Applied Composite Materials (v.20, #1)

Elasticity Solution of a Cantilever Functionally Graded Beam by Tahar Hassaine Daouadji; Abdelaziz Hadj Henni; Abdelouahed Tounsi; Adda Bedia El Abbes (1-15).
This paper considers the plane stress problem of a cantilever functionally graded beam subjected to linearly distributed load. The material properties of the functionally graded beam are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness, according to a power-law distribution of the volume fraction of the constituents. First, the partial differential equation, which is satisfied by the stress functions for the axisymmetric deformation problem is derived. Then, stress functions are obtained by proper manipulation. A numerical example is finally presented to show the effect of material inhomogeneity on the elastic field in a functionally graded cantilever beam.
Keywords: Structural materials; Modelling; Anisotropy; Elastic properties

Reliability analysis of fiber-reinforced composite structures is a relatively unexplored field, and it is therefore expected that engineers and researchers trying to apply such an approach will meet certain challenges until more knowledge is accumulated. While doing the analyses included in the present paper, the authors have experienced some of the possible pitfalls on the way to complete a precise and robust reliability analysis for layered composites. Results showed that in order to obtain accurate reliability estimates it is necessary to account for the various failure modes described by the composite failure criteria. Each failure mode has been considered in a separate component reliability analysis, followed by a system analysis which gives the total probability of failure of the structure. The Model Correction Factor method used in connection with FORM (First-Order Reliability Method) proved to be a fast and efficient way to calculate the reliability index of a complex composite structure.
Keywords: Laminate; Probabilistic methods; Finite Element Analysis (FEA); Failure criterion; Reliability analysis

One of the significant concerns of sandwich panels is their joints. T-joint is one the most common joint in sandwich structures. This paper deals with the numerical study of triangle T-joint under static loading. The results of numerical solution obtained by ANSYS modeling are verified with the results of experimental tests obtained in the literature. In general, the results obtained for anticipated failure load by numerical solution with the results of experimental test is in good agreement. Contact elements and cohesive zone material model are used to model the adhesive layer, hence debonding and fracture of adhesive is observed by the numerical modeling. Also, by using a written macro code in the ANSYS software, the ability of damage is explained for the core of sandwich panels; thus both the modes in fracture of T-joints (core shear failure in base panel and debonding of adhesive) are modeled. Core materials consist of Divinycell H100, H160, H250, and HCP70 are used for modeling sandwich panels, so that the function of joint is studied under different conditions of the sandwich core material. Nine different geometrical models are created by changing the base angle of the core triangle. The absorbed energy associated with different segments of the T-joint are used to investigate the effect of joint geometry and core material on the load transfer and failure mode of the T-joint.
Keywords: Sandwich T-joint; Cohesive zone material model, Contact elements, Finite element analysis; Adhesive joint; Failure modes

Die-Attached Versus Die-Detached Resin Injection Chamber for Pultrusion by D. R. Palikhel; J. A. Roux; A. L. Jeswani (55-72).
Resin injection pultrusion is an efficient and highly automated continuous process for high-quality, low-cost, high-volume manufacturing of composites. The main objective of this study is to explore the “attached-die configuration” and “detached-die configuration” for improving the resin injection pultrusion process. In this work the impact of pull speed on complete wet out of the reinforced fiber is investigated for attached-die and detached-die resin injection pultrusion with various chamber length considerations. A 3-D finite volume technique was applied to simulate the liquid resin flow through the fiber reinforcement in the injection pultrusion process. This work explores the resin injection pressure needed to achieve complete wet out and the corresponding maximum pressure inside the resin injection chamber so as to improve injection chamber design to keep the pressure within the injection chamber within reasonable constraints for different pull speeds.
Keywords: Pultrusion; Resin injection; Pull speed; Compression ratio

Positioning of Embedded Optical Fibres Sensors for the Monitoring of Buckling in Stiffened Composite Panels by A. Riccio; F. Di Caprio; F. Camerlingo; F. Scaramuzzino; B. Gambino (73-86).
A numerical/experimental study on the monitoring of the skin buckling phenomenon in stiffened composite panels by embedding optical fibres is presented in this paper. A numerical procedure has been introduced able to provide the most efficient embedded optical fibre path (with minimum length) fulfilling the grating sensors locations and directions requirements whilst satisfying specific embedding/integrity constraints for the optical fibre. The developed numerical procedure has been applied to a stiffened composite panel under compression load. The best location and direction of the grating sensors and the optimal optical fibre path for the monitoring of the skin buckling phenomenon have been found by performing respectively non-linear FEM analyses and optimization analyses. The procedure has been validated by means of an experimental testing activity on a stiffened panel instrumented with embedded optical fibres and back-to-back strain gauges which have been positioned according to the numerically estimated grating sensors locations and directions.
Keywords: Buckling; Finite element analysis (FEA); Optimization; Optical fibres monitoring; Mechanical testing

In this study, the stability characteristics and thermal response of a bistable composite plate with different asymmetric composition were considered. The non-linear finite element method (FEM) was utilized to determine the response of the laminate. Attention was focused on the temperature dependency of laminate mechanical properties, especially on the thermal expansion coefficients of the composite graphite-epoxy plate. Also the effect of including the resin layers on the stability characteristics of the laminate was investigated. The effect of the temperature on the laminate cured configurations in the range of 25°C to 180°C and −60°C to 40°C was examined. The results indicate that the coefficient of thermal expansions has a major effect on the cured shapes. Next, optical microscopy was used to characterize the laminate composition and for the first time the effect of including the resin layers on the actuation loads that causes snapping behavior between two stable shapes was studied. The results obtained from the finite element simulations were compared with experimental results and a good correlation was obtained. Finally, the stability characteristics of a tapered composite panel were investigated for using in a sample winglet as a candidate application of bistable structures.
Keywords: Bistable laminates; Graphite-epoxy plate; Finite element method; Snap behavior; Thermal response