Recent Patents on Biotechnology (v.9, #3)

Meet Our Editorial Board Member by Jorge Barros-Velazquez (157-157).

Patents on Phytochemicals: Methodologies of Extraction, Application in Food and Pharmaceutical Industry by Nancy Ordaz-Trinidad, Lidia Dorantes-Alvarez, Juan Salas-Benito (158-167).
Background: Patents on phytochemicals are being registered worldwide. Such phytochemicals provide benefits to human health, and include terpenoids, phenolic compounds, alkaloids, lignin, and fiber.
Objective: This review has the purpose to provide a comprehensive overview of patents published in the last five years about extraction of phytochemicals and their application in the food and pharmaceutical industry. Method: Forty eight pa- tents were analyzed and classified in four topics of interest; 1) Extraction, 2) Functional foods, 3) Biological activity, and 4) Prevention of diseases.
Results: Extraction yield of phytochemicals is the critical step. The techniques to extract phytochemicals include enzymat- ic hydrolysis, nano-particulate precipitation, salts formation and combination of solvents; however, the use of ultrasound and microwave is increasing. Patents concerning functional foods include pediatric formulations, sport drink, and compo- sitions that produce beneficial effects. Biological activity of plant extracts tested in animals or cell cultures, as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer activity, reduction of obesity and diabetes are presented in this review. Application of phy- tochemicals in the prevention and treatment of health disorders, such as diabetes, gastritis, enteritis, topical inflammation, macular degeneration, gingivitis, prostatic hyperplasia, urinary impairments.
Conclusion: Patents revised include 30% methodologies for extraction of phytochemicals, 16% application of phytochem- icals in food matrixes to obtain functional foods, 18% biological activity of extracts or compounds and 36% application in the prevention and treatment of illness, which reveals a great interest to protect intellectual property concerning applica- tion of phytochemicals formulations for human health.

Products with Natural Components to Heal Dermal Burns: A Patent Review by Aida Carla Santana de Melo Costa, Karen Perez Pereira Ramos, Mairim Russo Serafini, Fernanda Oliveira de Carvalho, Luciana Garcez Barretto Teixeira, Diogo Costa Garcao, Saravanan Shanmugam, Adriano Antunes de Souza Araujo, Paula Santos Nunes (168-175).
Background: Burns are a global public health problem, and non-fatal burn injuries are a leading cause of morbidity. The scale of the problem has led researchers to seek to develop new prod- ucts (both synthetic and natural) for use in the treatment of burn lesions.
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine all patents in databases between 2010 and 2015 related to natural prod- ucts for the treatment of burn-related wounds that targeted tissue repair and healing.
Method: The search term “burn” and the code A61K36/00 (plant and other natural derivatives used in medicinal prepara- tions) from the international classification of patents were used to identify treatments.
Results: The search was performed in the WIPO, ESPACENET and USPTO databases. The highest number of patent ap- plications was found in the WIPO data base (617), followed by ESPACENET(23) and USPTO(6). The USA and China were the countries with the most patent applications, and 2008 was the year that had the highest number of applications. Patent applications written in Spanish, English and Portuguese and that were published between 2010 and 2015 were se- lected. 559 patent applications in other languages, and 63 that did not result in the creation of new products between 2010 and 2015 were excluded and the remaining 13 patents application were selected for full reading of the text.
Conclusion: Through this study we were able to identify and summarize the new active natural compounds that can be used in the treatment of burns, both in terms of tissue recovery and analgesia.

A Review of Gene Knockout Strategies for Microbial Cells by Phooi Wah Tang, Pooi San Chua, Shiue Kee Chong, Mohd Saberi Mohamad, Yee Wen Choon, Safaai Deris, Sigeru Omatu, Juan Manuel Corchado, Weng Howe Chan, Raha Abdul Rahim (176-197).
Background: Predicting the effects of genetic modification is difficult due to the complexity of metabolic net- works. Various gene knockout strategies have been utilised to deactivate specific genes in order to determine the effects of these genes on the function of microbes. Deactivation of genes can lead to deletion of certain proteins and functions. Through these strategies, the associated function of a deleted gene can be identified from the metabolic networks.
Methods: The main aim of this paper is to review the available techniques in gene knockout strategies for microbial cells. The review is done in terms of their methodology, recent applications in microbial cells. In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the techniques are compared and discuss and the related patents are also listed as well.
Results: Traditionally, gene knockout is done through wet lab (in vivo) techniques, which were conducted through laboratory experiments. However, these techniques are costly and time consuming. Hence, various dry lab (in silico) techniques, where are conducted using computational approaches, have been developed to surmount these problem.
Conclusion: The development of numerous techniques for gene knockout in microbial cells has brought many advancements in the study of gene functions. Based on the literatures, we found that the gene knockout strategies currently used are sensibly implemented with regard to their benefits.

An Overview on Indian Patents on Biotechnology by Anusaya Mallick, Subhas Chandra Santra, Alok Chandra Samal (198-213).
Background: The application of biotechnology is a potential tool for mitigating the present and future fooding and clothing demands in developing countries like India. The com- mercialization of biotechnological products might benefiting the poor's in developing countries are unlikely to be developed. Biotechnology has the potential to provide a wide range of products and the existing production skills in the industrial, pharmaceuticals and the agricultural sector.
Methods: Ownership of the intellectual property rights is the key factors in determining the success of any technological invention, which was introduced in the market. It provides the means for technological progress to continue of the industry of the country. The new plans, animal varieties, new methods of treatments, new crops producing food articles as such are the inventions of biotechnology.
Result: Biotechnology is the result of the application of human intelligence and knowledge to the biological processes. Most of the tools of biotechnology have been developed, by companies, governments, research in- stitutes and universities in developed nations. These human intellectual efforts deserve protection. India is a developing country with advance biotechnology based segments of pharmaceutical and agricultural industries. The Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is not likely to have a significant impact on incentives for innovation creation in the biotechnology sectors. In the recent years, the world has seen the biotechnology sector as one of greatest investment area through the Patent Law and will giving huge profit in future.
Conclusion: The Research and Development in the field of biotechnology should be encouraged for explor- ing new tools and improve the biological systems for interest of the common people. Priority should be given to generation, evaluation, protection and effective commercial utilization of tangible products of intellectual property in agriculture and pharmaceuticals. To support the future growth and development in the area of bio- technology and exchange of knowledge should be proper evaluate and secure through patent system.

Background: In Thailand, yield loss due to plant diseases in vegetables grown hydroponi- cally is very high as a result of the growers' lack of knowledge for controlling diseases and their un- willingness to invest in setting-up the proper hydroponic system from the beginning. Severe root rot disease caused by Pythium spp. is frequent and can be anticipated in the hot climate in Thailand.
Objective: This review focuses on the diseases in temperate lettuces which have been produced hydroponically and have been attacked by plant pathogens, particularly Pythium spp.
Methods: Biological control of vegetable diseases grown hydroponically has been investigated in Thailand. Research is being carried out to identify effective strains of the antagonists, formulating the applicable products and delivering them appropriately to control the disease. Products of Bacillus subtilis, Chaetomium globosom and Trichoderma harzianum have been recommended for use to control diseases in vegetables grown hydroponically.
Results: Control efficacy of these products is varied as the biological products have been used by the growers in the para- digm of using chemical fungicide for disease control in hydroponic production system, overlooking the intrinsic character- istics of the biological control products.
Conclusion: The recent patent, which minimizes the effects of sunlight and heat on the nutrient solution without the use of an external energy for cooling the nutrient, should be applied in producing hydroponic vegetables to mitigate poor plant growth and root rot disease outbreak in Thailand.

Yeast Autolysis in Sparkling Wine Aging: Use of Killer and Sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains in Co-Culture by Silvia Jane Lombardi, Antonella De Leonardis, Giuseppe Lustrato, Bruno Testa, Massimo Iorizzo (223-230).
Background: Sparkling wines produced by traditional method owe their characteristics to secondary fermentation and maturation that occur during a slow ageing in bottles. Yeast autolysis plays an important role during the sparkling wine aging. Using a combination of killer and sensitive yeasts is possible to accelerate yeast autolysis and reduce maturing time.
Methods: killer and sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, separately and in co-cultures, were inoculated in base wine and bottled on pilot-plant scale. Commercial Saccaromyces bayanus strain was also investigated. Protein free amino acid and polysaccharides contents and sensory analysis were determined on the wine samples at 3, 6 and 9 months of aging. Yeast autolysis that occurs during the production of sparkling wines, obtained with co-cultures of killer and sensitive strains, has influenced free amino acids, total protein and polysaccharides content after 3 months aging time: sparkling wines, produced without the use of these yeasts, have reached the same results only after 9 months aging time.
Results: These results demonstrate that killer and sensitive yeasts in co-culture can accelerate the onset of autolysis in enological conditions, and has a positive effect on the quality of the aroma and flavor of sparkling wine.
Conclusion: This paper offers an interesting biotechnological method to reduce production time of sparkling wine with economical benefits for the producers. We revised all patents relating to sparkling wine considering only those of interest for our study.

Patent Selections (231-233).