex 2 demonstrated preferential binding near one of the two tryptophan residues of BSA. The binding constants obtained (K b ) showed that BSA had a two orders of magnitude higher affinity for complex 2 than for 1. The results also showed that the affinity of both complexes for BSA was much higher than for DNA. This preferential interaction with protein sites could be important to their biological mechanisms of action. The analysis in vitro of the Zn(II) complexes and corresponding ligand were assayed against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease and the data showed that complex 2 was the most active against bloodstream trypomastigotes.
Keywords: Norfloxacin; Zn(II) complexes; Anti-T. cruzi activity; Acid ionization constant; Interaction with DNA; Interaction with bovine serum albumin

The interaction of a water-soluble dinuclear nickel(II) complex, [Ni2(EGTB)(CH3CN)4](ClO4)4·4H2O (EGTB = ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether) N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(2-benzimidazoyl)) (1), and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated under physiological conditions using fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, UV–vis absorption and circular dichroism (CD). The experimental results suggested that the nickel(II) complex could bind to BSA with binding constant (K) ~ 104 M−1 and quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA through a static quenching mechanism. The thermodynamic parameters, ΔG°, ΔH°, and ΔS°, calculated at different temperatures, indicated that the binding reaction was spontaneous and electrostatic interactions played a major role in this association. Based on the number of binding sites, it was considered that one molecule of complex 1 could bind to a single site or two sites of the BSA molecule or the two binding modes coexisted. In view of the results of site marker competition experiments, the reactive sites of BSA to complex 1 mainly located in subdomain IIA (site I) and subdomain IIIA (site II) of BSA. Moreover, the binding distance, r, between donor (BSA) and acceptor (complex 1) was 5.13 nm according to Förster nonradiation energy transfer theory. Finally, as shown by the UV–vis absorption, synchronous fluorescence and CD, complex 1 could induce conformation and microenvironmental changes of BSA. The results obtained herein will be of biological significance in toxicology investigation and anticancer metallodrug design.
Keywords: Nickel complex; Bovine serum albumin; Toxicology; Anticancer metallodrugs

Conversion of a heme-based oxygen sensor to a heme oxygenase by hydrogen sulfide: effects of mutations in the heme distal side of a heme-based oxygen sensor phosphodiesterase (Ec DOS) by Yongming Du; Gefei Liu; Yinxia Yan; Dongyang Huang; Wenhong Luo; Marketa Martinkova; Petr Man; Toru Shimizu (839-852).
The heme-based oxygen-sensor phosphodiesterase from Escherichia coli (Ec DOS), is composed of an N-terminal heme-bound oxygen sensing domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain. Oxygen (O2) binding to the heme Fe(II) complex in Ec DOS substantially enhances catalysis. Addition of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) to the heme Fe(III) complex in Ec DOS also remarkably stimulates catalysis in part due to the heme Fe(III)–SH and heme Fe(II)–O2 complexes formed by H2S. In this study, we examined the roles of the heme distal amino acids, M95 (the axial ligand of the heme Fe(II) complex) and R97 (the O2 binding site in the heme Fe(II)–O2 complex) of the isolated heme-binding domain of Ec DOS (Ec DOS-PAS) in the binding of H2S under aerobic conditions. Interestingly, R97A and R97I mutant proteins formed an oxygen-incorporated modified heme, verdoheme, following addition of H2S combined with H2O2 generated by the reactions. Time-dependent mass spectroscopic data corroborated the findings. In contrast, H2S did not interact with the heme Fe(III) complex of M95H and R97E mutants. Thus, M95 and/or R97 on the heme distal side in Ec DOS-PAS significantly contribute to the interaction of H2S with the Fe(III) heme complex and also to the modification of the heme Fe(III) complex with reactive oxygen species. Importantly, mutations of the O2 binding site of the heme protein converted its function from oxygen sensor to that of a heme oxygenase. This study establishes the novel role of H2S in modifying the heme iron complex to form verdoheme with the aid of reactive oxygen species.
Keywords: Heme protein; Heme oxygenase; Hydrogen sulfide; Oxygen-sensor; Reactive oxygen species; Verdoheme

Human urothelial micronucleus assay to assess genotoxic recovery by reduction of arsenic in drinking water: a cohort study in West Bengal, India by Somnath Paul; Pritha Bhattacharjee; Prafulla K. Mishra; Debmita Chatterjee; Anirban Biswas; Debasree Deb; Aloke Ghosh; D. N. Guha Mazumder; Ashok K. Giri (855-862).
Chronic exposure to arsenic through drinking water affects nearly 26 million individuals in West Bengal, India. Cytogenetic biomarkers like urothelial micronucleus (MN) are extensively used to monitor arsenic exposed population. In 2004–2005, 145 arsenic exposed individuals and 60 unexposed controls were surveyed of which 128 exposed individuals and 54 unexposed controls could be followed up in 2010–2011. In 2004–2005, the extent of arsenic content in the drinking water was 348.23 ± 102.67 μg/L, which was significantly lowered to 5.60 ± 10.83 μg/L in 2010–2011. Comparing the data obtained between 2004–2005 and 2010–2011, there was a significant decline in the MN frequency, when assayed in 2010–2011 compared to 2004–2005. Hence, we infer that urothelial MN can be utilized as a good biomarker in detecting remedial effects from toxicity of the low dose of arsenic through drinking water.
Keywords: Arsenic; Groundwater; Genotoxicity; Micronuclei; Remediation