Recent Patents on Catalysis (v.1, #2)
Recent Developments in Cobalt- and Iron- Based Catalysts for Fischer- Tropsch Synthesis by Alaa Kababji, Edwin Kugler, Dady Dadyburjor (97-106).
This paper addresses recent technological advances for both cobalt- and iron-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesiscatalysts. FT technology converts syngas into clean, synthetic liquid fuels by using abundant sources such as coal,biomass and natural gas. We provide an overview of the latest patent literature and summarize improvements in catalystdesign and chemical promotion through the addition of active metals and structural supports as well as different methodsfor catalyst preparation and activation. We also discuss developments in reactor configuration and upstream and downstreamdesign, and investigate the different application scenarios for both iron and cobalt catalysts. Significant progresshas been realized in the past decade, evidenced by an increased number of patents focusing on catalyst and reactor advancesand their effect on increasing catalyst activity and product yield and selectivity. The process can be carried out inlarge-scale units such as slurry bubble columns or fluidized-bed reactors, or in small compact microchannel reactor units.Combining the FT catalyst and reactor technology with innovative ways for syngas production and product upgrading toproduce ready-to-use fuels results in a versatile FT technology that can be remotely applied on land or sea. This versatilitycan provide a long-term solution to counter the persistent increase in crude oil prices and can dramatically impact thecompetency and economical production of fuels worldwide.
Transient Ion Dynamics in Electrolytic Cells - General Approach and Numerical, Nonlinear Analysis by Nikolay Tankovsky, Evgeny Syrakov, Nikolay Zografov (107-118).
The present work reviews the results, obtained by numerical examination of the space and time behavior of ioncharges in electrolytic cell when external electric field is applied. The basic governing equations for free ions have beengeneralized for ion-pairs, the simple boundary conditions for blocking electrodes are generalized taking into account thecharge transfer currents at the electrodes, the equilibrium Einstein-Nernst relation between ion mobility and diffusivity ismodified to take into account the transient, non-equilibrium processes. All these problems are tackled with the help of acommon numerical algorithm applied in both linear and nonlinear approximation. Special attention is attributed to nonlinearprocesses, to thin cells with nano-scaled inter-electrode gap, to non-equilibrium states and their relaxation to equilibrium,to the enhancement of the interface electrode polarization and capacity by charge pump through a complementaryelectrode etc. Recent patents concerning electrochemical cells and super-capacitors have also been shortly reviewed.
Synthesis of Dihydropyridines: Patented Catalysts and Biological Applications by Laura Sanchez, Angel Sathicq, Horacio Thomas, Gustavo Romanelli (119-128).
The present review focuses on the patented synthetic methods and numerous pharmaceutical applications of1,4-dihydropyridines. They were originally prepared by the Hantzsch multicomponent reaction, but nowadays there areseveral new methods. They have improved reaction yield and have reduced the risks of contaminating the environment.These improvements were achieved through the use of different catalytic systems, a variety of reaction solvents, and alsosome reactions were carried out without either catalyst or reaction solvent.
Patents Related to Methane Storage by Adsorption on Activated Carbon by Joanna Srenscek-Nazzal, Zvi Koren, Beata Michalkiewicz (129-136).
Natural gas has emerged as a potential alternative to gasoline due to the increase in global energy demand, environmentalconcerns, and to its relatively low price. Highly porous carbonaceous materials are excellent adsorbents fornatural gas and thus play an important role in the technology of adsorbed natural gas storage. This paper reviews variousrecent patents related to methane storage, particularly carbon adsorbent preparations for methane storage.
Organic Domino Reactions Catalyzed by Molecular Iodine by Gunasekar Ramachandran, Kulathu Sathiyanarayanan (137-158).
Molecular iodine has established itself as an efficient catalyst in organic synthesis to attain several organictransformations. Domino reactions involve the synthesis of a target molecule in a single step where three or more componentsare reacting simultaneously. Thus these types of domino reactions are carried out in the presence of iodine as a catalyst.They have more significance and are fascinating in organic synthesis. The use of molecular iodine as catalyst in variousdomino reactions along with the recent patents is discussed in this review.
Recent Patents on Olefin Metathesis Catalysts by Jaisingh Divse, Sandip Agalave, Vandana Pore (159-173).
During recent years, olefin metathesis has gained a position of increasing significance, attracting a vast amountof interest both in industry and academia. The initial success of olefin metathesis has spurred the intense investigation ofnew catalysts for this transformation. In the context of the huge advances in transition metal complexes, a good number ofmetal complexes have been employed as metathesis catalysts. The chemists most responsible for developing such catalystsare Robert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock. Olefin metathesis was awarded with the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in2005 for Chauvin, Grubbs and Schrock. This mini review article includes recent patents on catalysts used for olefin metathesis.
Patent Selections: (174-176).