Anti-Inflammatory & Anti-Allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (v.11, #2)
Application of Small Molecules/Macromolecules in Ocular Inflammatory Diseases by Baoying Liu, Chi-Chao Chan, Robert B. Nussenblatt (113-120).
Macrobiomolecular treatments for ocular inflammatory diseases have been described in a previous review. Thisarticle mainly discusses the application of small molecules in uveitis therapy, which includes corticosteroids, salicylic acid(aspirin), metabolite analogs, and anti-oxidative agents. Additionally, we update recent advances in peptide and nucleicacid related therapies, and focus mainly on the calcineurin inhibitor, cyclosporine, oral tolerant retinal proteins/peptides,gene therapy and ribonucleic acid interference strategies. We classify these immunomodulatory agents by their molecularsignatures and highlight the molecular structure and mechanisms of function. These developments in understanding molecularmechanisms of the diseases, with the advent of new technologies, advance current therapeutic approaches. The futuredirection is to tailor treatments to individual patients in order to provide the safest and most effective therapies forocular inflammatory diseases.
A Novel Treatment Strategy for Sepsis and Septic Shock Based on the Interactions between Prostanoids, Nitric Oxide, and 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acid by Bahar Tunctan, Belma Korkmaz, Ayse Nihal Sari, Meltem Kacan, Demet Unsal, Mehmet Sami Serin, C. Kemal Buharalioglu, Seyhan Sahan-Firat, Wolf-Hagen Schunck, John R. Falck, Kafait U. Malik (121-150).
Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a suspected or proven infection caused by anypathogen or a clinical syndrome associated with a high probability of infection. The definition of septic shock includessepsis-induced hypotension despite adequate fluid resuscitation, along with the presence of organ perfusion abnormalities,and ultimately cell dysfunction. As the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units worldwide,the societal and economic costs of sepsis and septic shock are staggering. The molecular pathophysiology of sepsis andseptic shock and the complex roles played by cytokines, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and eicosanoids remaincontroversal despite decades of study. The lipid A part of lipopolysaccharide, also known as endotoxin, is the most potentmicrobial mediator of the pathogenesis of sepsis and septic shock. 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE) is avasoconstrictor ω-hydroxylation product of arachidonic acid that is produced by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes,mainly by CYP4A and CYP4F isoforms. Studies from our laboratory and others have provided substantial evidence thatadministration of a synthetic analog of 20-HETE, N-[20-hydroxyeicosa-5(Z),14(Z)-dienoyl]glycine, prevents endotoxininducedvascular hyporeactivity, hypotension, and mortality associated with increased formation of inducible nitric oxidesynthase-derived nitric oxide (NO) and cyclooxygenase-2-derived vasodilator prostanoids as well as decreased expressionand activity of CYP4A1 and 20-HETE production in a rodent model of septic shock. CYP4A- and CYP4F-derived 20-HETE is also a proinflammatory mediator of endotoxin-induced acute systemic inflammation. In this review, we will presentan overview of our current understanding of the interactions between prostanoids, NO, and 20-HETE in sepsis, andprovide a rationale for the development of synthetic 20-HETE analogs for the treatment of sepsis and septic shock.
Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Prediction of New Structures by Comparative Analysis by Ronald Bartzatt (151-160).
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a group of agents important for their analgesic,anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. This study presents several approaches to predict and elucidate new molecularstructures of NSAIDs based on 36 known and proven anti-inflammatory compounds. Based on 36 known NSAIDsthe mean value of Log P is found to be 3.338 (standard deviation= 1.237), mean value of polar surface area is63.176 Angstroms2 (standard deviation = 20.951 A2), and the mean value of molecular weight is 292.665 (standard deviation= 55.627). Nine molecular properties are determined for these 36 NSAID agents, including Log P, number of -OHand -NHn, violations of Rule of 5, number of rotatable bonds, and number of oxygens and nitrogens. Statistical analysis ofthese nine molecular properties provides numerical parameters to conform to in the design of novel NSAID drug candidates.Multiple regression analysis is accomplished using these properties of 36 agents followed with examples of predictedmolecular weight based on minimum and maximum property values. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated thatlicofelone, tolfenamic acid, meclofenamic acid, droxicam, and aspirin are substantially distinct from all remainingNSAIDs. Analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) produced R = 0.4947, which indicates low to moderate level of dissimilaritybetween these 36 NSAIDs. Non-hierarchical K-means cluster analysis separated the 36 NSAIDs into four groups havingmembers of greatest similarity. Likewise, discriminant analysis divided the 36 agents into two groups indicating the greatestlevel of distinction (discrimination) based on nine properties. These two multivariate methods together provide investigatorsa means to compare and elucidate novel drug designs to 36 proven compounds and ascertain to which of those aremost analogous in pharmacodynamics. In addition, artificial neural network modeling is demonstrated as an approach topredict numerous molecular properties of new drug designs that is based on neural training from 36 proven NSAIDs.Comprehensive and effective approaches are presented in this study for the design of new NSAID type agents which areso very important for inhibition of COX-2 and COX-1 isoenzymes.
Increased Production of Nitric Oxide Mediates Selective Organ-Specific Effects of Endotoxin on Oxidative Stress by Seyhan Sahan-Firat, Necmiye Canacankatan, Belma Korkmaz, Hatice Yildirim, Lulufer Tamer, C. Kemal Buharalioglu, A. Nihal Sari, Meltem Kacan, Demet Unsal, Bahar Tunctan (161-172).
Endotoxemic shock is a systemic inflammatory response that is associated with increased nitric oxide (NO)production by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) which contributes to hypotension, vascular hyporeactivity, and multipleorgan failure. Oxidative stress (OS) is a major contributing factor to high morbidity and mortality in endotoxemic shock.We have previously demonstrated that endotoxin-induced fall in blood pressure is associated with an increase in nitritelevels in serum, kidney, heart, thoracic aorta (TA), and superior mesenteric artery (SMA), a decrease in malondialdehyde(MDA) levels in the kidney, heart, TA, and SMA, and an increase in myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the heart andTA, but a decrease in the kidney and SMA of rats. In this study, we further investigated whether increased production ofiNOS-derived NO contributes to endotoxin induced changes in the biomarkers of OS in the liver, lungs, brain, spleen, andfemoral artery (FA) of rats. Endotoxin-induced increase in nitrite production was associated with a decrease in reducedglutathione levels in the liver, lungs, brain, spleen, and FA. MPO activity was increased by endotoxin in the lungs, spleen,and FA, but decreased in the liver and brain. MDA levels were increased by endotoxin in the lungs, brain, spleen, and FA,but were decreased in the liver. Activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase were decreased in the liver and spleen, butwere increased in the lungs, brain, and FA. These effects of endotoxin were prevented by a selective iNOS inhibitor,phenylene-1,3-bis[ethane-2-isothiourea] dihydrobromide. These data suggest that iNOS-derived NO mediates selectiveorgan-specific effects of endotoxin on OS.
Development of a Sensitive Cost-Effective Capture ELISA for Detection of Murine Monoclonal Antibodies - Correlation with SPR Biosensor Technology by M. Tsiamita, M. Pavlaki, M. Toloudi, A. Tiptiri-Kourpeti, V. Drossou, P. Apostolou, M. Chatziioannou, E. Ioannou, I. Papasotiriou, K. Chlichlia (173-181).
The development of antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in inflammatory diseases is a majorfocus for biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies. Production of monoclonal antibodies requires the development offast, high-throughput methodologies for screening and selecting appropriate candidate antibodies for development. Capture(sandwich) enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) provides a quick and reliable method that could be used forhybridoma screening of potential candidates accompanied with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor technologyfor identifying high affinity biomolecular interactions. A sensitive, cost-effective, robust and accurate capture ELISA fordetection of murine monoclonal antibodies in culture supernatants was developed. This assay was optimized for high sensitivityand specificity with a capture anti-mouse polyclonal antibody. Using serial dilutions of a defined murine IgG antibody,a linear dose-response was observed between 2 and 1200 ng/ml antibody with a coefficient of determination r2 of0.98. The detection limit of the assay was established as 2ng/ml (12.5pM). A similar concentration-dependent doseresponsewas also observed using serial dilutions of antibody-containing supernatants from anti-alpha glycophorinproducinghybridomas (detection limit 1:2000). Specific capture of antibodies from supernatants in a similar setting wasalso confirmed using SPR biosensor technology and correlated well with the immunoassay results. The latter technologycan be performed in order to provide quick screening results and kinetic analysis of antibody binding interactions aimingat identifying candidates with high affinity and specificity.
Novel Piperazinyl Derivatives with Anti-Hyperalgesic, Anti-Allodynic and Anti-Inflammatory activities Useful for the Treatment of Neuropathic Pain by Monika Sharma, Shraddha Suman Dash, Gangadhar Matharasala, Vanamala Deekshith, Dharmarajan Sriram, Perumal Yogeeswari (182-190).
A series of structurally novel compounds possessing 2-phenylpiperazin-1-yl nicotinamide template wassynthesized and evaluated for neuropathic pain activity. After the assessment of neurotoxicity and peripheral analgesicactivity, the compounds were evaluated in a peripheral neuropathic pain model, the chronic constriction injury (CCI) toassess their antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic potential. Studies carried out to assess the underlying mechanism revealedthat the compounds (5 and 6) suppressed the inflammatory component of the neuropathic pain and inhibited oxidative andnitrosative stress.
In Vitro Comparative Evaluation of Non-Leaves and Leaves Extracts of Andrographis paniculata on Modulation of Inflammatory Mediators by C. V. Chandrasekaran, B. Murali, M. Deepak, Amit Agarwal (191-197).
This study was designed to evaluate and compare the inhibitory property of extracts of Andrographispaniculata leaves [methanolic (AP1), hydroalcoholic (AP2), successive water (AP3)] and non-leaves [methanolic (AP4),hydroalcoholic (AP5), successive water (AP6)] towards inflammatory mediators (NO, IL-1 beta, IL-6, TNF alpha, PGE2,TXB2 and LTB4). Stimulant induced J774A.1 murine macrophages and HL-60 promyelocytic leukemic cells were used tostudy the inhibitory potential of extracts of A. paniculata on inflammatory mediators. Results revealed that AP1 and AP4exhibited inhibitory effect on all the inflammatory mediators excluding PGE2 and TNF-alpha. AP2 and AP5 exhibitedinhibitory effect towards IL-1 beta, TXB2 and did not show inhibitory effect towards other mediators. However, AP3 andAP6 failed to show inhibitory activity against any of the inflammatory mediators at the tested concentrations. Further, weobserved that the magnitude of inhibitory effect displayed by A. paniculata extracts depends on the andrographolidecontent, although, it does not appear to influence the inhibitory effect towards LTB4 production.