Recent Patents on Drug Delivery & Formulation (v.9, #3)

Anti-Cancer Products from Marine Sponges: Progress and Promise by Abolfazl Shakeri, Amirhossein Sahebkar (187-188).

Antimicrobial Efficacy of Extemporaneously Prepared Herbal Mouthwashes by Kamal Dua, Ravi Sheshala, Haider A. Al-Waeli, Gauarv Gupta, Dinesh K. Chellappan (201-205).
Natural products like plants and its components have been in use for treatment and cure of diseases all around the globe from ancient times much before the discovery of the current modern drugs. These substances from the nature are well known to contain components which have therapeutic properties and can also behave as precursors for the synthesis of potential drugs. The beneficial results from herbal drugs are well reported where their popularity in usage has increased across the globe. Subsequently developing countries are now recognizing the many positive advantages from their use which has engaged the expansion of R & D from herbal research. The flow on effect from this expansion has increased the awareness to develop new herbal products and the processes, throughout the entire world. Mouth washes and mouth rinses which have plant oils, plant components or extracts have generated particular attention. High prevalence of gingival inflammation and periodontal diseases, suggests majority of the patients practice inadequate plaque control. Of the currently available mouthwashes in the market, Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) has been investigated on a larger scale with much detail. CHX is associated with side effects like staining of teeth when used daily as well as the bitter taste of the mouthwash which leads to patient incompliance. The present research encompasses the antibacterial activity of extemporaneously prepared herbal mouthwash using natural herbs and therefore allows for the potential commercialization with in the herbal and pharmaceutical industries. Also, the present research article reviewed details of various existing patents of herbal mouthwashes which shows the trend of existing market and significance of emerging mouthwashes in both pharmaceutical and herbal industries. The antimicrobial activity of prepared mouthwashes was found to be effective against various strains of bacteria. It also suggests that the prepared herbal mouthwashes may provide an alternative to those containing chemical entities, with enhanced antimicrobial properties and better patient compliance.

Bilosomes: A Novel Approach to Meet the Challenges in Oral Immunization by Meenakshi K. Chauhan, Parbat K. Sahoo, Ashwani S. Rawat, Aruna Singh, Arushi Bamrara, Divya Sharma (206-217).
Oral immunization with vaccines has proven its worth by eradicating several diseases worldwide, yet only few oral vaccines exist in practice. This is because the oral route is plagued with various challenges for successful delivery of vaccines, such as limited absorption and high degradation in the gastrointestinal tract. Tremendous research in the last decade has made bilosomes a potential carrier system for oral immunization. Bilosomes with its name derived from bile salts (which is one of its major constituent), is a 'niosome-like' colloidal carrier. The collective information addressed through this review, convincingly points out that factors such as size, composition (type of bile salt, and lipid), charge, ligand attached, etc., which show significant influence on the type, and amount of immunity developed following the oral administration of bilosomes. These bile salts containing vesicular carriers have been employed to treat various serious conditions. Some of these methods have been successfully established into patents. Bilosomes loaded with antigens, peptides and other biological materials for the treatment of influenza, heart failure, diuresis, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and other gastrointestinal disorders have been discussed in the present article.

Recent Patents, Formulation and Characterization of Nanoliposomes by Seema Rohilla, Harish Dureja (218-229).
Nanoliposome has been introduced for nanoscale bilayer lipid vesicles. These are the nano version of liposomes, having cell-specific targeting, required to achieve a desired drug concentration at the target site for optimum therapeutic efficacy, possibly by minimizing the adverse effects on healthy cells and tissues. Nanoliposomes possess impending applications in the fields of nanotechnology, e.g. cancer therapy, cosmetics, diagnosis, gene delivery, agriculture and food technology. Nano liposomes can be formulated by Sonication technique, Extrusion method, Emulsification evaporation method and Lipid layer hydration method. Authors have performed detailed patent and literature survey on PubMed, PubMed Central, Spingerlink and Elsevier based reviews and research articles on nanoliposomes. An attempt has been made to highlight the various formulation methods including the patented technologies, applications and characterization of nanoliposomes.

Recent Patents in Pulmonary Delivery of Macromolecules by Animikh Ray, Abhirup Mandal, Ashim K. Mitra (230-241).
Pulmonary delivery is a non-invasive form of delivery that holds tremendous therapeutic promise for topical and systemic administration of several macromolecules. Oral administration of macromolecules has several limitations such as low bioavailability, degradation of drug before reaching circulation and insufficient absorption across intestinal membrane. Administration of macromolecules such as proteins, peptides and nucleic acids via inhalation offers great potential due to the avoidance of first pass metabolism, higher surface area and rapid clinical response. However, delivery of reproducible, uniform and safe doses of inhaled particles remains a major challenge for clinical translation. Recent advances in the fields of biotechnology and particle engineering led to progress in novel pulmonary drug delivery systems. Moreover, significant developments in carriers and delivery devices prevent denaturation of macromolecules and control their release within the lungs. This article reviews the advances in pulmonary drug delivery systems by focusing on the recent patents in delivery of macromolecules. Furthermore, recent patents in gene delivery to the lungs have also been discussed. List of patents included in this review is comprehensive in terms of pulmonary delivery of therapeutics. It includes inventions related to proteins and peptides, DNA therapeutics, siRNA and other genetic materials with therapeutic applications. The diseases targeted by these therapeutic molecules are varied including but not limited to different forms of cancer, respiratory diseases etc.

In Situ Gelling Ophthalmic Drug Delivery System: An Overview and Its Applications by Ravi Sheshala, Yong Y. Kok, Jun M. Ng, Raghu R.S. Thakur, Kamal Dua (242-253).
Ophthalmic drug delivery system is very interesting and challenging due to the normal physiologically factor of eyes which reduces the bioavailability of ocular products. The development of new ophthalmic dosage forms for existing drugs to improve efficacy and bioavailability, patient compliance and convenience has become one of the main trend in the pharmaceuticals industry. The present review encompasses various conventional and novel ocular drug delivery systems, methods of preparation, characterization and recent research in this area. Furthermore, the information on various commercially available in situ gel preparations and the existing patents of in situ drug delivery systems i.e. in situ gel formation of pectin, in situ gel for therapeutic use, medical uses of in situ formed gels and in situ gelling systems as sustained delivery for front of eye are also covered in this review.

Natural polymers are widely utilized in pharmaceutical and food industries. Starch, a major carbohydrate is a staple food in human and animal diets which is simply extractable from various sources, like potato, maize, corn, wheat, etc. It is widely used as a raw material in various food and non food industries as well as in paper, textile and other industries. This article summarizes the starch and modification of starch and to produce a novel molecule with various applications in industries including number of advances in pharmaceutical industry. The unique characteristics of starch and their modified form can be successfully used as drug delivery carriers in various pharmaceutical preparations. It is widely used as controlled and sustained release polymer, tablet disintegrant, drug delivery carrier, plasma volume expander and also finds its applicability in bone tissue engineering and in artificial red cells. It also includes the patents related to starch and modified starch based products and their commercial utility.

Patent Selections: (262-263).