BioMetals (v.26, #3)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease caused by recurring attacks of neuroinflammation leading to neuronal death. Immune-suppressing gold salts are used for treating connective tissue diseases; however, side effects occur from systemic spread of gold ions. This is limited by exploiting macrophage-induced liberation of gold ions (dissolucytosis) from gold surfaces. Injecting gold beads in hyaluronic acid (HA) as a vehicle into the cavities of the brain can delay clinical signs of disease progression in the MS model, experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE). This study investigates the anti-inflammatory properties of metallic gold/HA on the gene expression of tumor necrosis factor (Tnf-α), Interleukin (Il)-, Il-6, Il-10, Colony-stimulating factor (Csf)-v2, Metallothionein (Mt)-1/2, Bcl-2 associated X protein (Bax) and B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 in cultured J774 macrophages and in rodents with early stages of EAE. Cells grew for 5 days on gold/HA or HA, then receiving 1,000 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as inflammatory challenge. In the EAE experiment, 12 Lewis rats received gold injections and control groups included 11 untreated and 12 HA-treated EAE rats and five healthy animals. The experiment terminated day 9 when the first ten animals showed signs of EAE, only one of which were gold-treated (1p = 0.0367). Gene expression in the macrophages showed a statistically significant decrease in Il-6, Il- and Il-10-response to LPS; interestingly HA induced a statistically significant increase of Il-10. In the EAE model gene expression of inflammatory cytokines increased markedly. Compared to EAE controls levels of Tnf-α, Il-, Il-10, Il-6, IL-2, Ifn-γ, Il-17, transforming growth factor (Tgf)-β, superoxide dismutase (Sod)-2, Mt-2 and fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)-2 were lower in the gold-treated group. HA-treated animals expressed similar or intermediate levels. Omnibus testing for reduced inflammatory response following gold-treatment was not significant, but tendencies towards a decrease in the Sod-2, Fgf-2, Il- response and a higher Bdnf and IL-23 gene expression were seen. In conclusion, our findings support that bio-liberation of gold from metallic gold surfaces have anti-inflammatory properties similar to classic gold compounds, warranting further studies into the pharmacological potential of this novel gold-treatment and the possible synergistic effects of hyaluronic acid.
Keywords: Anti-inflammation; Dissolucytosis; EAE; Hyaluronic acid; Macrophages; Metallic gold

Ruthenium (II) polypyridyl complexes stabilize the bcl-2 promoter quadruplex and induce apoptosis of Hela tumor cells by Chuan Wang; Qianqian Yu; Licong Yang; Yanyu Liu; Dongdong Sun; Yongchao Huang; Yanhui Zhou; Qianling Zhang; Jie Liu (387-402).
In the present study, the interaction between GC-rich sequence of bcl-2 gene P1 promoter (Pu39) and two ruthenium (II) polypyridyl complexes, [Ru(bpy)2(tip)]2+ (1) and [Ru(phen)2(tip)]2+ (2), was investigated by UV–Visible, fluorescence spectroscopy, circular dichroism, fluorescence resonance energy transfer melting assay and polymerase chain reaction stop assay. Those experimental results indicated that the two complexes can effectively stabilize the G-quadruplex of Pu39. It was found that the complex 2 exhibited greater cytotoxic activity than 1 against human Hela cells and can enter into Hela cells in a short period of time to effectively induce apoptosis of cells. Further experiments found that complexes 1 and 2 had as potent inhibitory effects on ECV-304 cell migration as suramin. Those noteworthy results provide new insights into the development of anticancer agents for targeting G-quadruplex DNA.
Keywords: Ru(II) complexes; G-quadruplex; Cellular uptake; Bcl-2 gene; Apoptosis; Anticancer

Systematic validation of candidate reference genes for qRT-PCR normalization under iron deficiency in Arabidopsis by Bin Han; Zheng Yang; Muhammad Kaleem Samma; Ren Wang; Wenbiao Shen (403-413).
A reliable result obtained by qRT-PCR highly depends on accurate transcript normalization using stably expressed reference genes. However, the transcript levels of traditional reference genes are not always stable. Also, the inaccurate normalization could easily lead to the false conclusions. In this report, by using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms, 12 candidate reference genes were evaluated in Arabidopsis under iron deficiency. Our results revealed that three novel reference genes (SAND, YLS8 and TIP41-like) were identified and validated as suitable reference genes for qRT-PCR normalization in both iron deprivation (the addition of Ferrozine to the medium) and starvation (withdrawal of iron from the medium) conditions. This conclusion was also confirmed by publicly available microarray data. In addition, when using SAND, YLS8 and TIP41-like as multiple reference genes, the expression patterns of FIT1 and IRT1, two iron deficiency marker genes, were approximately similar with that reported previously. However, a weaker inducible response was obtained from qRT-PCR by normalizating EF- alone. Together, we proposed that the combination of SAND, YLS8 and TIP41-like can be used for accurate normalization of gene expression in iron deficiency research. These results provide a valuable evidence for the importance of adequate reference genes in qRT-PCR normalization, insisting on the use of appropriate reference gene validation in all transcriptional analyses.
Keywords: Arabidopsis; Iron deficiency; Normalization; qRT-PCR; Reference genes

Copper chelation regulates the production of inflammatory mediators in vivo during vascular inflammation and atherogenesis. Little is known about how the copper egress pump ATP7A regulates the production of these mediators. In this study, we isolated ATP7A deficient macrophages (MΦ) from the peritoneal cavity of blotchy mice and identified the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory mediators that were altered by ATP7A deficiency. These results were compared with the effect of neocuproine (a copper chelator) treatment on both ATP7A deficient and control MΦ. Seven of the 24 inflammatory mediators examined in this study had significant changes in expression in the ATP7A deficient MΦ compared to controls; 16 of these mediators were significantly reduced in MΦ treated with neocuproine compared to controls. Both neocuproine treatment and ATP7A deficiency reduced IFN-γ, MCP-1, MCP-3, and VEGF-A levels. Interestingly, the production of KC/GRO was upregulated by ATP7A deficiency but downregulated by neocuproine treatment. Neocuproine, but not ATP7A deficiency, reduced the production of FGF-9, IL-1α, IL-12p70, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, MIP-1β, MIP-2, RANTES, and TNFα. ATP7A deficiency but not neocuproine treatment reduced IP-10 and MCP-5 levels. In addition, both ATP7A deficiency and neocuproine treatment had no effect on GM-CSF, IL-10, IL-11, IL-7, OSM, and SCF. Together, these findings provide evidence that MΦ ATP7A selectively regulates LPS-induced inflammatory mediators, in part, via modulation of cellular copper availability, whereas neocuproine generally inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators. These results also imply that although copper chelation and ATP7A downregulation may result in different copper concentrations, gradients, and/or distribution in the cells, they may not lead to opposite biological effects on inflammatory mediator production.
Keywords: Copper; Macrophage; ATP7A; Neocuprione

Differences in Al tolerance between Plantago algarbiensis and P. almogravensis reflect their ability to respond to oxidative stress by Neusa Martins; Maria Leonor Osório; Sandra Gonçalves; Júlio Osório; Anabela Romano (427-437).
We evaluated the impact of low pH and aluminum (Al) on the leaves and roots of Plantago almogravensis Franco and Plantago algarbiensis Samp., focusing on energy partitioning in photosystem II, H2O2 levels, lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage (EL), protein oxidation, total soluble protein content and antioxidant enzyme activities. In both species, Al triggered more changes in oxidative metabolism than low pH alone, particularly in the roots. We found that Al increased the levels of H2O2 in P. algarbiensis roots, but reduced the levels of H2O2 in P. almogravensis leaves and roots. Neither low pH nor Al affected the spatial heterogeneity of chlorophyll fluorescence, the maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), the actual quantum efficiency of PSII (ϕPSII) or the quantum yields of regulated (ϕNPQ) and nonregulated (ϕNO) energy dissipation, and there was no significant change in total soluble protein content and EL. In P. algarbiensis, Al increased the carbonyl content and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the roots, and also CAT, ascorbate peroxidase and guaiacol peroxidase activities in the leaves. In P. almogravensis, Al reduced the level of malondialdehyde in the roots as well as SOD activity in the leaves and roots. We found that P. almogravensis plantlets could manage the oxidative stress caused by low pH and Al, whereas the P. algarbiensis antioxidant system was unable to suppress Al toxicity completely, leading to the accumulation of H2O2 and consequential protein oxidation in the roots.
Keywords: Antioxidant enzymes; Energy partitioning; Lipid peroxidation; Oxidative stress; Protein oxidation; Reactive oxygen species

Antitumor activity of Mn(III) complexes in combination with phototherapy and antioxidant therapy by Tatiana Araujo Pereira; Gisele Espinha Teixeira da Silva; Raúl Bonne Hernández; Fabio Luis Forti; Breno Pannia Espósito (439-446).
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element and trivalent Mn complexes have been used as oxidation catalysts and enzyme mimetics. We studied the cytotoxicity of Mn(III) derivatives of citrate, pyrophosphate and salicylene diamine (respectively, MnCit, MnPPi and EUK8) toward HeLa cells stressed by ultraviolet irradiation and the effect of the co-administration of ascorbate and para-amino salicylate (PAS) on cell viability. Metal complexes enhanced the lethality of irradiated cells, and this effect was even more pronounced when ascorbate was co-administered with Mn(III) species. The active role of Mn(III) compounds in the antitumor activity was demonstrated by the treatment of the cells with the chelator PAS, which restored the viability of both non-irradiated and UV-irradiated cells. The association of the Mn(III) metallodrugs with radiation and an antioxidant proved to be a very effective approach to chemotherapy.
Keywords: Manganese; Ascorbate; HeLa; Ultraviolet; Stress

Chronic administration of iron and copper potentiates adipogenic effect of high fat diet in Wistar rats by Alexey A. Tinkov; Valentina S. Polyakova; Alexandr A. Nikonorov (447-463).
The primary objective of this research project is explore a possible adipogenic effect of iron and/or copper in albino Wistar rats kept on standard (STD) and high-fat (HFD) diets. The female Wistar rats in the study were divided into eight experimental groups (n = 6). Rats maintained on STD and HFD received 3 mg/l FeSO4·7H2O, 4.88 mg/l CuSO4 and a combination of 1.5 mg/l FeSO4·7H2O and 2.44 mg/l CuSO4 with drinking water. Control groups were kept on STD and HFD and received pure water without metal salts. Consumption of iron and copper in the groups of rats maintained on an STD did not produce a significant increase in weight, adipose tissue content or body mass index. However, the adipocyte size and infiltration were increased in the adipose tissue of STD-fed rats receiving a mixture of iron and copper with drinking water. The rats fed iron and copper and, especially, their combination on a HFD background had a significantly higher weight gain, adipose tissue content, morphometric parameters values and adipocyte size compared to STD- and HFD-fed controls. Iron and copper consumption produced their accumulation in the rats’ adipose tissue. Moreover, the studied metals reduced adipose tissue concentration of chromium and vanadium. The lipoprotein profile and serum oxidative stress biomarkers were affected in the rats receiving the metals and STD. Hyperglycemia was observed in the rats receiving the studied metals on HFD-background. Based on the analysis of the test subjects, the study suggests that iron and copper administration, especially combined, may potentiate adipogenic effect of HFD.
Keywords: Iron; Copper; Excessive adiposity; High-fat diet; Inflammation

Chelation of chromium(VI) by combining deferasirox and deferiprone in rats by Marzieh Iranmanesh; S. Jamil A. Fatemi; Roza Ebrahimpour; Faezeh Dahooee Balooch (465-471).
The present research is aimed to characterize the potential efficiency of two chelators after chromium(VI) administration for 60 days following two doses of 15 and 30 mg/kg chromium(VI) per body weight daily to male rats. However, the hypothesis that the two chelators might be more efficient as combined therapy than as single therapy in removing chromium(VI) from rat organs was considered. In this way, two known chelators deferasirox and deferiprone were chosen and given orally as a single or combined therapy for a period of 1 week. Chromium(VI) and iron concentrations in tissues were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The combined chelation therapy results show that deferasirox and deferiprone are able to remove chromium(VI) ions from various tissues while iron concentration returned to normal levels and symptoms also decreased.
Keywords: Deferasirox; Deferiprone; Chromium toxicity; Chelation therapy; Rats

Oxidative effect of several intravenous iron complexes in the rat by George R. Bailie; Catherine Schuler; Robert E. Leggett; Hsin Li; Hsin-Dat Li; Hiten Patadia; Robert Levin (473-478).
The objective of this study was to compare the oxidative stress induced in rat internal organs by the administration of the following clinically used intravenous (IV) iron (Fe) containing compounds: iron sucrose (IS), iron dextran (ID), ferric carboxymaltose and ferumoxytol. Groups of six adult rats received 1 mg/kg of each compound weekly for 5 doses. Seven days following the last dose, animals were euthanized and tissue samples of heart, lung, liver, and kidney were obtained, washed in warmed saline and frozen under liquid nitrogen and stored at −80 °C for analysis for nitrotyrosine (NT) and dinitro phenyl (DNP) as markers of oxidative stress. All tissues showed a similar pattern of oxidative stress. All Fe products stimulated an increase in the tissue concentration of both NT and DNP. In general, DNP was stimulated significantly less than NT except for IS. DNP was stimulated to an equal degree except for ID where NT was significantly higher than the NT concentrations in all other Fe compounds. ID produced over 10-fold the concentration of NT than any other Fe. IV Fe compounds present a risk of oxidative stress to a variety of internal organs. However, we found that IS was the least damaging and ID was the worst.
Keywords: Intravenous iron; Oxidative stress; Iron sucrose; Iron dextran

Fine mechanisms of the interaction of silver nanoparticles with the cells of Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus by Alina Grigor’eva; Irina Saranina; Nina Tikunova; Alexey Safonov; Nikolai Timoshenko; Alexey Rebrov; Elena Ryabchikova (479-488).
Silver nanoparticles possess antibacterial effect for various bacteria; however mechanisms of the interaction between Ag-NPs and bacterial cells remain unclear. The aim of our study was to obtain direct evidence of Ag-NPs penetration into cells of Gram-negative bacterium S. typhimurium and Gram-positive bacterium S. aureus, and to study cell responses to Ag-NPs. The Ag-NPs (most 8–10 nm) were obtained by gas-jet method. S. typhimurium (7.81 × 107 CFU), or S. aureus (8.96 × 107 CFU) were treated by Ag-NPs (0.05 mg/l of silver) in orbital shaker at 190 rpm, 37 °C. Bacteria were sampled at 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 5 and 23 h of the incubation for transmission electron microscopy of ultrathin sections. The Ag-NPs adsorbed on outer membrane of S. typhimurium and cell wall of S. auereus; penetrated and accumulated in cells without aggregation and damaging of neighboring cytoplasm. In cells of S. aureus Ag-NPs bound with DNA fibers. Cell responses to Ag-NPs differed morphologically in S. typhimurium and S. aureus, and mainly were presented by damage of cell structures. The cytoplasm of S. aureus became amorphous, while S. typhimurium showed lumping and lysis of cytoplasm which led to formation of “empty” cells. Other difference was fast change of cell shape in S. typhimurium, and late deformation of S. aureus cells. The obtained results showed how different could be responses induced by the same NPs in relatively simple prokaryotic cells. Evidently, Ag-NPs directly interact with macromolecular structures of living cells and are exert an active influence on their metabolism.
Keywords: Penetration of silver nanoparticles in S. typhimurium and S. aureus ; Binding of silver nanoparticles with DNA of S. aureus ; Cells responses of S. typhimurium and S. aureus to silver nanoparticles

Influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on zinc biogeochemistry in the rhizosphere of Lindenbergia philippensis growing in zinc-contaminated sediment by Thanchanok Kangwankraiphaisan; Kallaya Suntornvongsagul; Prakitsin Sihanonth; Wantana Klysubun; Geoffrey Michael Gadd (489-505).
The association of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) with the roots of Lindenbergia philippensis (Cham.) Benth., sampled from a Zn-contaminated settling pond at a zinc smelter, significantly enhanced Zn accumulation (72,540 ± 5,092 mg kg−1 dry weight) in rhizosphere sediment amended with 1,000 mg L−1 of Zn sulfate solution compared to fungicide-treatments that suppressed AMF colonization. This can be explained by a significant proportion of Zn being found in rectangular crystals that were associated with the root mucilaginous sheath. Despite this, all treatments maintained the same Zn coordination geometry in both Zn oxidation state and the coordinated neighbouring atoms. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) showed a Zn(II) oxidation state as a core atom and associated with six oxygen atoms symmetrically arranged in an octahedral coordination and coordinated with sulfur. The results may indicate a role for AMF in enhancing Zn immobilization in the rhizosphere of indigenous plants that successfully colonize Zn mining and smelting disposal sites.
Keywords: Zinc; Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF); Biogeochemical mechanisms; Rhizosphere; Zinc immobilization; Zn coordination

Detection of photoactive siderophore biosynthetic genes in the marine environment by Astrid Gärdes; Christopher Triana; Shady A. Amin; David H. Green; Ariel Romano; Lyndsay Trimble; Carl J. Carrano (507-516).
Iron is an essential element for oceanic microbial life but its low bioavailability limits microorganisms in large areas of the oceans. To acquire this metal many marine bacteria produce organic chelates that bind and transport iron (siderophores). While it has been hypothesized that the global production of siderophores by heterotrophic bacteria and some cyanobacteria constitutes the bulk of organic ligands binding iron in the ocean because stability constants of siderophores and these organic ligands are similar, and because ligand concentrations rise sharply in response to iron fertilization events, direct evidence for this proposal is lacking. This lack is due to the difficulty in characterizing these ligands due both to their extremely low concentrations and their highly heterogeneous nature. The situation for characterizing photoactive siderophores in situ is more problematic because of their expected short lifetimes in the photic zone. An alternative approach is to make use of high sensitivity molecular technology (qPCR) to search for siderophore biosynthesis genes related to the production of photoactive siderophores. In this way one can access their “biochemical potential” and utilize this information as a proxy for the presence of these siderophores in the marine environment. Here we show, using qPCR primers designed to detect biosynthetic genes for the siderophores vibrioferrin, petrobactin and aerobactin that such genes are widespread and based on their abundance, the “biochemical potential” for photoactive siderophore production is significant. Concurrently we also briefly examine the microbial biodiversity responsible for such production as a function of depth and location across a North Atlantic transect.
Keywords: Iron; Marine bacteria; Photoactive; Siderophore; Biosynthesis; Genes; qPCR

Selective induction of apoptosis in various cancer cells irrespective of drug sensitivity through a copper chelate, copper N-(2 hydroxy acetophenone) glycinate: crucial involvement of glutathione by Shilpak Chatterjee; Paramita Chakraborty; Kaushik Banerjee; Abhinaba Sinha; Arghya Adhikary; Tanya Das; Soumitra Kumar Choudhuri (517-534).
Drug induced toxicity and drug resistance are the major impediments to successful application of cancer chemotherapy. Therefore, selective targeting of the key biochemical events of the malignant cells may have a great therapeutic potential in specifically kill the cancer cells. We have evaluated in vitro the cytotoxic efficacy of a previously reported copper complex viz. copper N-(2-hydroxy acetophenone) glycinate (CuNG) on different drug sensitive and resistant cancer cell lines by MTT, annexin V positivity and caspase 3 activation assays. We have also investigated the underlying signalling events in CuNG mediated apoptosis of cancer cells by Western blotting technique. We have found that CuNG preferentially induces apoptosis to malignant cells irrespective of drug sensitivity and spares the normal cells. Our studies disclose that CuNG causes cellular redox imbalance in cancer cells through depletion of intracellular GSH level. CuNG mediated depletion of intracellular GSH level induces mitochondrial superoxide generation, which detaches cyto C from mitochondrial membrane through lipid peroxidation. The detached cyto C then release into the extra mitochondrial milieu in Bax mediated pathway where CuNG facilitates the binding of Bax through dissociation of hexokinase II from mitochondrial membrane. The present study opens the possibility of developing effective chemotherapeutic drugs by synthesizing numerous chemical compounds capable of targeting cellular redox environment and thus specifically kills cancer cells of broad spectrum.
Keywords: Glutathione; Apoptosis; Copper complex; Mitochondrial superoxide; Cytochrome C; Bax; Hexokinase II

Erratum to: Expression and characterization of recombinant bovine lactoferrin in E. coli by Isui García-Montoya; Susana Aideé González-Chávez; Jose Salazar-Martínez; Sigifredo Arévalo-Gallegos; Sugey Sinagawa-García; Quintin Rascón-Cruz (535-535).