Recent Patents on Biotechnology (v.7, #3)

Bio-preservative and Therapeutic Potential of Pediocin: Recent Trends and Future Perspectives by Ridhi Mehta, Ridhima Arya, Karan Goyal, Mahipal Singh, Anil K. Sharma (172-178).
Bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria are of keen interest to the food industry for their bio-preservativepotential and antimicrobial properties. The increasing demand for high quality 'safe' foods which are not extensivelyprocessed has created a niche for natural food preservatives. The bacteriocins (produced by bacteria) derived their nameafter the genera that produce them, hence bacteriocins produced by genus Pediococcus are known as Pediocin. Pediocinsare antimicrobial peptides which show a strong activity against food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, also are thermostablein nature as well as stable over a wide range of pH. Pediocin produced by Pediococcus acidilactici, has been generallyrecognized as safe (GRAS). The current review summarizes about the progress made on the Pediocin research from patentperspective along with the immense potential of these Pediococcus derived bacteriocins not only as antimicrobial, biopreservativeand probiotic agents but also for the treatment of cancer, body odors and other health promoting actions. Therelevant patents have been listed and briefly analyzed to upgrade and benefit food industries by prolonging the shelf life ofvarious products.

Recent Patents on Flavonoids by Gokhale Mamta, Y. K. Bansal, S. S. Sandhu (179-196).
Flavonoids are substances which are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. They occur in considerable quantitiesin common food products, spices and beverages. Interest of researchers has been greatly enhanced towards therapeuticpotential of flavonoids in last some years. This review summarizes important patents pertaining to recent biotechnologicaltechniques applied for the production, analysis of biosynthetic pathways, effects and applications of different flavonoids.For systematic studies investigations which have been published in the form of patents, are classified in differentsectors like biosynthesis, medical application, antimicrobial activity, alteration of flower color, industrial application,cosmetics, food and plant tissue culture. A number of activities have been observed in each sector with vast area of researchon flavonoids.

Mini-Review: Recent Developments in Hydroxynitrile Lyases for Industrial Biotechnology by Elisa Lanfranchi, Kerstin Steiner, Anton Glieder, Ivan Hajnal, Roger A. Sheldon, Sander van Pelt, Margit Winkler (197-206).
Hydroxynitrile lyases (HNLs) catalyze the cleavage as well as the formation of cyanohydrins. The latter reactionis valuable for the stereoselective C-C bond formation by condensation of HCN with carbonyl compounds. The resultingcyanohydrins serve as versatile building blocks for a broad range of chemical and enzymatic follow-up reactions.A significant number of (R)- and (S)-selective HNLs are known today and the number is still increasing. HNLs not onlyexhibit varying substrate scope but also differ in sequence and structure. Tailor-made enzymes for large-scale manufacturingof cyanohydrins with improved yield and enantiomeric excess are very interesting targets, which is reflected in a solidnumber of patents. This review will complement and extend our recent review with a strong focus on applications ofHNLs for the synthesis of highly functionalized, chiral compounds with newest literature, recent and current patent literature.

Hemicellulases in Lignocellulose Biotechnology: Recent Patents by Hemant Soni, Naveen Kango (207-218).
Hemicelluloses comprise a major part of renewable plant biomass and therefore have received considerable attentionin lignocellulose biotechnology. Hemicelluloses are a heterogeneous group of structural polysaccharides such asxylan, mannan and arabinan named after their major constituent monomeric sugar. Bioconversion of hemicelluloses proceedsthrough hydrolysis using hemicellulases. A variety of hemicellulases have been identified from mesophilic andthermophilic microorganisms. First prominent industrial application of a hemicellulase was in the area of pulp biobleachingwhen xylanases were found to be able to reduce use of toxic chlorine oxide. Later many applications of hemicellulasesin various areas such as deinking of paper waste, clarification of fruit juices, upgradation of feed, fodder and fibres, andsaccharification were revealed. The present review presents an overview of patents related to hemicellulases including xylanases,mannanases, arabionosidases, acetylxylan esterases (AXE) and other accessory enzymes.

Recent Patents in the Field of Radioprotector Development: Opportunities and Challenges by Shubhankar Suman, Saurabh Jain, Sudhir Chandna (219-227).
Ionizing radiation-induced Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) can be prevented/treated using radioprotectiveagents including; radioprotectors, radiomitigators and radio-therapeutics. Most of the radioprotective molecules currentlybeing developed have emerged from classical drug discovery approaches and have certain shortcomings related to efficacyand toxicity. In order to overcome these issues, adoption of new target-based drug development approaches is required.Like other pharmaceutical drug development programs, patents are being used to protect the new radioprotectivecompounds that provide right of exclusivity to the inventors. In addition to patents, the FDA approval for safety and efficacyis required for the development of radioprotective drugs that is often being done under FDA's animal rule and requireshuge amount of funding. However, radiation countermeasure agents considered emergency medicines and not carryingattractive revenue generation opportunities and are often granted 'orphan drug status'. Thus, pharma giants do nottake much interest in such molecules that limit the funding options only to the government agencies, which in turn reducesthe interest of researchers in this particular area. In addition to their emergency use, these agents could also be employedfor clinical radiotherapy purposes and may provide reasonable incentive to the inventor. Thus, encouraging the developmentof new radioprotective agent with cutting-edge drug discovery approaches needs more public-private partnership ensuringaffordable access; that may stimulate researchers to engage in the area of radioprotector development. This articleattempts to cover information available so far on the products/patents/major compounds, known in this critical area of development,along with most relevant regulatory issues and future perspectives.

Recent Advances in Industrial Application of Tannases: A Review by Vikas Beniwal, Anil Kumar, Jitender Sharma, Vinod Chhokar (228-233).
Tannin acyl hydrolase (E.C. 3.1.1.20) commonly referred as tannase, is a hydrolytic enzyme that catalyses thehydrolysis of ester bonds present in gallotannins, ellagitannins, complex tannins and gallic acid esters. Tannases are theimportant group of botechnologically relevant enzymes distributed throughout the animal, plant and microbial kingdoms.However, microbial tannases are currently receiving a great deal of attention. Tannases are extensively used in food, feed,pharmaceutical, beverage, brewing and chemical industries. Owing to its diverse area of applications, a number of patentshave been appeared in the recent past. The present review pretends to present the advances and perspectives in the industrialapplication of tannase with special emphasis on patents.

Kinetic Properties and Role of Bacterial Chitin Deacetylase in the Bioconversion of Chitin to Chitosan by Ahmed ElMekawy, Hanaa M. Hegab, Ashraf El-Baz, Samuel M. Hudson (234-241).
Chitin is an extremely insoluble material with very limited industrial use; however it can be deacetylated tosoluble chitosan which has a wide range of applications. The enzymatic deacetylation of various chitin samples was investigatedusing the bacterial chitin deacetylase (CDA), which was partially purified from Alcaligenes sp. ATCC 55938growth medium and the kinetic parameters of the enzyme were determined. Also, the efficiency of biocatalyst recyclingby immobilization technique was examined. CDA activity reached its maximum (0.419 U/ml) after 18 h of bacterial cultivation.When glycol chitin was used as a substrate, the optimum pH of the enzyme was estimated to be 6 after checking apH range between 3 and 9, while the optimum temperature was found to be 35°C. Addition of acetate (100 mM) in the assaymixture resulted in 50% loss of enzyme activity. The Km value of the enzyme is 1.6 × 10-4 µM and Vmax is 24.7 µM/min. The average activity of CDA was 0.38 U/ml for both of immobilized and freely suspended cells after 18 h ofbacterial growth. Some related patents are also discussed here.

Patent Selections: (242-243).