BioMetals (v.21, #1)

Therapeutic potentials of combined use of DMSA with calcium and ascorbic acid in the treatment of mild to moderately lead intoxicated mice by Yingjun Liao; Jun Zhang; Yaping Jin; Chunwei Lu; Gexin Li; Fei Yu; Xuping Zhi; Li An; Jun Yang (1-8).
The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic efficacies of combined use of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) with calcium and ascorbic acid in the treatment of mild to moderately lead-intoxicated mice. Female albino mice were exposed to lead by drinking water contaminated with 0.1% (moderate lead exposure) or 0.05% (mild lead exposure) lead acetate. After the cessation of lead exposure, mice were supplemented by gavage with saline solution, 50 mg/kg body weight (b.w) DMSA, 100 mg/kg b.w DMSA, calcium and ascorbic acid, or 50 mg/kg b.w DMSA and calcium as well as ascorbic acid, respectively. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric method was used to analyze lead levels in blood, bone, liver, kidney and brain. Activities of blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) were determined by colorimetric method. DMSA supplemented alone could reduce lead levels in both soft tissues and bone and reverse lead-inhibited activities of blood ALAD in mild to moderately lead-intoxicated mice. On the other hand, combined use of DMSA with calcium and ascorbic acid achieved better therapeutic efficacies in mobilizing lead in blood, liver and kidney, and reversing lead-inhibited activities of blood ALAD in moderately lead intoxicated mice than DMSA supplemented alone. Moreover, the better therapeutic efficacies were also found in mildly lead intoxicated mice in mobilizing lead in blood and bone achieved by combined use of DMSA with calcium and ascorbic acid. Combined use of DMSA with calcium and ascorbic acid seems to be the better choice in the treatment of mild to moderate lead-intoxication.
Keywords: Lead intoxicated mice; Meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA); Calcium; Ascorbic acid; Lead body burden; δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD)

Lead-induced increase in antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation products in developing rat brain by Kiran Kumar Bokara; Erika Brown; Rashidi McCormick; Prabhakara Rao Yallapragada; Sharada Rajanna; Rajanna Bettaiya (9-16).
Pregnant rats were treated with 0.4% lead acetate through drinking water from 6th day of gestation and this treatment was continued till 21 post natal days (PND). Four regions of the brain namely hippocampus, cerebellum, frontal cortex and brain stem were dissected at 10, 20, 30 and 40 PND for estimation of lipid peroxidation products (LPP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). The results indicate that there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase of LPP in exposed rats than their corresponding control at 10, 20 and 30 PND both in hippocampus and cerebellum. At PND 40, the LPP of control and exposed were found to be almost same in both the tissues indicating recovery from lead toxicity. CAT activity was significantly (P < 0.05) high in hippocampus of exposed rats up to PND 30 but up to PND 20 in cerebellum and frontal cortex. However, in brain stem, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in CAT activity was observed only at PND 10. A significant (P < 0.05) increase in SOD activity was observed up to PND 30 both in hippocampus and cerebellum on lead exposure. Frontal cortex exhibited a similar significant (P < 0.05) increase of SOD activity up to PND 20 and for brain stem up to PND 10. There was no significant change in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (CAT and SOD) and LPP in all the four brain tissues of control and exposed rats at PND 40 indicating recovery from lead-induced oxidative stress.
Keywords: Lead toxicity; Developing brain; Neurotoxicity; Antioxidant enzymes

Casiopeina III-ia induces apoptosis in HCT-15 cells in vitro through caspase-dependent mechanisms and has antitumor effect in vivo by Francisco Carvallo-Chaigneau; Cristina Trejo-Solís; Celedonio Gómez-Ruiz; Ernesto Rodríguez-Aguilera; Lucía Macías-Rosales; Edith Cortés-Barberena; Carlos Cedillo-Peláez; Isabel Gracia-Mora; Lena Ruiz-Azuara; Vicente Madrid-Marina; Fernando Constantino-Casas (17-28).
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effects of the new chemotherapy agent Casiopeina III-ia [(4,4′-dimethyl-2,2′-bipiridine)(acetylacetonate) Copper (II) nitrate] on HCT-15 (p53–/-) colon cellular line. In vitro, the drug reduced the viability and induced necrosis and apoptosis in a dose dependent manner, without affecting cell cycle phases. Apoptosis was related to Bax increasing levels, suggesting a caspase-dependent mechanism of death, as verified by nucleosomal fragmentation of DNA. In vivo, the antitumor activity of Casiopeina III-ia was tested in HCT-15 cells transplanted to nude mice. In this study we will show that the novel antineoplastic agent Casiopeina III-ia is active on this colon tumor line, setting out as a good candidate for the treatment of colon tumors refractory to chemotherapy.
Keywords: Casiopeina; Apoptosis; Chemotherapy; p53(-/-); Bax

Dietary zinc attenuates renal lead deposition but metallothionein is not directly involved by Jennifer A. Jamieson; Danielle M. Stringer; Peter Zahradka; Carla G. Taylor (29-40).
Chronic lead exposure irreversibly damages the kidneys and may be associated with hypertension and renal insufficiency at sub-clinically toxic levels. Zinc supplementation reduces lead absorption and tissue retention in rodent models but the mechanisms are unknown. Metallothionein (MT) may function in lead detoxification. Our objective was to investigate the effects of marginal zinc (MZ) and supplemental zinc (SZ) intakes on renal lead and zinc accumulation, renal MT immunolocalization and levels. Weanling Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to MZ (8 mg Zn/kg diet), zinc-adequate control (CT; 30 mg Zn/kg), zinc-adequate diet-restricted (DR; 30 mg Zn/kg) or SZ (300 mg Zn/kg) groups, with and without lead acetate-containing drinking water (200 mg Pb/L) for 3 weeks. Kidneys were analyzed for lead and zinc by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy and MT by immunolocalization and Western blotting. MZ had higher renal lead and lower renal zinc concentrations than CT. SZ was more protective than CT against renal lead accumulation. Renal MT levels reflected dietary intake (SZ ≥ DR ≥ CT ≥ MZ) but lead had no effect on MT staining intensity, distribution, or relative protein amounts. In summary, while SZ lowered renal lead concentration, MT did not appear to function in renal lead accumulation. Future studies should explore alternate mechanisms of renal lead detoxification.
Keywords: Kidney; Lead; Zinc; Metallothionein; Rat

Siderophores based on sugar backbones substituted at the 2,3,4- or 2,3,6 positions with hydroxamic or retro-hydroxamic acid chelating units were synthesized and characterized. The alkyl terminus of the iron-coordinating side chain units facilitate lipophilic interactions. Iron coordination properties and complex stability were investigated by ESI-MS and the CAS-Test. The results were correlated to structure activity relationships determined by microbial growth promotion studies under iron limited conditions using wild type strains and iron transport mutants of Mycobacterium smegmatis.
Keywords: Siderophore synthesis; Hydroxamate; Sugar backbone; Mycobacteria

Lithium salts are widely used in psychiatry, but their presence in organism can result in both beneficial and adverse effects. Silicon, the third most abundant trace element in humans as well as antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx) play important roles in organism. The disturbance of their level can cause severe disorders. The aim of our work was to evaluate the influence of Li2CO3 administration in drinking water for a period of 4 weeks on Si content and GPx activity in the tissues of liver, kidney, brain and femoral muscle in rats. The concentrations of provided solutions were 0.7, 1.4, 2.6, 3.6, 7.1 and 10.7 mmol Li+·dm−3. GPx activity was decreased versus control as a consequence of Li treatment, particularly in kidney and brain. This effect could be suggested to contribute to renal abnormalities which could occur during Li therapy. Si tissue level was significantly enhanced versus control in liver and femoral muscle in groups receiving high Li doses. In brain no well-marked changes were observed, whereas in kidney we observed the depletion in low-Li-groups, restoration of Si level in higher-Li-groups and unexpected decrease in the highest-Li-group. Positive correlations between Si content and GPx activity in the tissues of kidney (r = 0.677) and brain (r = 0.790) as well as negative correlation (r = −0.819) in femoral muscle were found. We consider that our results give some reason for suggesting that monitoring of silicon level in patients undergoing Li therapy could be recommended. However, more investigations should be performed, particularly regarding the relationships between Si and GPx in blood and urine Si excretion during lithium administration.
Keywords: Silicon; Lithium; Glutathione peroxidase; Male rats

Apolipoprotein B (apoB) is known to be a ferritin-binding protein. Here we show that apoB binds to ferritin through hemin-mediated binding. Human apoB bound to bovine spleen, horse spleen, and canine liver ferritins, but did not bind to bovine apoferritin, even after incorporation of iron into it. Incubation of apoferritin with hemin resulted in apoB binding with apoferritin at the same level as with holoferritin. In contrast, hemin inhibited binding of apoB to ferritin. Bovine spleen apoferritin bound biotinylated hemin, and hemin inhibited the binding between the apoferritin and biotinylated hemin, suggesting that ferritin binds hemin directly. ApoB and LDL containing apoB bound biotinylated hemin, and their bindings were also inhibited by hemin, but not protoporphyrin IX. These data demonstrate that binding of apoB to ferritin is mediated through ferritin’s binding to hemin, and also that apoB binds hemin directly.
Keywords: Apolipoprotein B; Apoferritin; Ferritin; Hemin; LDL

The changes of heavy metal and metallothionein distribution in testis induced by cadmium exposure by Takahiko Kusakabe; Katsuyuki Nakajima; Keiji Suzuki; Kyoumi Nakazato; Hisashi Takada; Takahiro Satoh; Masakazu Oikawa; Kenji Kobayashi; Hiroshi Koyama; Kazuo Arakawa; Takeaki Nagamine (71-81).
Cadmium (Cd) is known to cause various disorders in the testis, and metallothionein (MT) is known as a protein, which has a detoxification function for heavy metals. However, the changes of Fe, Cu, and Zn distribution in the testis induced by Cd exposure have not been well examined. Moreover, only a few studies have been reported on the localization of MT after Cd exposure. In this study, we have investigated the changes of Fe, Cu, and Zn distribution in Cd-exposed testis by a newly developed in air micro-Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) method. Also, we examined the distribution of MT expression in testis. In the testis of Cd-treated rats with significant increases of lipid peroxidation, the sertoli cell tight junction was damaged by Cd exposure, resulting from disintegration of the blood testis barrier (BTB). Evaluation by in air micro-PIXE method revealed that Cd and Fe distribution were increased in the interstitial tissues and seminiferous tubules. The histological findings indicated that the testicular tissue damage was advanced, which may have been caused by Fe flowing into seminiferous tubules followed by disintegration of the BTB. As a result, Fe was considered to enhance the tissue damage caused by Cd exposure. MT was detected in spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and Sertoli’s cells in the testis of Cd-treated rats, but was not detected in interstitial tissues. These results suggested that MT was induced by Cd in spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and Sertoli’s cells, and was involved in the resistance to tissue damage induced by Cd.
Keywords: Metallothionein (MT); In air micro-Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE); Cadmium (Cd); Testis; Iron (Fe)

Subcellular changes of essential metal shown by in-air micro-PIXE in oral cadmium-exposed mice by Kyoumi Nakazato; Takeaki Nagamine; Keij Suzuki; Takahiko Kusakabe; H. D. Moon; Masakazu Oikawa; Takuro Sakai; Kazuo Arakawa (83-91).
To clarify the relation of essential metals to cadmium (Cd) toxicity, we evaluated metallothionein expression and analyzed the subcellular distribution of essential metals using in-air micro-Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE). Four mice were dosed orally with 100 mg/L of Cd in drinking water for 1.5 or 2 years. Frozen samples of organs were used for micro-PIXE analysis and formalin-fixed samples were used for metallothionein staining. Immunohistochemically, metallothionein induction by 1.5y-Cd exposure was higher in the renal cortex than in the liver. Metallothionein expression was reduced after 2y-Cd administration compared to the 1.5y-Cd-exposed mice. Cd-induced tissue damage became marked in the 2y-Cd-exposed mice compared to the 1.5y-Cd-exposed mice, in which nephrotoxicity was more prominent than hepatotoxicity. Cd yield was higher in the renal cortex of the 2y-Cd-exposed mouse than in that of the 1.5y-Cd-exposed mouse, whereas no such increasing tendency was found in the liver. Compared to the control, the Cd-exposed mice markedly accumulated zinc in the liver and renal cortex. In the Cd-exposed mice, iron was mildly accumulated in the renal cortex and was slightly deprived in the liver. Elemental maps showed that a large amount of Cd was spatially combined with zinc in the 1.5y-Cd mouse. Free Cd became abundant in the 2y-Cd-exposed mouse. In addition, a small amount of Cd was colocalized with iron. The data suggest that zinc may contribute to protect against oral-administrated Cd toxicity, and impaired induction of MT may participate in hepato-nephrotoxicity of the 2y-Cd-exposed mouse.
Keywords: Cadmium; In-air micro-PIXE; Zinc; Iron; Metallothionein

Utilization of Fe3+-acinetoferrin analogs as an iron source by Mycobacterium tuberculosis by G. Marcela Rodriguez; Richard Gardner; Navneet Kaur; Otto Phanstiel IV (93-103).
Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis, synthesizes and secretes siderophores in order to compete for iron (an essential micronutrient). Successful iron acquisition allows M. tuberculosis to survive and proliferate under the iron-deficient conditions encountered in the host. To examine structural determinants important for iron siderophore transport in this pathogen, the citrate-based siderophores petrobactin, acinetoferrin and various acinetoferrin homologs were synthesized and used as iron transport probes. Mutant strains of M. tuberculosis deficient in native siderophore synthesis or transport were utilized to better understand the mechanisms involved in iron delivery via the synthetic siderophores. Acinetoferrin and its derivatives, especially those containing a cyclic imide group, were able to deliver iron or gallium into M. tuberculosis which promoted or inhibited, respectively, the growth of this pathogen.
Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; Siderophores; Iron; Exosiderophores; Acinetoferrin; Mycobactin