Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology (v.4, #4)

Meet Our Editorial Board Member by Lisbeth Illum (245-245).

PREFACE by Ijeoma F. Uchegbu (246-246).

EDITORIAL: Contemporary Applications and Concerns with Nanotech Based Drug Delivery by Simarjot Kaur Sandhu, Mandeep Singh, Gaurav Sharma, Indu P. Kaur (247-248).

How Safe are Nanoparticles? A Review by Tasleem Arif, Mohammad Adil (249-254).
Background: Nanoparticles are very small molecules with dimensions in nanometers. Nanoparticles have been used for various diagnostic, therapeutic and cosmetic purposes in the field of medicine. These particles have properties quite distinct from the same material of a larger scale, largely due to greater surface area in relation to volume. This also imparts potential toxicities to these agents.
Objective: This article aims to review various particles and host factors that determine nanotoxicity. The common modes of entry of nanoparticles are discussed along with their kinetics and specific toxicities in the body.
Methods: The main source of our information was Medline Pubmed, Google scholar and Scopus including original articles and review articles. The keywords nanotoxicity, nanotechnology and nanomedicine toxicity were used for search.
Conclusion: The great enthusiasm about the use of nanoparticles has been marred by growing concerns about potential toxicities. Standardized and meticulous research about nanotoxicity before introduction in the market will douse this concern and prevent undue harm to the patient.

Nanomedicines as Therapeutics in HIV-AIDS by Navnit K. Mishra, Ridhima Arya, Pooja Kamboj, Hardeep S. Tuli, Anupam Sharma, Anil K. Sharma (255-266).
Nanotechnology has been a promising therapeutic and scientific approach to effectively deal in healthcare with a potential to bring significant improvements in disease diagnosis and management. The existing drug regimen has become increasingly effective with the use of nanomedicines against many dreadful diseases especially AIDS. Nanomedicines have shown promising attributes such as slow and sustained release, nominal side effects, low toxicity, and increased concentration of the drug at the target site along with increased life-span of the drug. Still many challenges persist with regard to effective diagnosis and management of HIV infected patients considering the severity and complexity of the disease. The need is to develop effective nano-based regimens to diagnose, treat and manage AIDS by significantly improving the patient compliance along with reduced dosage frequency. The current review article has been designed to effectively address the state-of-the-art drug delivery strategies being implicated in the field of nanomedicine which could provide a better alternative for the existing HIV drug regimens offering more specificity, biocompatibility and biodegradability.

Nanotherapeutics: Emerging Trends in Management of Psoriasis by Sindhu Doppalapudi, Anjali Jain, Upendra Bulbake, Wahid Khan (267-283).
Background: Psoriasis is described as a T-cell mediated complex autoimmune reaction of the skin characterized by inflammatory and hyper-proliferative processes. There are many treatment strategies available for the management of psoriasis with their respective pros and cons. Conventional therapeutic options are not always satisfactory in terms of efficacy and safety which necessitates the development of alternative delivery approaches.
Objective: Advancements in nanotechnology provide a platform for wide therapeutic options towards targeted delivery in psoriasis. Nanocarriers assist in improving the therapeutic efficacy of anti-psoriatic drugs with minimal toxicity. They also aid in co-delivery of drugs aiming for “combination of drugs-multi-target approach”. Further, these drug delivery carriers also attain high drug encapsulation, improve the stability of therapeutic moiety and reduce the dose. Various properties of the nanocarriers including composition, size and its surface properties affect the deposition and penetration of the therapeutic moiety. This review highlights different nanosystems explored in the management of psoriasis i.e., lipid based systems, surfactant based systems and polymer based systems.
Conclusion: Persistent progress in the development of new formulations utilizing these different nanosystems has lead to the efficient treatment of psoriasis. The present review provides an outline on the current state-of-art in above discussed nanosystems for delivery of anti-psoriatic agents acting on different molecular targets of psoriasis. These nanocarriers significantly improved the therapeutic outcome and thereby circumvented the concerns associated with available treatment options for psoriasis. The emerging strategies discussed in this review shows potential and may yield enormous improvement in psoriasis management.

Nanotechnology Composites and Visual Health by Patricia D. Ospina, Paulo C. Zapata (284-292).
Background: In the past few decades, the applications of nanotechnology to improve visual health and patient's life quality have been improving. The nanoscience, introduced molecules of 100 nm in size offering alternatives to significantly improve the penetration on the ocular barriers and achieve better results on the delivery and biocompatibility of drugs inside the ocular globe.
Objective: To conduct a systematic review on nanotechnology using ocular pharmacology in order to improve patient's quality life.
Method: The review was undertaken in Science Direct, Scopus, Elsevier, using the keywords: nanotechnology in ocular administration, ocular nanocarriers, and ocular nano drug products.
Results: In the recent decades, the most relevant innovation in nanotechnology is the implementation of nano drug products to treat ocular infections, glaucoma, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration associated with the age, drug delivery forms to stop neovascularization, and the repair of corneal ulcers among others.
Conclusion: New drugs incorporating nanotechnology are useful to enhance the penetration into the visual barriers and allow better effect of drugs. Multiple ocular disorders such as retinopathy, corneal neovascularization's, and glaucoma, can be treated with nanotechnology prodrugs; which have better mechanisms of action and are less toxic for the ocular tissues. These new drugs are known as nanoengineered drug delivery systems (nDDS) and the supersaturated self-nano emulsifying drug delivery systems (S-SNEDDS). They are useful to improve the bioavailability and the control of the active principles of ophthalmic solutions which are released on the tissues and allow better penetration towards the posterior segment.

Nano-Enabled Drug Delivery in Cancer Therapy: Literature Analysis Using the MeSH System by Jing Ma, Alan L. Porter, Tejraj M. Aminabhavi (293-307).
Background: Biomedical literature provides abundant knowledge on R&D development and emerging themes and techniques to researchers and to enhance clinical treatment. Tracing research topic activity and researcher connections, and understanding evolving research landscapes, support identification of research domain potential and informs R&D portfolio management.
Methods: We offer a systematic approach to summarize biomedical research information compiled from the MEDLINE database. Selected MeSH qualifiers are applied as properties for clustering terms. Linkages among clusters are measured based on an object-attributevalue, relative research concentration. By arraying selected technical dimensions against each other, we enable identification and evaluation of latent connections.
Results: 10354 MEDLINE records from 2000 to 2013 on nano-enabled drug delivery (NEDD) for cancer treatment are retrieved and analyzed. Seven topical clusters are generated with relatively clear boundaries. Elements with high relative research concentration but low number of records show emerging trends. And the concentrations' decline indicates the universalization of drugs and nano components in cancer treatment.
Conclusion: This systematic topical analysis process helps explore particular technological trends and potentials in biomedical areas. It combines an algorithm to reveal latent connections hidden in literature text content with expert judgement. From the standpoint of technology assessment, it provides researchers and administrators the ability to capture biomedical research dynamics.

Aim: The aim of the present study is to prepare Diltiazem HCl loaded Bovine Serum Albumin nanoparticles by Desolvation technique using Isopropanol as desolvating agent. Here in this study, attempts have been made to prepare Diltiazem loaded BSA nanoparticles by Desolvation technique.
Methodology: Two methods were followed in the process of adding desolvating agent to aqueous solution of BSA; continuous addition method and intermittent addition method. In continuous addition method, the desolvating agent was added at the rate of 1ml per minute, whereas, in intermittent addition method, the desolvating agent was added at the rate of 1ml per every five minutes. The effects of continuous and intermittent addition methods on nanoparticles size, stability, loading capacity, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro drug release were studied. The particle size and stability of the formulations were determined by Horiba SZ 100 series particle size analyzer. Encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity were determined by ELTEK NP 400 Ultracentrifuge.
Results: The particle size was 267.3nm and 257.8nm, and encapsulation efficiency was found to be 90.3% and 95% Comparative study was performed to determine the best method for the preparation of Diltiazem nanoparticles.
Conclusion: On comparison, intermittent addition method was considered to be the best method for the preparation of Diltiazem HCl loaded BSA nanoparticles because of the smaller particle size and greater stability and encapsulation efficiency. The drug release was sustained till 12hrs for nanoparticles prepared by intermittent addition method.

Background: Conventional ophthalmic formulations do not contribute to optimal therapy for local fungal infection in the eye. The present work is focus on the targeting ability of Eudragit nanoparticles (NPs) as a novel carrier for enhancing the delivery of antifungal agent to the eye.
Methods: Fluconazole loaded Eudragit nanoparticles were prepared from Eudragit RS 100 and RL 100 via solvent displacement technique. Prepared NPs were characterized for particle size and zeta potential, morphology, thermal behavior, viscosity and entrapment efficiency.
Results: Developed NPs had a nanometric size (152-210 nm) and a zeta potential of 18-40 mV. In vitro release studies exposed that upto 60% and 70% drug released from RS 100 and RL 100 NPs, respectively within 24 hours. Ocular tolerability test showed that the eye drops of the NPs produced negligible irritation on rabbit eyes. Antifungal efficacy revealed that prepared fluconazole NPs reduced, keratitis as evident by decline in conjunctival hyperemia and hypopyon compared to drug solution.
Conclusion: After 90 days of stability study, results were unchanged, indicating the good potential for ocular delivery. From these results we can conclude that fluconazole NPs may represent an efficacious vehicle to deliver the drug into the eye.