BioMetals (v.24, #4)

Lactoferrin: an iron-binding antimicrobial protein against Escherichia coli infection by Chih-Ching Yen; Chih-Jie Shen; Wu-Huei Hsu; Yi-Hsin Chang; Hsin-Tang Lin; Hsiao-Ling Chen; Chuan-Mu Chen (585-594).
Escherichia coli (E. coli) are the most common aerobic gram-negative bacilli in a normal intestinal tract. They cause most of the intra-abdominal infections, wound infections associated with abdominal surgery, and septicemia. Most of these infections are of endogenous intestinal origin. Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding glycoprotein found in milk and various external secretions. This protein has been found to have a number of biological functions, including antimicrobial, anti-cancer, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects. Partial degradation of LF by pepsin can give rise to peptides termed lactoferricin (LFcin) with more potent antimicrobial activity. LF and LFcin have been shown to inhibit the growth of a number of pathogenic bacteria (including E. coli and antibiotic-resistant strains), fungi, and even viruses in both in vitro and in vivo studies. We previously demonstrated that both recombinant porcine LF (pLF) produced from yeast and a synthetic 20-residue porcine LFcin peptide exhibit antimicrobial activity in vitro. In one of our recent studies, we performed pathogen challenges, including pathogenic E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, of the digestive tract of a transgenic milk-fed animal model. The results showed that LF has broad spectrum antimicrobial activity in the digestive tract and protects the mucosa of the small intestine from injury. Our following study also revealed that pLF as a feedstuff additive enhances avian immunity, including antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity. All of these results suggest that LF could be a novel natural protein in the treatment and prevention of infections with E. coli or antibiotic-resistant bacteria strains.
Keywords: Lactoferrin; E. coli infection; Host defense protein; Sepsis; Antimicrobial activity; Nosocomial infection

Investigation on the pharmacological profile of antimony(III) complexes with hydroxyquinoline derivatives: anti-trypanosomal activity and cytotoxicity against human leukemia cell lines by Débora C. Reis; Mauro C. X. Pinto; Elaine M. Souza-Fagundes; Lucas F. Rocha; Valéria R. A. Pereira; Cristiane M. L. Melo; Heloisa Beraldo (595-601).
Complexes [Sb(QN)2Cl] (1), [Sb(QC)2Cl] (2) and [Sb(QI)2Cl] (3) were obtained with 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQN), 5-chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline (HQC) and 5-chloro-7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline (clioquinol, HQI). The quinoline derivatives and their antimony(III) complexes were evaluated for their anti-trypanosomal activity as well as for their cytotoxicity against HL-60 and Jurkat human leukemia cell lines. Upon coordination to antimony(III) the anti-trypanosomal activity of HQC and HQI increases, the highest improvement being observed for complex (3), which was the most active among all studied compounds against both epimastigote and trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. All quinoline derivatives proved to be cytotoxic against both leukemia cell lineages. Upon coordination to antimony(III) the cytotoxicity of HQN improved against Jurkat leukemia cells. While SbCl3 proved to be cytotoxic against HL-60 cells, it was not active against Jurkat cells. However, its coordination to the quinoline derivatives resulted in complexes with significant cytotoxicity against Jurkat cells.
Keywords: 8-Hydroxyquinoline; 5-Chloro-8-hydroxyquinoline; 5-Chloro-7-iodo-8-hydroxyquinoline (clioquinol); Antimony(III) complexes; Cytotoxicity; Leukemia; Anti-trypanosomal

Intravenous (IV) iron supplementation is widely used to support erythropoeisis in hemodialysis patients. IV iron products are associated with oxidative stress that has been measured principally by circulating biomarkers such as products of lipid peroxidation. The pro-oxidant effects of IV iron are presumed to be due at least in part, by free or non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI). However, the effects of IV iron on intracellular redox status and downstream effectors is not known. This prospective, crossover study compared cytokine activation, reactive oxygen species generation and oxidative stress after single IV doses of iron sucrose and iron dextran. This was a prospective, open-label, crossover study. Ten patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) on hemodialysis and four age and sex-matched healthy were assigned to receive 100 mg of each IV iron product over 5 min in random sequence with a 2 week washout between products. Subjects were fasted and fed a low iron diet in the General Clinical Research Center at the University of New Mexico. Serum and plasma samples for IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10 and NTBI were obtained at baseline, 60 and 240 min after iron infusion. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated at the same time points and stained with fluorescent probes to identify intracellular reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) by flow cytometry. Lipid peroxidation was assessed by plasma F2 isoprostane concentration. Mean ± SEM maximum serum NTBI values were significantly higher among patients receiving IS compared to ID (2.59 ± 0.31 and 1.0 ± 0.36 µM, respectively, P = 0.005 IS vs. ID) Mean ± SEM NTBI area under the serum concentration–time curve (AUC) was 3-fold higher after IS versus ID (202 ± 53 vs. 74 ± 23 µM*min/l, P = 0.04) in ESRD patients, indicating increased exposure to NTBI. IV iron administration was associated with increased pro-inflammatory cytokines. Serum IL-6 concentrations increased most profoundly, with a 2.6 and 2.1 fold increase from baseline in ESRD patients given IS and ID, respectively (P < 0.05 compared to baseline). In healthy controls, serum IL-6 was undetectable at baseline and after IV iron administration. Most ESRD patients had increased intracellular ROS generation, however, there was no difference between ID and IS. Only one healthy control had increased ROS generation post IV iron. All healthy controls experienced a loss of Δψm (100% with IS and 50% with ID). ESRD patients also had loss of Δψm with a nadir at 240 min. IS administration was associated with higher maximum serum NTBI concentrations compared to ID, however, the both compounds produced similar ROS generation and cytokine activation that was more pronounced among ESRD patients. The effect of IV iron-induced ROS production on pivotal signaling pathways needs to be explored.
Keywords: Intravenous iron; Oxidative stress; Hemodialysis

Epidemiological evidence demonstrates positive correlation between environmental and occupational arsenic or fluoride exposure and risk to various cardio-respiratory disorders. Arsenic-exposure has been associated with atherosclerosis, hypertension, cerebrovascular diseases, ischemic heart disease, and peripheral vascular disorders, whereas Fluoride-exposure manifests cardiac irregularities and low blood pressure (BP). Present study aims to study the combined effects of these toxicants on various cardio-respiratory variables in male rats. Single intravenous (i.v.) dose of arsenic (1, 5, 10 mg/kg) or fluoride (5, 10, 20, 36.5 mg/kg) either alone or in combination were administered. Individual exposure to arsenic or fluoride led to a significant depletion of mean arterial pressure, heart rate (HR), respiration rate and neuromuscular (NM) transmission in a dose-dependent manner. These changes were accompanied by increased levels of blood reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreased glutathione (GSH) concentrations. An increase in the blood acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity was observed in both arsenic or fluoride exposed rats. These changes were significantly more pronounced in arsenic-exposed animals than in fluoride. During combined exposure to arsenic (5 mg/kg) + fluoride (20 mg/kg) or arsenic (10 mg/kg) + fluoride (36.5 mg/kg) the toxic effects were more pronounced compared to individual toxicities of arsenic or fluoride alone. However, combined exposure to arsenic (5 mg/kg) + fluoride (36.5 mg/kg) resulted in antagonistic effects on variables suggestive of altered cardio-respiratory function and oxidative stress. The results from the present study suggest that arsenic or fluoride individually demonstrate cardio-respiratory failure at all doses whereas during combination exposure these toxins show variable toxicities; both synergistic and antagonistic effects depending upon the dose. Moreover, it may be concluded that arsenic and/or fluoride cardio-respiratory toxicity may be mediated via oxidative stress. However, these results are new in the discipline thus requires further exploration.
Keywords: Cardio-respiration; Oxidative stress; Neuromuscular transmission; Heart rate; Respiration rate; Arterial pressure; Arsenic; Fluoride

Anguibactin, the siderophore produced by Vibrio anguillarum 775 is synthesized from 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), cysteine and hydroxyhistamine via a nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) mechanism. Most of the genes encoding anguibactin biosynthetic proteins are harbored by the pJM1 plasmid. In this work we report the identification of a homologue of the plasmid-encoded angB on the chromosome of strain 775. The product of both genes harbor an isochorismate lyase (ICL) domain that converts isochorismic acid to 2,3-dihydro-2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, one of the steps of DHBA synthesis. We show in this work that both ICL domains are functional in the production of DHBA in V. anguillarum as well as in E. coli. Substitution by alanine of the aspartic acid residue in the active site of both ICL domains completely abolishes their isochorismate lyase activity in vivo. The two proteins also carry an aryl carrier protein (ArCP) domain. In contrast with the ICL domains only the plasmid encoded ArCP can participate in anguibactin production as determined by complementation analyses and site-directed mutagenesis in the active site of the plasmid encoded protein, S248A. The site-directed mutants, D37A in the ICL domain and S248A in the ArCP domain of the plasmid encoded AngB were also tested in vitro and clearly show the importance of each residue for the domain function and that each domain operates independently.
Keywords: Iron; Siderophore; Nonribosomal peptide synthetase; 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid; Isochorismate lyase domain; Aryl carrier protein domain

Antileukemic activity and cellular effects of rhodium(III) crown thiaether complexes by Ruth Bieda; Igor Kitanovic; Hamed Alborzinia; Andreas Meyer; Ingo Ott; Stefan Wölfl; William S. Sheldrick (645-661).
The cytostatic properties of novel rhodium(III) thiacrown ether complexes [RhCl(LL)([9]aneS3)]n+ with either aromatic κ2 N ligands (n = 2) or anionic chelate ligands (n = 1) have been investigated for the human cancer cell lines HT-29 and MCF-7 and for immortalized HEK-293 cells. Taken together with literature IC50 values for analogous complexes with polypyridyl ligands or 1,4-dithiane, the in vitro assays indicate that dicationic complexes with soft κ2 N (imino) or κ2 S (thiaether) ligands exhibit significantly higher antiproliferative effects than those with hard κ2 N (amino) ligands. Dicationic complexes are more active than monocationic complexes with similar ligands. Pronounced apoptosis-inducing properties towards Jurkat cells were established for complexes with LL = bpm, dpq, and 1,4-dithiane. The order of activity (bpm > 1,4-dithiane > dpq > bpy) contrasts to that observed for adhesive cancer cells (bpm > bpy, 1,4-dithiane > dpq). Necrosis is insignificant in all cases. The percentage of Jurkat cells exhibiting apoptosis after 24 or 48 h incubation periods is directly correlated to the percentage of cells exhibiting high levels of reactive oxygen species. As established by online monitoring with a sensor chip system, treatment of MCF-7 cells with the bpm and 1,4-dithiane complexes leads to a significant and permanent concentration-dependent decrease in oxygen consumption and cellular adhesion.
Keywords: Rhodium; Thiacrown ether; Cytotoxicity; Leukemia; Apoptosis; ROS

Metabolomic profiles delineate potential roles for gadolinium chloride in the proliferation or inhibition of Hela cells by Xiao-Hui Long; Peng-Yuan Yang; Qiong Liu; Jun Yao; Yi Wang; Guo-Hua He; Guang-Yan Hong; Jia-Zuan Ni (663-677).
Lanthanides (Lns) compounds have been reported to possess contrary effects on cell activity, i.e., promoting cell cycle progression and cell growth by lower concentration treatment, but suppressing cell proliferation and inducing cell apoptosis at higher dosing. However, the cellular processes during the intervention and the possible underlying mechanisms are still not well clarified. Using a combination of high-throughput liquid chromatography (LC) with mass spectrometry (MS), we have investigated the metabolomic profiles of Hela cells following gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) treatment in time- and concentration- dependent manners. A total of 48 metabolites released by Hela cells are identified to be differentially expressed (P < 0.05) in different states. Metabolic pathways analyses reveal that the differential metabolites are mainly characterized by increased lipid and amino acid metabolisms and by decreased lipid, amino acid, and carbohydrate metabolisms for cells treated with GdCl3 at lower and higher concentrations, respectively. Notably, in the higher level GdCl3 case, the down-expressions of metabolites are predominantly in the glycolytic and the redox pathways. The above results, obtained by using a metabolomic strategy for the first time, disclose that different cell signaling pathways are activated by GdCl3 treatment with different concentrations, leading to inhibitory or promotional effect on Hela cells.
Keywords: Gadolinium chloride; Hela cells; Metabolomic profiling; Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry; Cell growth

Evidence for evolutionary constraints in Drosophila metal biology by Maryam Sadraie; Fanis Missirlis (679-686).
Mutations in single Drosophila melanogaster genes can alter total body metal accumulation. We therefore asked whether evolutionary constraints maintain biologically abundant metal ions (iron, copper, manganese and zinc) to similar concentrations in different species of Drosophilidae, or whether metal homeostasis is a highly adaptable trait as shown previously for triglyceride and glycogen storage. To avoid dietary influences, only species able to grow and reproduce on a standard laboratory medium were selected for analysis. Flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine metal content in 5-days-old adult flies. Overall, the data suggest that the metallome of the nine species tested is well conserved. Meaningful average values for the Drosophilidae family are presented. Few statistically significant differences were noted for copper, manganese and zinc between species. In contrast, Drosophila erecta and Drosophila virilis showed a 50% increase above average and a 30% decrease below average in iron concentrations, respectively. The changes in total body iron content correlated with altered iron storage in intestinal ferritin stores of these species. Hence, the variability in iron content could be accounted for by a corresponding adaptation in iron storage regulation. We suggest that the relative expression of the multitude of metalloenzymes and other metal-binding proteins remains overall similar between species and likely determines relative metal abundances in the organism. The availability of a complete and annotated genome sequence of different Drosophila species presents opportunities to study the evolution of metal homeostasis in closely related organisms that have evolved separately for millions or dozens of million years.
Keywords: Transition metals; Insect physiology; Ferritin iron stores; Metallomics

Bacterial transport of sulfate, molybdate, and related oxyanions by Esther Aguilar-Barajas; César Díaz-Pérez; Martha I. Ramírez-Díaz; Héctor Riveros-Rosas; Carlos Cervantes (687-707).
Sulfur is an essential element for microorganisms and it can be obtained from varied compounds, sulfate being the preferred source. The first step for sulfate assimilation, sulfate uptake, has been studied in several bacterial species. This article reviews the properties of different bacterial (and archaeal) transporters for sulfate, molybdate, and related oxyanions. Sulfate uptake is carried out by sulfate permeases that belong to the SulT (CysPTWA), SulP, CysP/(PiT), and CysZ families. The oxyanions molybdate, tungstate, selenate and chromate are structurally related to sulfate. Molybdate is transported mainly by the high-affinity ModABC system and tungstate by the TupABC and WtpABC systems. CysPTWA, ModABC, TupABC, and WtpABC are homologous ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-type transporters with similar organization and properties. Uptake of selenate and chromate oxyanions occurs mainly through sulfate permeases.
Keywords: Sulfate permeases; Molybdate transport; Tungsten transport; Selenate transport; Chromate transport

Identification and characterization of a heme periplasmic-binding protein in Haemophilus ducreyi by Melissa St. Denis; Brigitte Sonier; Renée Robinson; Fraser W. Scott; D. William Cameron; B. Craig Lee (709-722).
Haemophilus ducreyi, a gram-negative and heme-dependent bacterium, is the causative agent of chancroid, a genital ulcer sexually transmitted infection. Heme acquisition in H. ducreyi proceeds via a receptor mediated process in which the initial event involves binding of hemoglobin and heme to their cognate outer membrane proteins, HgbA and TdhA, respectively. Following this specific interaction, the fate of the periplasmic deposited heme is unclear. Using protein expression profiling of the H. ducreyi periplasmic proteome, a periplasmic-binding protein, termed hHbp, was identified whose expression was enhanced under heme-limited conditions. The gene encoding this protein was situated in a locus displaying genetic characteristics of an ABC transporter. The purified protein bound heme in a dose-dependent and saturable manner and this binding was specifically competitively inhibited by heme. The hhbp gene functionally complemented an Escherichia coli heme uptake mutant. Expression of the heme periplasmic-binding protein was detected in a limited survey of H. ducreyi and H. influenzae clinical strains. These results indicate that the passage of heme into the cytoplasm of H. ducreyi involves a heme dedicated ABC transporter.
Keywords: Haemophilus ducreyi ; Chancroid; Heme; ABC transporter

The binding of aluminum to mugineic acid and related compounds as studied by potentiometric titration by Etsuro Yoshimura; Hicham Kohdr; Satoshi Mori; Robert C. Hider (723-727).
The phytosiderophores, mugineic acid (MA) and epi-hydroxymugineic acid (HMA), together with a related compound, nicotianamine (NA), were investigated for their ability to bind Al(III). Potentiometric titration analysis demonstrated that MA and HMA bind Al(III), in contrast to NA which does not under normal physiological conditions. With MA and HMA, in addition to the Al complex (AlL), the protonated (AlLH) and deprotonated (AlLH−1) complexes were identified from an analysis of titration curves, where L denotes the phytosiderophore form in which all the carboxylate functions are ionized. The equilibrium formation constants of the Al(III) phytosiderophore complexes are much smaller than those of the corresponding Fe(III) complexes. The higher selectivity of phytosiderophores for Fe(III) over Al(III) facilitates Fe(III) acquisition in alkaline conditions where free Al(III) levels are higher than free Fe(III) levels.
Keywords: Aluminum; Epi-hydroxymugineic acid; Iron; Mugineic acid; Nicotianamine; Potentiometric titration

Escherichia coli topoisomerase I is an iron and zinc binding protein by Jianxin Lu; Wu Wang; Guoqiang Tan; Aaron P. Landry; Peng Yi; Fan Si; Yaguang Ren; Huangen Ding (729-736).
Escherichia coli topoisomerase I (TopA) cleaves and rejoins one strand of double-stranded DNA to relax the negatively supercoiled DNA. Structurally, TopA contains an N-terminal catalytic fragment and a C-terminal zinc-binding region that is required for relaxation of the negatively supercoiled DNA. Here we report that E. coli TopA is an iron and zinc binding protein. The UV–Vis absorption measurements and metal content analyses reveal that TopA purified from E. coli cells grown in the rich LB medium contains both iron and zinc. However, TopA purified from E. coli cells grown in the M9 minimal medium has negligible amounts of zinc or iron and no topoisomerase activity. Nevertheless, supplement of exogenous zinc or iron in E. coli cells grown in the M9 minimal medium produces the zinc- or iron-bound TopA, respectively. Whereas the zinc-bound TopA is fully active to relax the negatively supercoiled DNA, the iron-bound TopA has little or no enzyme activity. Furthermore, excess iron in the M9 minimal medium is able to compete with the zinc binding in TopA in E. coli cells and attenuate the topoisomerase activity, suggesting that E. coli TopA may be modulated by iron and zinc binding in vivo.
Keywords: Topoisomerase I; Zinc; Iron; Metalloprotein

Copper (II) complex of formulation [Cu–Phen–Tyr](H2O)](ClO4) (Phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, l-Tyr = l-tyrosine), has been prepared, and their induced DNA oxidative cleavage activity studied. The complex binds to DNA by intercalation, as deduced from the absorption and fluorescence spectral data. Scatchard plots constructed from the absorption titration data gave binding constant 2.44 × 104 M−1 of base pairs. Extensive hypochromism, broadening, and red shifts in the absorption spectra were observed. Upon binding to DNA, the fluorescence from the DNA–ethidium bromide system was efficiently quenched by the copper (II) complex. Stern–Volmer quenching constant 0.61 × 103 M−1 obtained from the linear quenching plots. [Cu–Phen–Tyr] complex efficiently cleave the supercoiled DNA to its nicked circular form with gallic acid as biological reductant at appropriate complex concentration. The gallic acid as reductant could observably improve copper (II) complex to DNA damage. The pseudo-Michaelis–Menten kinetic parameters (k cat, K M) were calculated to be 1.32 h−1 and 5.46 × 10−5 M for [Cu–Phen–Tyr] complex. Mechanistic studies reveal the involvement of superoxide anions and hydroxyl radical (HO·) as the reactive species under an aerobic medium.
Keywords: Copper (II) complexes; Gallic acid; DNA oxidative cleavage

Neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects of long term lithium treatment in mouse brain by Nciri Riadh; Mohamed Salah Allagui; Ezzedine Bourogaa; Christian Vincent; Françoise Croute; Abdelfattah Elfeki (747-757).
Since the worldwide approval of lithium therapy in 1970, lithium has been used for its anti-manic, antidepressant, and anti-suicidal effects. The last decade has witnessed the following discoveries about its neuroprotective and neurotrophic properties, yet the therapeutic mechanisms at the cellular level remain not-fully defined. We have undertaken the present study to determine if chronic lithium treatment, at therapeutically relevant concentrations, exerts neurotrophic/neuroprotective effects in the mouse brain in vivo. For this purpose, 10 months aged mice were fed for 3 months on food pellets contained 1 g (L1 group) or 2 g (L2 group) lithium carbonate/kg, resulting in serum concentrations of 0.4 and 0.8 mM, respectively. The evaluation of lipid peroxidation level and the activities of catalase, superoxide-dismutase and glutathione-peroxidase showed that chronic Li administration, at therapeutic doses doesn’t induce oxidative stress in brain tissue. No changes in the expression levels of molecular chaperones, namely, the HSP70, and HSP90 heat shock proteins and the GRP94 glucose-regulated protein were detected. Moreover, this treatment has caused (1) an increase in the relative brain weight (2) a delay in the age induced cerebral glucose impairment (3) an enhancement of the neurogenesis in hippocampus and enthorinal cortex highlighted by silver impregnation. Under these experimental conditions, no modifications were observed in expression levels of GSK3 and of its downstream target β-catenin proteins. These results suggested that chronic Li administration, at therapeutic doses, has a neuroprotective/neurotrophic properties and its therapeutic mechanism doesn’t implicate GSK3 inactivation.
Keywords: Lithium; Brain; Neuroprotective; Neurotrophic; GSK3; β-catenin

The role of phosphate on Omniscan® dechelation: an in vitro relaxivity study at pH 7 by Robic Caroline; Catoen Sarah; Goltstein De Marie-Christine; Idée Jean-Marc; Port Marc (759-768).
Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), a disease occurring in patients with severe renal failure, may be linked to injections of gadolinium chelates, contrast agents used for magnetic resonance imaging. A hypothesis frequently proposed to explain NSF is dissociation of Gd3+ from its chelate, possibly from a deep storage compartment. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies have been performed in an attempt to determine the extent of this dechelation and to understand its mechanism. Proton-assisted dechelation and transmetallation are the most widely described mechanisms of dechelation. This study investigated the possible ligand exchange role played by phosphate in the dechelation mechanism. Omniscan® dechelation was monitored in vitro by relaxivity measurements performed at physiological pH with different concentrations of phosphate buffer and in the presence of endogenous cations. Dechelation experiments performed on phosphate buffer alone showed that phosphate may induce gadolinium release by ligand exchange when the phosphate concentration in the buffer is higher than 130 mM for an Omniscan® concentration of 1.25 mM. This corresponds to a Gd/phosphate ratio of 10−2. This ratio could be reached in vivo, especially in deep compartments such as bone. The presence of endogenous cations (Zn2+, Cu2+ or Ca2+) has also been demonstrated to accelerate the kinetics of gadolinium release, either by catalysing ligand exchange or by inducing a transmetallation mechanism. The Omniscan® formulation was also tested and the added Ca–DTPA–BMA was shown to increase dechelation kinetics in these experiments. This striking result may question the value of the Omniscan® formulation in the context of NSF.
Keywords: Gadolinium chelate; Omniscan® ; Dechelation; Transmetallation; Relaxivity; NSF

Erratum to: The role of phosphate on Omniscan® dechelation: an in vitro relaxivity study at pH 7 by Caroline Robic; Sarah Catoen; Marie-Christine De Goltstein; Jean-Marc Idée; Marc Port (769-769).