Current Nutrition & Food Science (v.9, #1)

Preface by Undurti N. Das (1-1).

Nutrition in Neonates with Respiratory Disorders by Theodore Dassios, Karen Hayes (3-9).
The interrelation of malnutrition and respiratory morbidity in sick neonates with respiratory disorders has been increasingly identified over the past years. Improved respiratory care has allowed survival of more premature neonates who require cautious nutritional management while better nutritional support has been associated with more favourable clinical outcomes of specific respiratory disorders. Undernutrition plays a well-established role in respiratory disease both in the acute as well as in the later phase which are characterised by increased energy and nutrient requirements. The population of premature neonates who most commonly suffer from respiratory disorders have distinct physiological characteristics which make them vulnerable to nutritional deficits with detrimental short and long term effects. The widely accepted extrauterine nutritional goal of meeting the intrauterine growth rate is rarely met in the neonatal intensive care unit which constitutes a demanding and stressful environment. Sick neonates needing ventilatory support often have to meet increased nutritional demands. Meeting these needs represents a unique challenge for the neonatologist and the clinical dietician. Enteral nutrition should be initiated as early as clinically allowed preferably with maternal breast milk while parenteral nutrition should be provided with a view to meet the infants nutritional needs during the transition period. Although various hypotheses have been formulated linking specific nutrients supplementation with improved respiratory outcomes, such a relationship cannot overall be supported by the currently existing evidence.

Interfacial Behavior of Food Proteins by Suzana Caetano da Silva Lannes, Joice Natali Miquelim (10-14).
Proteins are constituted of amino acids that are linked with each other in a defined sequence and through peptide bonds to form polypeptide chains, containing up to hundreds of amino acids. Proteins are typically present in emulsions and foams, and they show an edible interfacial complex. The major challenges for food technologists are the association between the interfacial properties of proteins, and their emulsifying/foaming properties or stability of the emulsion or foam. Generally, the main reasons of proteins being good agents forming foam are: they are strongly adsorbed at the interface gas-liquid; promote good steric and electrostatic stability, the films formed have cohesive structure with a high module of rheological interface due to interactions between the adsorbed molecules. Due to non polar amino acids the proteins are adsorbed on gas-liquid interface since they have hydrophobic regions. The interfacial rheology is an indirect way for obtaining this information, determining the rate and the ratio in which the proteins are adsorbed. Interactions between proteins and other components in the liquid phase increase the total molecular weight, reducing the adsorption interactions, while others affect the activity in the interface. Many researchers still consider rheological measurements of the interface an option to understand the mechanism of formation and stability of many products such as bubbles. This manuscript provides an overview of the protein behavior at surfaces and interfaces of food systems.

The Rheology of Caramel by Giuseppina Barra, John R. Mitchell (15-25).
Caramel is an emulsion of a dispersed phase of fat droplets stabilized by milk proteins in an aqueous amorphous sugar matrix containing products of caramelization and Maillard reaction. The processing of caramel in an industrial scale has many problems related to its rheology. In particular tailing and cold flow are undesirable effects. The rheology of caramel was studied as a function of processing temperature and hydrocolloid addition. Both rotational and capillary techniques were used. Caramel without added hydrocolloids had behavior which was close to a Newtonian liquid. Incorporation of the hydrocolloids carrageenan and gellan gum into the caramel made the material non-Newtonian and elastic. The latter was seen for both the oscillation and creep responses. Glass transition temperatures were measured by differential scanning calorimetry and calculated from the temperature dependence of the shift factors used to superimpose the oscillatory rheological data. Generally there was agreement between the two approaches although for some gellan gum containing samples the rheological Tg was about 10ºC higher than the DSC value.

Fatty Acid Intakes and Coronary Heart Disease Mortality in Japan: NIPPON DATA90, 1990-2005 by Yasuyuki Nakamura, Yutaka Kiyohara, Nagako Okuda, Tomonori Okamura, Aya Higashiyama, Makoto Watanabe, Aya Kadota, Shin-ya Nagasawa, Naoko Miyagawa, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Yoshikuni Kita, Katsuyuki Miura, Akira Okayama, Hirotsugu Ueshima, for the NIPPON DATA Research Group (26-32).
Associations between dietary fatty acid intakes and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) are not entirely consistent in prospective studies in the U.S. and Europe. Such studies in Japan are rare. The objective of this study was to examine the association between dietary total, saturated (SFA), and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids, cholesterol intake and CHD mortality using the dataset of NIPPON DATA90. At the baseline in 1990, we performed blood biochemical measurements and a nutritional survey on participants from 300 randomly selected districts. After exclusion of participants with a history of CHD and/or stroke at the baseline, we followed 7,819 community residents (3,254 men and 4,565 women, age ≥ 30) for 15 years. We estimated individual nutrient intakes among family members by weighed food records in three consecutive representative days. During the follow-up, there were 42 CHD deaths in men and 30 in women. Mean daily SFA and PUFA % calorie intakes were 5.90±1.36%, and 5.59±1.30%, respectively in men, and 6.48±1.53%, and 6.08±1.14% in women. A Cox analysis adjusted for age, vegetable and fruit intakes, and other confounders in women found that SFA intake was significantly associated with CHD mortality (hazards ratio per one quintile increment=1.34, 95% confidence intervals: 1.02-1.74, P=0.03), while no such association was noted in men. No associations were found between other fat intakes and CHD mortality in men or women. In conclusion, SFA intake was positively associated with CHD mortality independent of confounders in women, but not in men.

Mycotoxins Levels in Human Milk: A Menace to Infants and Children Health by Karina M. Tonon, Mercedes G. R. Reiter, Vildes M. Scussel (33-42).
Infants, especially newborns, are more susceptible to contaminants than adult humans because of their physiological immaturity. Synthetic or natural toxic substances, such as mycotoxins, can lead to acute intoxication episodes, as the example of aflatoxicosis. However, the long-term effects caused by exposure to low levels of these contaminants are of most concern to practitioners and public health authorities. Children's exposure to mycotoxins (and various other toxic compounds) may start immediately after conception, as many contaminants cross the placenta, and continues throughout life, entering the human body through food, water and air. Mycotoxins that offer higher risk to child health are aflatoxins B1 (AFB1), M1 (AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA), commonly present in foods consumed by children, such as milk and dairy products. Even breast milk can be a vehicle for the transfer of mycotoxins to babies, since the mycotoxins contained in food ingested by the mother may pass into her milk, continuing childhood exposure to these compounds, initiated in utero. This paper reviews levels reported on mycotoxins in human milk, the influence of maternal diet and the possible effects on children's health.

A New Patented System to Filter Cloudy Extra Virgin Olive Oil by Alessandra Bendini, Enrico Valli, Pietro Rocculi, Santina Romani, Lorenzo Cerretani, Tullia Gallina Toschi (43-51).
The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the chemical and sensory quality of three extra virgin olive oils (EV1-3) subjected to a new patented system to clarify cloudy oils through the insertion of an inert flow gas (argon) in olive oil mass. For this purpose, several quality parameters were determined on the three clarified (EVC1-3) and untreated (EVNC1-3) samples. In particular, the system patented by the University of Bologna and Sapio (a private company that supplies gas for industrial and research sectors) was applied to a 50 L batch of each oil after its production by a low-scale mill. The EV samples were bottled and stored at room temperature and kept in darkness before analysis. Basic quality indices including free acidity, peroxide value, specific absorption in the conjugated triene region and sensory analysis, as well as the composition of the major (fatty acids) and minor (tocopherols, polar phenols, volatiles, water) compounds were determined after three months of storage. The oxidative stability under stress conditions was also assessed. The main results concern the higher overall quality of the EV samples clarified by the patented system compared to untreated ones. The quantity of water significantly decreased in all clarified samples. Above all, the non-clarified oils showed a tendency to quickly develop off-flavors over time and to decrease their oxidative stability.

This study was conducted to evaluate in vitro phenolic content and antioxidant activities of Crataegus meyeri (red color berry) and Crataegus pontica (yellow color berry) fruit components. The extracts were screened for total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as for antioxidant activities by determining 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitrite and H2O2 free radical scavenging; chain breaking speed and reducing ability assays. Crataegus meyeri pulp had higher phenolic and flavonoid contents. Mean percent DPPH value was higher for C. pontica pyrenes (95.46±0.09%) followed by that of C. meyeri (95.43±0.074%). The highest nitrite radical scavenging value was recorded in C. pontica flesh (161.40±1.668%) and the lowest one for its seeds (40.42±1.463%). In nearly all studied factors, the interspecies flesh comparison results were inversely proportional to those of their seeds. It can be concluded that C. meyeri and C. pontica may represent a relatively important alternative source for natural antioxidants.

Healthy Properties of Garlic by Aneta Kopec, Ewa Piatkowska, Teresa Leszczynska, Elzbieta Sikora (59-64).
Garlic is a commonly known vegetable, which is used for preparing various dishes around the world. This plant is widely used as a herb in medicine. Garlic contains many bioactive compounds mainly sulfur derivatives allicin, ajoene, diallyl sulfide, diallyl disulfide and diallyl trisulfide but is also a source of vitamins E, C, minerals and polyphenols. Its chemical composition and antioxidant properties are still under research. Numerous scientific studies have shown that garlic may be used in the prevention and treatment of many diseases e.g.: atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, cancer, bacterial, viral and fungal infections, and as a treatment for colds and digestive problems. Unlike antibiotics, garlic does not weaken the immune system but promotes it. It stimulates humoral and cell responses of the immune system. Its healthy properties are mainly due to strong antioxidant activity. The aim of this review is to present recent data on the healthy properties of garlic.

The Authors provide an overview of useful treatments such as ‘Modified Mediterranean Diet’, CoQ10, Melatonin and ‘Quantum Therapy’, testing their effects in Oncological primary prevention. This is done through ‘Quantum Biophysical Semeiotics’ biological evaluation, clinically monitoring the results and efficiency of ongoing therapies aimed at improving mitochondrial and endothelial function, when it is impaired in any biological systems. This clinical method allows physicians to bedside assess tissue acidosis, before and during different preventive therapies, testing their respective efficacious and utility. All the investigated treatments have initially ameliorated and then normalized tissue microcirculatory pattern, showing a physiological functioning. Furthermore the tested ‘Quantum therapy’ generates virtuous genetic feedbacks. ‘Quantum Biophysical Semeiotics’ theory is an extension of medical semeiotics. It is grounded on a multidisciplinary approach that involves chemistry and biology, genetics and neuroscience, chaos theory and quantum physics. It is based on the method of ‘Auscultatory Percussion’, through which by means of the common stethoscope, it is possible to listen to the signs that the body gives us when appropriately stimulated. The stimuli are used to induce consistent behaviour in precise and well defined biological systems of the human body, thus giving local qualitative information on the state of health or disease, whether potential, being developed but not yet evident by usual clinical trial, effective or even in chronic phase. The ‘Quantum Biophysical Semeiotics’ theory provides very detailed case studies based on the latency time, duration, and intensity of the reflexes, which play a central role in such a diagnostic method.

Body Composition in Obese Adolescents: Deuterium Oxide Dilution Method, Bioelectrical Impedance and Predictive Equations by Cristina Maria Mendes Resende, Jose Simon Camelo Junior, Marta Neves Campanelli Marcal Vieira, Gleici da Silva Castro Perdona, Eduardo Ferriolli, Karina Pfrimer, Mariana Giaretta Mathias, Jacqueline Pontes Monteiro (73-81).
Background & Aims: Considering that obese adolescents present alterations in the quantity of body water, fat and lean body mass, specific formulae need to be adjusted through a reference method. This study aimed to describe and compare the body composition data obtained by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and the deuterium oxide dilution method (DODM). To identify possible correlations and agreement between these two techniques and adjust linear regression models for the prediction of DODM values on the basis of BIA results. Methods: Anthropometric measurements were accomplished for obese adolescents, and their body composition was assessed by the BIA and DODM techniques. Results: Compared to the DODM technique, BIA overestimated the fat-free mass (FFM) and the total body water (TBW) and underestimated the fat mass (FM). There was a significant positive correlation but no agreement between the FFM (kg), FM (kg), and TBW (L) data achieved via DODM and BIA. The application of linear regression model adjustments to the values measured by BIA enabled prediction of the DODM values for body composition in obese adolescents. Conclusion: These formulas have been demonstrated to improve the agreement between the two methods, so a more accurate tool that is closer to the DODM reference technique has been made available for use in clinical practice.