Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology (v.3, #1)

Meet Our Editor-in-Chief by Ijeoma F. Uchegbu (1-1).

Meet Our Editorial Board Members by Glen Kwon (2-3).

“Nano-Biomaterials” – A New Approach Concerning Multi-Drug Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR-TB) by Muthupandian Saravanan, Kebret Duche, Tsehaye Asmelash, Araya Gebreyesus, Letemichael Negash, Amanuel Tesfay, Haftamu Hailekiros, Selam Niguse, Venkatraman Gopinath, Sisir K. Barik (5-18).
Nanotechnology has proved to be a promising tool for the whole scientific community by creating new and superior therapeutic ways for advanced treatment of various diseases. In this sprouting world, the potential application of nanoparticle-based aerosol vaccines for tuberculosis (TB) has been a remarkable and striking breakthrough. The existing administration for at least six months of TB treatment is complicated and needs an extreme transformation. Use of potential Nanomedicine confirmed itself as an effective tool in curing most of the deadly diseases and this has moreover, elevated a hope to encounter TB effectively. Nanomedicines can be used at a larger scale with comparatively low cost and this review has focused on the impact of the nanoparticles against Multi-Drug Resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). It also observes the existing TB diagnostic attempts and healing procedures by nanotechnological applications and highlighted the recent advancement in anti-TB drug (ATD) delivery, encapsulation and its systems. As limited therapeutic options are available for TB healing, the appearance of MDR-TB is very much attached to human deaths all over the world and this in turn, is creating a high alarm about the prospect of a future TB epidemic along with the spread of drug-resistant TB.

In order to produce the highly potential antimicrobial cotton fabrics a biological oriented nanoparticles-treatment process was adopted in this study. Six different metal (Ag, Au, Zn, Cu, Mg and Ca) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesised by using a Mangrove plant Xylocarpus mekongensis Pierre leaves extract and these NPs were coated to cotton fabrics and further assessed their antibacterial activity against clinical pathogens. The SEM photographs revealed the presence of fabricated NPs on cotton fabrics. The biogenic NPs coated cotton fabrics were inhibited all the test clinical pathogens. Among the different type of NPs coated cotton fabrics, the Au NPs coated cotton fabrics showed the higher inhibition zone of 22.5 mm diameter against Salmonella typhi whereas Zn NPs coated cotton fabric showed the lowest inhibition zone of 6 mm against Proteus mirabilis. This present work emphasizes the possible usage of biogenic metal NPs in fabrication of antibacterial cotton fabrics.

Tribulus terrestris Leaf Mediated Biosynthesis of Stable Antibacterial Silver Nanoparticles by Venkatraman Gopinath, Sakthimohan Priyadarshini, Govindarajan Venkatkumar, Muthupandian Saravanan, Davoodbasha Mubarak Ali (26-34).
Biogenic synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant materials is an emerging field and it serves as an alternative to physical and chemical approaches. In this present work we have used a Tribulus terrestris plant dried leaf extract for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesis. The nanoparticles (NPs) synthesis was achieved by addition of leaf extract with aqueous silver nitrate under controlled conditions. The formation of AgNPs was primarily confirmed by UV-Vis Spectrophotometer. The characterization of AgNPs was done by analytical techniques such as FTIR, XRD, AFM, FESEM and EDAX spectrum. FESEM images showed the AgNPs were spherical shaped and the particles sizes were found to be 18-47nm respectively. The synthesized AgNPs were highly stable after three months of storage period at 37˚C. Moreover, the synthesized AgNPs showed potent antibacterial property against clinically isolated multi-drug resistant (MDR) microorganisms.

Recent Advances in Liposomal Drug Delivery: A Review by Vijaykumar Nekkanti, Sandeep Kalepu (35-55).
Since the discovery of liposomes, the drug delivery technology has made a tremendous advancement in the field of medicine. Owing to their biocompatibility, efficacy, targeting ability and improved in vivo performance, liposomes has become popular as versatile drug carrier systems. Controlled and sustained drug release, lowered systemic toxicity and improved pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drug are the potential applications of liposomal drug delivery. Drugs encapsulated in liposomes can be targeted actively and passively to the tumor specific site with improved efficacy and reduced off-target effects. Development of multifunctional liposomes for targeting cell organelles, long acting (PEGylated) and with combination of drugs is a hot-topic of current research. In recent years, the focus of liposomal technology has been on the combined applications of diagnostics and therapeutics. The present work reviews the liposomal drug delivery field, summarizes the success of liposomal technology in translation from concept to clinical acceptance and recent developments in the delivery of anti-fungal, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer drugs.

Design and Ocular Tolerance of Flurbiprofen Loaded Nanosuspension by Bhavani Boddeda, Prasanthi Boddu, Harani Avasarala, Vijaya R. Jayanti (56-67).
Background: Nanosuspension applicability in ocular drug delivery. Objective: Development of efficient nano-based ocular delivery is a major challenge. The purpose of this work was to design and evaluate the sustained release flurbiprofen (FB) loaded nanosuspensions for improving the drug availability at the corneal surface. Methods: Polymeric nanosuspensions were prepared by solvent displacement method using process variables such as drug to polymer ratio and solvent to non solvent ratio and their influence on particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release and ocular tolerance was investigated. Results: The prepared nanoparticles were predominantly spherical in shape having average particle diameter ranging from 107.7A±3.8 to 245.0A±4.6 nm, with positive zeta potential values from +6.6A±2.2 to +19.0A±3.1 mV and entrapment efficiency values from 54.67A±3.4 to 90.32A±3.2%. Drug release from optimized nanosuspension was sustained with approximately 60 % over 12 hrs period, when compared with marketed formulation, Flur eye drops. The release profile of nanoparticles followed zero-order release kinetics. Stability studies revealed that there were no significant change in particle size, entrapment efficiency and drug release even after 6 months storage. In vivo experiments showed that, topical instillation of prepared nanosuspension to rabbit's eye found to be non-irritant by Draize's test and also considered safe by hispathological study. Conclusion: The above results clearly indicated Eudragit RL 100 loaded FB nanosupension was found to be stable, sustained its drug release and suitability for ocular application.

The objective of the present study was to produce controlled release Isoniazid (INH) Nanosponges for topical delivery. Nanosponges using ethyl cellulose polymer were prepared successfully using PVA as surfactant by emulsion-solvent evaporation method. The effects of different surfactant concentration, drug: polymer ratio, stirring speeds, stirring time and sonication time on the physical characteristics of the Nanosponges as well as the drug entrapment efficiency of the Nanosponges were investigated. Particle size analysis and surface morphology of Nanosponges were performed. The scanning electron microscopy of Nanosponges showed that they were spherical in shape and spongy in nature. The particle size of the formulations was found to be 124 nm and the drug entrapment efficiency was found to be in the range of 47.18% to 74.86 %. The optimized Nanosponge formulation (I6) was selected for formulating nanogels using various gelling agents like Carbopol 934, Carbopol 940, HPMC K4M and studied for pH, viscosity and in vitro drug release. Of the various formulations prepared, F2 was found to show the maximum sustained drug release of 74.26% in 10 hours.