Current Inorganic Chemistry (v.4, #1)
Editorial (Thematic Issue: Calorimetry of Functional Inorganic Materials: Part I) by Michio Sorai, Yasuhiro Nakazawa (1-1).
Various experimental tools have been applied for characterization of materials and evaluation of their functionalities.Among them, thermodynamic methods are unique in the sense that the energetic and entropic aspects inherent in materials canbe directly observed. Physical quantities obtained from thermodynamic measurements reflect macroscopic aspects of materials.However, because those quantities are closely related to the microscopic energy schemes of all kinds of molecular degrees offreedom in a statistical manner, one can gain detailed knowledge on the microscopic level on the basis of precise thermodynamicinvestigations. Among them, heat capacity calorimetry is an extremely useful tool to investigate thermal properties ofmaterials, in particular at low temperatures.For correct understanding of functionality of materials, it is crucially important to complementarily adopt both spectroscopicand/or structural methods leading to microscopic aspects of materials and thermodynamic methods revealing energeticaspects. The aim of this thematic issue is to review calorimetric studies on functional inorganic materials to show the importantroles played by thermodynamic studies.The topics picked up in Part I of this thematic issue are the following four functional materials: (1) Host-guest systems underhigh pressure: Host-guest systems have potential possibility for selective storage of the guest molecules. (2) Mixedvalencemetal complexes: Electron transfer between the mixed-valence metal ions, such as M(II)M(III)X, M(II)M(III)(C2O4)3or Fe(II)Fe(III)(C2O2S2)3, provide a variety of phase transitions in which the magnetic and electronic properties are dramaticallyaltered. (3) Materials showing negative thermal expansion: Materials that exhibit negative thermal expansion behavior are ofinterest because of the potential to couple them with materials that exhibit positive thermal expansion to create compositeswhose thermal expansion properties can be finely tuned. (4) Metal oxide nanocrystals: Metal oxide nanocrystals have potentialfor applications in many technologies including solar energy conversion, batteries, and ductile ceramics. These materialshave properties that are highly dependent on the physical dimensions or grain size. Thermodynamic method can detect some ofthese peculiar aspects. Papers concerning calorimetry of other functional materials will be published in the forthcoming Part IIand Part III.We would like to thank Prof. Yann Garcia, the Editor-in-Chief of Current Inorganic Chemistry, who invited us to edit athematic issue concerning calorimety of inorganic materials. We would like to acknowledge all the authors who accepted ourinvitation to contribute to this thematic issue, as well as the reviewers who invested their valuable time to ensure the high scientificquality of all contributions.
Thermal Properties and Transition Behavior of Host-Guest Compounds Under High Pressure by Ove Andersson, Yasuhiro Nakazawa (2-18).
The thermal properties and transition behavior of the host-guest inclusion compounds: urea, thiourea, Dianin'scompound, clathrate hydrates and hydroquinone have been reviewed. In particular, we summarize their thermal conductivities,heat capacities and transitions at high pressures. Two of the systems: urea inclusion compounds and clathrate hydrates,show unusual glass-like thermal conductivity κ, i.e. their κ is low and only weakly dependent on temperature despitetheir crystalline structure. Moreover, results for κ of Dianin's compound with guests such as ethanol and CCl4 indicatea change from glass-like κ at atmospheric pressure to crystalline-like κ at elevated pressure, whereas κ of hydroquinoneand thiourea inclusion compounds appears not to have been studied. Despite the technological and fundamental importanceof the unusual glass-like κ, e.g. the use of inclusion compounds as structural model systems for finding improvedthermoelectrical materials, the origin of the glass-like κ is not established. More specifically, the commonly employed rattlingmodel, in which rattling guest motions cause resonance scattering of the acoustic host phonons, has recently beenchallenged, and we discuss alternative models. Heat capacity studies of these compounds reveal numerous transitions,which are associated with guest and host disorder-order transitions upon cooling and pressurization. A transition in hydroquinonemay be of second order, or have only a small first-order component, which can explain discrepancies in the observedtransition behavior. On pressurization at low temperatures, clathrate hydrates collapse to an amorphous state,which appears to be a glassy state of a water solution with perfectly spaced solute molecules.
Calorimetric Study of Phase Transitions in 2D Bimetallic Molecular Magnetic Materials - A[M(II)M(III)(C2O4)3]# by Ashis Bhattacharjee (19-30).
Oxalate-ligand based two-dimensional bimetallic molecular materials of general formula A[M(II)M(III)(C2O4)3] have drawn much research interest in the field of molecular magnetism. In this article, these materials and theirmagnetic properties have been introduced. The heat capacity calorimetric studies on these magnetic materials reported sofar have been revisited to highlight the scope of application as well as the importance of the thermodynamic technique -heat capacity calorimetry in the field of molecular magnetism.
Thermodynamic Approach to Materials Showing Negative Thermal Expansion by Yasuhisa Yamamura (31-39).
In this paper, various thermodynamic approaches to the structural phase transitions and the phonon propertiesof the materials showing negative thermal expansion (NTE) in the wide temperature range are briefly reviewed throughthree families of the NTE compounds; ZrW2O8, ZrV2O7, A2B3O12 (A = trivalent cation, B = W or Mo) families. As for thestructural phase transitions, the thermodynamic approaches provide us with elucidation of their mechanism from an entropicpoint of view. The NTE is closely related to phonon properties. Heat capacity measured by calorimetry enables usto estimate not only a Gruneisen function but also a distribution of phonon density of states, leading to specifying thephonon modes with negative mode-Gruneisen parameters. It is demonstrated that the thermodynamic approach is powerfulto research the properties of the NTE materials.
Synthesis and Thermodynamics of Porous Metal Oxide Nanomaterials by Baiyu Huang, Jacob Schliesser, Rebecca E. Olsen, Stacey J. Smith, Brian F. Woodfield (40-53).
Porous metal oxide nanoparticles is a new class of material of great scientific and technological importancewith a wide range of applications. In this article, we briefly review the synthetic methods and thermodynamic propertiesof such materials. We compare and summarize common synthetic routes of such materials including solid-state, solutionphase(co-precipitation, sol-gel, microemulsion, solvothermal/hydrothermal, non-aqueous), and vapor-phase methods. Asfor the thermodynamics of porous metal oxide nanoparticles, we review experimental determinations, mainly by calorimetry,on surface and interfaces energetics. The interplay among particle size, surface area, morphology, surface stabilizer,phase stability, and redox potentials is discussed.
New Insulin-Mimetic and Hypoglycemic Hetero-Binuclear Zinc(II)/ Oxovanadium(IV) Complex by Takayasu Moroki, Hiroyuki Yasui, Yusuke Adachi, Katsuhiko Yoshizawa, Airo Tsubura, Kazuhiko Ozutsumi, Misaki Katayama, Yutaka Yoshikawa (54-58).
Over the last two decades, we have proposed several types of orally active insulin-mimetic mononuclearzinc(II) complexes based on several coordination environments. Herein, we demonstrate the hypoglycemic activity andpotentially low testicular toxicity of a binuclear Zn2+/VO2+ complex of N,N'-bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine([(VOZn)fsaen]). The chemical structure of this complex was evaluated using an extended X-ray absorption fine structure(EXAFS) technique. The in vivo hypoglycemic effect of [(VOZn)fsaen] was evaluated using type-2-like diabetic modelmice treated by daily oral administrations. The hetero-binuclear complex [(VOZn)fsaen] exhibited glucose-lowering effectwithout triggering morphological changes in the testes, despite the recognized potentially significant toxicity ofoxovanadium(IV) (VO2+) complexes in the testes.
Pseudo Photochromism Induced Halochromism: Reversible Color Change for Porphyrin Derivatives and their Molecular Recognition Towards Hydrochlorides by Ya Hong Wu, Lin Lin Qin, Yan Yan, Shan Ling Tong, Yan Wang, Jing Zhang, Ling Ling Hu, Jian Yu (59-67).
A series of meso-substituted phenyl porphyrin derivatives were selected for investigating their photochromicbehavior in several aryl chloride solutions. After ultraviolet irradiation (UVI, λ = 360 nm), the solutions' color changedrapidly and sensitively from pink to bright green; and their pink color can be recovered gradually when the green samplesare radiated under visible light (VR, λ > 500 nm) or placed around diffused light at ambient conditions. Notably this photochromicbehavior can be completely stimulated by a halochromic method. A porphyrin H2TMPP 3 was selected as atypical sample for revealing this chromic mechanism, and molecular configuration for the green porphyrin chromophoreswas proposed based on crystal assembly of H2TPP 1. Finally the sensitive molecular recognition of H2TMPP 3 towardshydrochlorides was examined.
Three Coordination Polymers Sustained by Triangularly Secondary Building Units with Trinuclear Centers: Self-Assembly and Structural Characterization by Shao Xiong Xie, Sheng Hu, Yan Yan (68-72).
Three coordination polymers with triangularly secondary building units based on trinuclear metal centers andthree tetrazolyl ligands were successfully assembled, and their crystal structures were finely determined by X-ray diffractionmethod. Crystallographic analysis indicated that in every triangular sub-construction unit, three metal ions (Co2+ orCd2+) adopted an octahedral coordination model to be linked together by three tetrazolyl ligands and one µ3-OH group.The triangular sub-unit configuration supplied more stability during thermal decompositions.