Recent Patents on Anti-Infective Drug Discovery (v.9, #3)

Meet Our Editorial Board Member: by Richard Tong (155-155).

Brucellosis and its Particularities in Children Travelers by Mile Bosilkovski, Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales (164-172).
Brucellosis is still endemic in many countries in the world, however, having a significantly higher incidence in developing countries. As consequence of travel, risk for children from non-endemic areas would be considerable when visiting developing countries. Then, the purpose of this review is to provide, after a bibliographical search, an update on the main aspects of this disease in the traveler children. For the general practitioner, but particularly for travel medicine practitioner and pediatricians, these clinicoepidemiological considerations should be taken in mind in the differential diagnosis when assessing children returning from travel to brucellosis endemic areas.

The Present Situation of Human Taeniases and Cysticercosis in Asia by Akira Ito, Toni Wandra, Tiaoying Li, Paron Dekumyoy, Agathe Nkouawa, Munehiro Okamoto, Christine M. Budke (173-185).
Three human Taenia species, Taenia solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica, are endemic in rural regions of Asia, with these species sympatrically distributed in parts of Thailand and China. The pork tapeworm, T. solium, is the most pathogenic to humans, causing cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis (NCC). Due to its public health impact, T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis is one of 17 neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) prioritized by the World Health Organization. In this review, the current status of taeniasis and NCC in several Asian countries will be presented as will possible prevention and control strategies. Among the known T. solium endemic areas in Asia, Bali, Indonesia is of high importance due to the risk of tourists becoming infected. Therefore, special attention will be given to ongoing control initiatives in Bali.

Anti-Toxoplasma Activity of Natural Products: A Review by Juan C. Sepulveda-Arias, Luz A. Veloza, Luz E. Mantilla-Muriel (186-194).
Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite widely distributed in nature. Infection is asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals; however, various clinical manifestations may occur in immunocompromised individuals. Although there are medications for the treatment of toxoplasmosis, such as pyrimethamine and sulfonamide, they cannot always be used due to adverse reactions or to therapeutic failures related to intolerance or malabsorption of drugs and to parasite drug resistance. In recent years, the search for new antimicrobial agents derived from plants has intensified because a quarter of synthetic drugs that are currently prescribed have been isolated from a plant source, demonstrating that natural products are important in the development of new drugs. A systematic literature search was conducted to evaluate the use of natural products as an alternative for the treatment of T. gondii infection. The search was conducted for the 2000-2014 period in Science Direct, Scopus, PubMed, EMBASE, and SciELO databases, using the following MeSH terms: anti-Toxoplasma activity, toxoplasma AND natural products, toxoplasma AND plant extracts. Ethnobotanical and experimental evidence (in vitro/in vivo) was found supporting the use of natural products as a source for the discovery of new therapies against T. gondii.

Bibliometric Assessment of the Latin-American Contributions in Dengue by Felipe Vera-Polania, Yuliana Perilla-Gonzalez, Dayron F. Martinez-Pulgarin, Juan D. Baquero-Rodriguez, Marcela Munoz-Urbano, Mariana Lagos-Gallego, Guillermo J. Lagos-Grisales, Soraya Villegas, Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales (195-201).
Background: Despite efforts in prevention and control of dengue, it is still a public health problem in the region. There are estimations of 13 million people affected in the Americas, therefore, it is of outmost importance to research it. An assessment on the Latin- American contributions on dengue was done. Methods: Bibliometric study at SCI (1980- 2013), MEDLINE/GOPUBMED (1802-2013), Scopus (1959-2013), SCIELO (2004-2013), LILACS (1980- 2013). Different study types, characterized by years, city/country of origin, journals and more productive authors, by country, cites and H index have been conducted. Results: At SCI, 2598 articles were retrieved (21% of the total). Brazil was found to be the highest contributor (31.2%), then Puerto Rico (12.9%) and Mexico (10.7%). At Scopus, there are 2646 articles (16.7% of the total), 31.2% Brazil, 11.1% Mexico, 9.3% Cuba; the region received 41881 citations, 25.4% from Brazil (H index=45), 14.4% Cuba (H index=35) and 12.88% Puerto Rico (H index=38); 9.1% in Brazil were from Fundaçã Oswaldo Cruz; 1.6% of Mexico corresponded to Instituto Nacional de Salud Publica, 4.9% of Cuba are from Instituto de Medicina Tropical Pedro Kouri. At Medline, there are 2799 records (33.9% from Brazil). At SciELO there are 825 records (46.6% Brazil). At LILACS, there are 1178 records (46.8% Brazil). Conclusions: Brazil is the best producer in the region. In Puerto Rico and Brazil, there observed the epidemiologic burden of the disease. Scientific production in bibliographical data bases, particularly regional, is low, as compared to the high impact of the disease of in urban zones of the region.

Bibliometric Assessment of the Contributions of Literature on Chagas Disease in Latin America and the Caribbean by Nathalia Delgado-Osorio, Felipe Vera-Polania, Andres F. Lopez-Isaza, Dayron F. Martinez-Pulgarin, Jonathan Murillo-Abadia, Marcela Munoz-Urbano, Jaime A. Cardona-Ospina, Ricardo Bello, Guillermo J. Lagos-Grisales, Soraya Villegas-Rojas, Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales (202-208).
Chagas disease, considered a parasitic neglected disease, is endemic in Latin America. Although, its mortality rate has decreased over time, it still represents a public health problem in the region. A bibliometric evaluation of the Latin American contributions on this disease was done. This study used SCI (1980-2013), MEDLINE/GOPUBMED (1802-2013), Scopus (1959-2013), SCIELO (2004-2013), and LILACS (1980-2013). Different study types have been characterized by years, origin city/country, journals and most productive authors, by country, cites and H-index. 2988 articles were retrieved from SCI (30.85% of total). Brazil was found to be the highest producer (31.22%), followed by Argentina (18.14%) and México (9.57%); the region received 47241 citations, 28.60% for Brazil (H-index=52), 18.26% of Argentina (Hindex= 43), 11.40% Bolivia (H-index=37). 4484 were retrieved from Scopus (30.20% of the total), 38.58% of which were from Brazil, 12.40% from Argentina and 8.90% from Mexico. From Medline, 6647 records were retrieved (45.58% Brazil). From SciELO, 917 articles (47.66% Brazil). From LILACS, 2165 articles (60.05% Brazil). Brazil has the highest output in the region. Despite advances in controlling Chagas disease, scientific production is low, particularly for regional bibliographic databases, which calls for more research on this disease.

Scientific Research in Malaria: Bibliometric Assessment of the Latin-American Contributions by Marcela Munoz-Urbano, Andres F. Lopez-Isaza, Natalia Hurtado-Hurtado, Daniela Gomez-Suta, Jonathan Murillo-Abadia, Nathalia Delgado-Osorio, Guillermo J. Lagos-Grisales, Soraya Villegas, Diego A. Medina-Morales, Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales (209-215).
Background: Malaria is a parasitic disease of high global impact in public health, including Latin America. There should be more researched, particularly in this region. A bibliometric assessment of the Latin American contributions about malaria was done. Methods: Bibliometric study at SCI (1980-2013), MEDLINE/ GOPUBMED (1802-2013), Scopus (1959-2013), SCIELO (2004-2013), LILACS (1980-2013). The studies were characterized by study type, year of publication, city/country of origin, journals and more productive authors, citations and H index. Results: At SCI, 2,806 articles were retrieved (5.13% of the total). Brazil was the highest producer (31.41%), followed by Colombia (14.3%) and Mexico (9.5%). The region received 39,894 citations, 32.2% from Brazil (H index=51), 12.75% Mexico (H index=38), 11.2% Colombia (H index=33). At Scopus, there are 4,150 articles (4.9% of the total), 33.0% Brazil, 11.3% Colombia and 8.8% Mexico; 17% in Brazil were from Universidad de Sã Paulo; 23.6% of Colombia from Universidad de Antioquia; 15.4% of Mexico from Instituto Nacional de Salud Pðblica. At Medline there were 4,278 records (36.8% Brazil). At SciELO there are 792 records (45.3% Brazil). At LILACS there were 1744 records (34.3% Brazil). Conclusions: Brazil has the highest output of the region, as Venezuela the scientific production in Malaria was related with the burden of disease. This was not the case for Colombia. Scientific production at bibliographical databases, particularly regionals, is low, compared to the high incidence of this disease that requires more research and control.

Study of the Scientific Production on Leishmaniasis in Latin America by Yuliana Perilla-Gonzalez, Daniela Gomez-Suta, Nathalia Delgado-Osorio, Natalia Hurtado-Hurtado, Juan D. Baquero-Rodriguez, Andres F. Lopez-Isaza, Guillermo J. Lagos-Grisales, Soraya Villegas, Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales (216-222).
Leishmaniasis is a highly relevant neglected tropical disease. It has important consequences in affected populations, including a high fatality rate in its visceral form. It is present in Latin America, then it is necessary to promote more research on it. A bibliometric assessment of the Latin American scientific production in leishmaniasis was done. Methods: Bibliometric study at SCI (1980-2013), MEDLINE/GOPUBMED (1802-2013), Scopus (1959-2013), SCIELO (2004-2013), LILACS (1980-2013). Different study types, characterized by years, city/country of origin, journals and more productive authors, by country, cites and H index. Results: At SCI, 2857 articles were found (17.7% of the total). Brazil was the highest producer (58.1%), followed by Colombia (9.9%) and Venezuela (5.6%); the region received 41186 citations, 54.2% of Brazil (H index=62), 12.1% Colombia (H index=30) and 4.5% of Venezuela (H index=25). At Scopus, there are 3681 (14.7% of the total), 53.2% Brazil, 6.8% Colombia and 6.0% Venezuela; 38.46% at Brazil were from Fundaçã Oswaldo Cruz; 30.6% of Colombia corresponded to Universidad de Antioquia; 31.34% at Venezuela were from Universidad Central de Venezuela. At Medline there are 4525 records (60.6% of Brazil). At SciELO there are 1068 records (67.5% Brazil). At LILACS, there are 1740 records (56.0% Brazil). Conclusions: Scientific production of Brazil predominates in the region, with one single institution generating more articles than Colombia and Venezuela together. Scientific production in bibliographical data bases, particularly regional, is still relatively low, and the disease neglected when compared to other tropical conditions such as dengue and malaria.

Patent Selections: (223-223).

Erratum: (225-225).