Recent Patents on Biomedical Engineering (v.6, #3)

Successful cancer diagnosis and prognosis are significant for improving the cure rate of tumors and thus prolongthe survival time of a patient. Numerous studies on in vivo and in vitro cancer detections have been pursued for quitea long time. For the early cancer screening, its final goal is to develop a precise, sensitive, rapid, less invasive, fully integrated,disposable, low-cost, and handy technique. Aiming to stimulate further researches along this important direction,the present article is dedicated to present a comprehensive review on the latest patents and technologies which might bringdevice prototypes into clinical practices even incubating homecare products in the near future. Some recent technical patentsregarding early cancer detection with a focus on the in vitro detection (DNA, protein, and cells) were summarized. Athorough interpretation on their advantages and shortcomings were performed. Given each specific merit to the existingtechnologies, their integration would lead to synergistic effects which will help overcome the barriers facing many conventionalmethods. With future efforts through either explosive innovations on diagnosis principle or a combination betweenminiaturization strategy, microfluidic chip and nanotechnology, a multi-mode comprehensive detection which canbetter fulfill the urgent need in early cancer detection will be possible in the near future.

Recent Advance in Non-invasive Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement System by Lisheng Xu, Dianning He, Yue Zhao, Sainan Yin (170-178).
Compared with the traditional method of measuring the blood pressure, the cuff-less blood pressure measuringmethod can detect the blood pressure continuously in a comfortable way, in order to provide an adequate basis of clinicaldiagnosis and has great significance to clinical and medical research. Some reported non-invasive continuous blood pressuremeasurements are presented in this review paper comprising illustrations and comparisons of the characteristic of thepatents based on different methods, such as arterial tonometry method, vascular unloading technique method, pulse wavetransit time method and others. This review also presents the characteristics and application of some related products. Thechallenge and the prospective of non-invasive continuous blood pressure measurement techniques are also analyzed.Finally, to conclude, non-invasive continuous blood pressure measurement is becoming the future development trend ofblood pressure measurement, however, the accuracy of measurement also needs to be improved.

Novel Devices to Prevent Membrane Perforation in Transcrestal Sinus Floor Augmentation Surgery by Linda Schwarz, Ewald Unger, Georg Watzek, Bernhard Pommer (179-187).
Bone volume available for dental implant placement in the posterior maxilla is frequently reduced by maxillarysinus expansion and resorption of the alveolar ridge following tooth loss. Internal bone augmentation of the sinus floor isroutinely performed by elevation of the maxillary sinus membrane via a lateral or transcrestal approach. The key issue inminimally invasive transcrestal techniques is the avoidance of membrane perforation in the course of osteotomy andmembrane elevation. Novel devices to reduce the risk of membrane perforation have been recently developed and protectedby patents. The present review presents recent sinus membrane elevation techniques (balloon-mediated elevation,hydraulic injection, gel-pressure technique) as well as new approaches to prevent sinus membrane perforation during transcrestalosteotomy (lasers, piezoelectric devices, auto-stop drills). The overview of patented designs is supplemented byan outlook on future surgical techniques and technical possibilities in transcrestal sinus floor augmentation surgery.

EEG Source Localization Using a Genetic Algorithm-Based Artificial Neural Network by Rukiye Karakis, Irem Capraz, Erhan Bilir, Inan Guler (188-194).
Electroencephalogram source localization (ESL) attempts to detect the sources of the brain activities by electroencephalography(EEG). ESL has been an important research area for both clinical and basic brain research such asneurology, psychiatry, and psychopharmacology since the 1950s. Current dipoles are used to model the electrical activitiesin the ESL. These dipoles can be determined by the artificial neural network (ANN) model instead of numericalmethods. A genetic algorithm (GA) can be used to reinforce and optimize the architecture of the ANN model and increasethe localization accuracy. The purpose of this study is to detect the sources of brain activities using a GA-based ANNmodel by reviewing recent patents and literature. EEG data was simulated and three concentric spheres (scalp, skull,brain) were used for modeling the head as a volume conductor. The preliminary results indicated that the localization accuracywas 0.01 mm. According to preliminary results, the proposed GA-based ANN model can be used to obtain thesources of equivalent current dipoles.

Microfluidic technology has desirable features of small amount of sample, high sensitivity of separation anddetection, low cost and low power consumption, high reaction speed and high integration. These characteristics ensuredmicrofluidics to be applied to research and analysis at the levels of molecules, cells and tissues. This review summarizedthe recent patents on fabricating in vivo-like microenvironments for cell culture, sorting and detection, and the potentialapplications for offering a better model of the physiological condition for complex biological systems and a better analysisplatform.

Patent Selections: (203-206).