Current Nutrition & Food Science (v.12, #4)

Meet Our Regional Editor by Francesco Puoci (235-235).

Objective: In the present investigation, the effect of a long-term caloric restriction (CR) on the age-associated decrease in enzymatic activities of the mitochondrial α subunit of F1 ATP synthase in the mouse skeletal muscle was studied in a strain known to exhibit CR-mediated extension of life spans.
Design and Method: Animals were randomly assigned to either control or CR groups and fed on an ad libitum or 60% of the food consumed by the control group, respectively. The CR group diet was enriched in vitamin content in order to balance the micronutrient intake between the groups. After 18-months on these diets, simple enzymatic assays were used for analyzing the status of enzymatic activity of ATPase in both the control as well as CR animals (n=8 from adult AL control and CR groups, respectively, each animal being treated separately).
Results: It was observed that a CR-diet regime on C57BL/6Nnia strain of mice resulted in significant augmentation of activity (18.8%) of the mitochondrial subunit of F1 ATP synthase with respect to the age-matched controls animals on an ad libitum diet.
Conclusion: Since skeletal muscle is a tissue whose activity is dependent on an abundant supply of ATP, our experiments indicate a possible causal role of CR in the observed healthier lifespan and better muscular coordination of animals on CR diet regime than the ad libitum controls.

Background: Phenolic compounds are widely distributed secondary metabolites which are produced by plants and considered as potent antioxidants.
Objective: Total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant properties were assessed in leaf and male inflorescence catkin tissues of five Salix species grown in Iran.
Methods: The methanolic extracts of leaf and male inflorescence were subjected to determination of total phenolic and flavonoid content. The antioxidant capacity of each sample was measured by 2,2 - diphenyl -1 - picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), superoxide, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity.
Results: In the leaf extracts, the highest values for total phenolic and flavonoid contents were obtained for S. matsudana (4.93 mg GAEs/ g) and S. aegyptiaca (215.78 mg CEs/ g), respectively. In the male inflorescence catkin extracts, the highest value for total phenolic belonged to S. babylonica (52.70 mg GAEs/ g) and S. excelsa showed the maximum flavonoid content (635.52 mg CEs/ g). In the leaf extracts, the radical inhibition for DPPH ranged from 40.08% (S. excelsa) to 91.94% (S. aegyptiaca) and S. excelsa showed the highest superoxide (99.00%) and nitric oxide (71.73%) scavenging activities. The same level of hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity (50%) was observed for S. matsudana, S. acmophylla and S. babylonica. In the male inflorescence catkin extracts, S. excelsa (70.63%), S. acmophylla (60.25%) and S. matsudana (62.37%) showed the highest radical inhibition for DPPH, nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide, respectively. The S. excelsa, S. aegyptiaca and S. babylonica displayed 99% superoxide radical inhibition.
Conclusion: The catkin extracts showed more phenolic content than leaf extracts of species. The potent antioxidant activity of Salix supports its possible use as a natural antioxidant in food industries and other pharmaceutical preparations.

Improvement of Phytonutrients and Antioxidant Properties of Wheat Bran by Yeast Fermentation by Ashish A. Prabhu, Yachna Garg, Sushma Chityala, V. Venkata Dasu (249-255).
Introduction: Utilizing nonedible part of food crop as functional food components has received more attention in recent years. Wheat bran is a reservoir of several health beneficial components. But due to the presence of non-starch polysaccharides in the cell wall, the bioavailability of phytonutrients will be very low. Our main objective is to understand the effect of fermentation by Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on Phytonutrients and antioxidant properties of wheat bran.
Methods: The wheat bran is subjected to fermentation with Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) for 24h time period. Later the variations in the Phytonutrients and antioxidant properties of fermented wheat bran was analysed and compared with that of control.
Results: It was found that the soluble, bound and total polyphenol content was increased by 48%, 21.5% and 34% respectively and flavonoid content was increased by 20%. Anti-nutritional compounds such as tannins were reduced by 35%. Due to enhancement of phytonutrients components such as polyphenols and flavonoids, the in-vitro total antioxidant capacity was also increased by 2 folds, whereas the free radical scavenging was enhanced by 56% compared to control samples.
Conclusion: This findings shows that, with the aid of fermentation process modification in structural and functional properties of bran can be achieved and thus the bioprocessed bran can be used as the ingredient for functional food preparation.

Application of Antioxidant from Bamboo Shoot (Bambusa balcooa) as an Effective Way to Reduce the Formation of Acrylamide in Fried Potato Chips by Sasikala Shanmugam, Anjana Bora, Archana Raju, Sangamithra Asokapandian, Swamy Gabriela John, K. Maharaja Sundari (256-263).
Background: Acrylamide is widely acknowledged as a potential carcinogen and neurotoxin which has raised an international health alarm since 2002, is generated from Maillard reaction products. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has therefore classified it as “potential carcinogenic to humans'. The paper aims to discuss that both bamboo shoot extract and BSP could significantly reduce the acrylamide content generated in fried potato chips and keep original taste and texture of potato chips.
Method: The thin slices of potatoes were immersed in different concentration solution of BSP and bamboo shoot extract, respectively. The acrylamide level in potato chips was determined by high performance liquid chromatography.
Results: Result showed that 50% and 25% of acrylamide were reduced when bamboo shoot extract and BSP addition levels were 1 g/L and 50 g/L, respectively. Sensory evaluation results showed that the overall acceptability of fried potato chips incorporated with BSP and bamboo shoot extract had no significant difference compared to normal unincorporated potato chips.
Conclusion: The present study indicated that both bamboo shoot extract and BSP could significantly reduce the acrylamide content generated in fried potato chips and keep original taste and texture of potato chips. This could be regarded as an essential contribution on the reduction of acrylamide by natural antioxidants.

Background: Consumption of nuts particularly walnuts has been widely recommended for lowering the risk of coronary heart disease; however, very few studies have evaluated the potential unfavourable effects that Walnut seeds might have in vivo.
Objective: To investigate the long-term effects of Juglans regia seed supplementation in specially formulated feed when fed to developed mice model.
Method: C57BL/6J male mice were divided into four groups, labelled, C (control), T (High Fat Simple Carbohydrate- HFSC), Cw (control + walnut) and Tw (HFSC+ walnut) based on diet. Four mice from each group were sacrificed at the end of the first and fifth month respectively. Blood samples were collected every month. Bleeding time, blood platelet number and morphology were studied. Histopathological analysis of heart and aorta were also performed.
Results: Groups Cw and Tw showed a significant increase in platelet count; however, platelet activation was not detected. There was a trend to an increase in bleeding time in group Cw. Expanded lumen diameter of the aorta was observed in Cw and Tw mice initially, however, it was found to constrict by the end of the study. A large amount of peripheral fat deposition in the aortas of Cw and Tw was observed, which increased through the course of the experiment.
Conclusion: Kashmiri walnut seed supplementation was found to reduce the signs in shape change of platelets as well as increase platelet number with a trend to an increased bleeding time. This observation could be of medical interest. Histopathological analysis of heart and aorta showed lipid sequestration which merits further investigations.

Background: The marketability of food products mainly depends upon appearance, flavor, color, texture, nutritional value and microbial safety. These can be maintained by using suitable biodegradable packaging such as edible films and coatings. In the present work the effect of polysaccharide based edible coating was studied on the shelf life of sapota fruits.
Objective: The main objective of this project was to increase the shelf life of sapota fruits at ambient condition using the edible coating made up of easily available polysaccharide components.
Methods: The edible coating containing sodium alginate (2%), pectin (2%) along with glycerol plasticizer (2.5%) was prepared. Coating of the fruits was done using dipping method with two dipping times (2 and 4 minutes). The both coated and control sapota fruits were stored at ambient condition (25±2°C, 75-85% humidity).
Results: The coated fruits with 2 minutes dipping time showed reduced rate of changes in the physicochemical properties and showed shelf life extension upto 12 days. The coated fruits with 4 minutes dipping time were spoilt on 11th day and control fruits were in the edible state upto 6th day of storage at room temperature.
Conclusion: The edible coating containing pectin and sodium alginate polysaccharides was found to be effective in delaying the changes in physicochemical properties and hence ripeness of the sapota fruits at room temperature storage. From the sensory evaluation it was found that, there was no adverse effect of the edible coating on the organoleptic properties of coated sapota fruits.

In-vitro Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Peel and Peeled Fruits Citrus limon by Abdelkader Basli, Tighzert Sonia, Ibelhoulen Nawel, Khettal Bachra, Madani Khodir (279-287).
Background: Citrus is the name given to trees belonging to the family of Rutaceae including several species of plants that produce the edible fruits providing an appreciable content of several interesting bioactive constituents. In traditional medicine, they are often used as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, sedative and antitoxic agents. Our primary aim is to assess antioxidant ability and anti-inflammatory activity of peel and peeled fruit from Citrus limon.
Methods: Ethanolic extracts of peel and peeled fruit of Citrus limon (lemon) were used to investigate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Total phenolic content was assessed using Folin-Ciocalteux method. The antioxidant potential was found by measuring the scavenging activity of DPPH and ABTS radical. Three methods have been adopted to evaluate in-vitro anti-inflammatory effect by bovine albumin denaturation, lipoxygenase inhibition and erythrocytes membrane stabilization. Diclofenac as a reference control drug has been used for the study of anti-inflammatory activity.
Results: Peels of lemon revealed significantly highest total phenolic content than peeled fruit fraction. Two parts of lemon have shown potent scavenging activity in both DPPH and ABTS methods. Peels and peeled fruit exhibited a significant maximum inhibition of protein denaturation with concentration dependent inhibition manner. The hypotonicity induced haemolysis as well as the antilipoxygenase activities of two parts of lemon has proved significant inhibition at the concentration range of 100-500g/mL. Likewise, diclofenac showed the highest inhibition for all anti-inflammatory assays.
Conclusion: Peel and peeled fruit of Citrus limon extracts can be an important source of anti-inflammatory agents.

Supplementation of Rosemary Leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis) Powder Attenuates Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Fibrosis in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Treated Rats by Md Abu Taher Sagor, Hasan Mahmud Reza, Nabila Tabassum, Biswajit Sikder, Anayt Ulla, Nusrat Subhan, Md Hemayet Hossain, Md Ashraful Alam (288-295).
Objective: Rosmarinus officinalis (Family: Lamiaceae) has been used as a food preservative and flavoring agent. This plant also contains antioxidant activity and can be used as a possible therapeutic alternative for various diseases. The purpose of this study was to explore the antifibrotic effect of Rosmarinus officinalis in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver dysfunction in rats.
Methods: Female Long Evans rats (10-12 weeks old) were divided equally into four different groups such as control, control+rosemary, CCl4 and CCl4+rosemary (6 rats in each group). Over the course of the development of liver dysfunction, several oxidative stress parameters, increased liver marker enzymatic functions were determined in CCl4 treated rats. Moreover, histological assessments were also done in liver section for inflammatory cells infiltration and fibrosis using hematoxylene and eaosin staining and Sirius read staining.
Results: CCl4 administration significantly increased the Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activities in plasma which was decreased by Rosmarinus officinalis leaves powder supplementation. Rosmarinus officinalis prevented the rise of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and Advanced Oxidative Protein Product (AOPP) in plasma and liver tissues in CCl4 treated rats. Histological studies also showed massive necrosis, periportal inflammation, iron deposition and fibrosis in liver of CCl4 treated rats which were further ameliorated by Rosmarinus officinalis powder supplementation.
Conclusion: In conclusion, this study revealed the antifibrotic activity of Rosmarinus officinalis powder on experimental hepatic damage and also suggests a potential therapeutic use of Rosmarinus officinalis as an alternative therapy for hepatic disorders.

Background: Nowadays, medicinal plants used in folk medicine are being increasingly studied and used on pharmaceutical, food and nutraceutical fields. The Asteraceae family as an essential source of phytochemical compounds is a large family of flowering plants with worldwide distribution. Further research on their multiple biological effects such as antioxidant activity and other aspects is needed.
Objective: The aim of the current study was to determinate the antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of various extracts from leaf and flowers of five species (Artemisia absintium L., Arctium lappa L., Silybum marianum L., Centaurea cyanus L. and Echinops ritro L.) of the Asteraceae family.
Methods: The samples extracted with absolute ethanol and methanol solvent and then extracts obtained were screened for total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and chain breaking activity (CBA). Thio barbituric acid (TBA), 2, 2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), IC50, nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide (O2 -) radical inhibition, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were, also, measured. In addition, HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) of phenolic compounds was used.
Results: Significant differences were found in phenolic content of leaf and flowers while radical scavenging capacity percentage greatly varied among species and their leaf and flowers. A positive relationship between TPC and FRAP (r2=0.810) was found in all cases. A. absintium L. and A. lappa L. leaf extracts showed the highest antioxidant activity. A. lappa L. flower had the maximum radical scavenging activity. The major phenolic compound identified in the S. marianum L. flower was sinapic acid.
Conclusion: A. absintium L. and A. lappa L. are good source of natural antioxidants and could be used to prevent free radical induced deleterious effects.

Effect of Microbial Transglutaminase on Protein Electrophoretic Pattern and Solubility of Wheat Flour and Hull-Less Barley Flour Blends by Kiana Pourmohammadi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher Hashemi, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah, Mehran Alami, Mohammad Shahedi, Alireza Sadeghi Mahoonak, Roya Afshari (304-309).
Background: Barley flour does not contain gluten, so preparation of high-quality bread is not easy. Thus, the incorporation of microbial transglutaminase (MTG) can be attributed as one of the possible strategies to provide crosslinks between wheat and barley proteins to prepare a similar structure to the desired network of gluten.
Methods: The MTG, at different levels (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) was added to wheat and hull-less barley in order to evaluate the solubility of available proteins and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) patterns of (20, 35, 50%) dough proteins as well as their fractions by using an electrophoretic system. Also, to enhance the extent of cross-linking in protein matrix by incorporation of MTG, soy protein isolate (SPI) was used (1% MTG+3% SPI, 1.5% MTG+3% SPI).
Results: Interactions between wheat and hull-less barley proteins were intensified due to the formation of catalyzed intermolecular covalent bonds by transglutaminase. According to SDS-PAGE results with increment in the levels of MTG, a progressive decrease in the intensity of the bands corresponding to the molecular weight of around 66 KDa was observed. Also by the addition of MTG, the amounts of the soluble proteins (albumin and glubolin) were significantly decreased and the concentrations of insoluble proteins (glutenin and gliadins) were increased.
Conclusion: The addition of hull-less barley flour to wheat flour not only provides protein-enriched dough with better amino acid balance but also has influences on dough properties.