Applied Composite Materials (v.23, #1)

When the fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs) are first loading to fatigue peak stress, matrix multicracking and fiber/matrix interface debonding occur. Under fatigue loading, the stress–strain hysteresis loops appear as fiber slipping relative to matrix in the interface debonded region upon unloading/reloading. Due to interface wear at room temperature or interface oxidation at elevated temperature, the interface shear stress degredes with increase of the number of applied cycles, leading to the evolution of the shape, location and area of stress–strain hysteresis loops. The evolution characteristics of fatigue hysteresis loss energy in different types of fiber-reinforced CMCs, i.e., unidirectional, cross-ply, 2D and 2.5D woven, have been investigated. The relationships between the fatigue hysteresis loss energy, stress–strain hysteresis loops, interface frictional slip, interface shear stress and interface radial thermal residual stress, matrix stochastic cracking and fatigue peak stress of fiber-reinforced CMCs have been established.
Keywords: Ceramic-matrix composites (CMCs); Fatigue; Hysteresis loops

Finite Element Analysis of 2.5D Woven Composites, Part I: Microstructure and 3D Finite Element Model by Jian Song; Weidong Wen; Haitao Cui; Hongjian Zhang; Ying Xu (29-44).
A new parameterized finite element model, called the Full-cell model, has been established based on the practical microstructure of 2.5D angle-interlock woven composites. This model considering the surface layer structure can predict the mechanical properties and estimate the structural performance such as the fiber volume fraction and inclination angle. According to introducing a set of periodic boundary condition, a reasonable overall stress field and periodic deformation are obtained. Furthermore, the model investigates the relationships among the woven parameters and elastic moduli, and shows the structural variation along with the corresponding woven parameters. Comparing the results calculated by FEM with the experiments, the veracity of calculation and reasonability based on the Full-cell model are confirmed. In the meantime, the predicted results based on the Full-cell model are more closed to the test results compared to those based on the Inner-cell model.
Keywords: 2.5D woven resin composites; Microstructure; Finite element model; Periodic boundary conditions; Geometric characteristics; Mechanical properties

Finite Element Analysis of 2.5D Woven Composites, Part II: Damage Behavior Simulation and Strength Prediction by Jian Song; Weidong Wen; Haitao Cui; Hongjian Zhang; Ying Xu (45-69).
In the first part of the work, a new 2.5D woven composites finite element model (2.5D WCFEM) which took into consideration the impact of face structures and can accurately predict the main elastic performances has been established. In this part, the stress–strain behavior and the damage characteristic of this material under uniaxial tension are simulated using nonlinear progressive damage analysis based on damage mechanics. Meanwhile, experimental investigation and fracture analysis are conducted to evaluate the validity of the proposed method. Finally, the influence of woven parameters on the mechanical behavior is discussed. Compared with the test results, a good agreement between the computational and experimental results has been obtained. The progressive damage characteristic and main failure modes are also revealed.
Keywords: 2.5D woven composites; Damage characteristic; Finite element analysis; Damage characteristic; Experiment

Entangled cross-linked fibres were studied for an application as core material for sandwich structures. Specimens were produced from carbon, aramid and glass fibres, and cross-links were achieved using epoxy spraying. It was observed that this type of entangled cross-linked fibres could be fabricated without any major technical difficulties. The scope of this paper is to study the effect of some different parameters on the mechanical properties of these materials. Different effects were investigated: effect of fibres length, of fibres nature, of mixing fibres, of carbon skins and of the resin. The first part of this paper deals with the production of these entangled cross-linked fibres. The compression, tension and three point bending tests are detailed in the second part and the results are compared with usual core material currently used in industries.
Keywords: Entangled fibres; Porous material; Mechanical testing; Sandwich structure; Core material

Entangled cross-linked carbon, aramid and glass fibres were recently produced by epoxy spraying for an application as core material for sandwich panel. The Young’s moduli in compression and tension have been previously measured and briefly summarized in this paper. To optimize the core structure, modelling of these properties has been achieved in the present paper. The cross-link fibres have a random orientation and the stiffness of the epoxy joint is modelled by a torsion spring. A parallel model is chosen for homogenisation. It was found that the experimentally estimated stiffness of these materials fits fairly well with the modelled ones.
Keywords: Entangled fibres; Mechanical properties; Modelling; Sandwich structure; Core material