Current Nutrition & Food Science (v.12, #2)

Meet Our Editorial Board Member: by Giuseppe M. Campo (79-79).

Background: Eating behaviours are essential for the healthy development of adolescents, both physically and also to the formation of their identity. Eating habits, in turn, are influenced by a wide variety of factors, including knowledge, attitudes, lifestyle, family, sociodemographic and behavioural factors. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate how the young adolescent students get information about healthy eating.
Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken on a non-probabilistic sample of 345 students in Portuguese schools, aged between 13 and 15 years old. The techniques applied to the data were Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Factor Analysis (FA) and Cluster Analysis (CA), using SPSS software. For validation of the final solution some tests were used: Chi square and Kruskal Wallis, considering a level of significance of 5%.
Results: Factor analysis allowed concluding that the variables used to assess the sources of information about healthy eating can be grouped into two factors: one linked to learning outside of school and the other associated with learning in school. The Cronbach's alphas were 0.661 and 0.676, respectively. Cluster analysis showed that the adolescents can be divided into four groups: cluster 1 - students well informed both by school and external sources; cluster 2 - students misinformed either by school or by external sources; cluster 3 - students misinformed by school but well informed by external sources, cluster 4 - students well informed by school but barely by external sources.
Conclusion: The findings in the present work may allow improving the way information about healthy eating can reach the adolescents, and hence improve their general degree of knowledge and wellbeing.

Protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies continue to be a major health burden in Cameroon. Sauces made with leafy vegetables are good sources of proteins and micronutrients. This study was conducted to determine the proximate composition and the mineral content of some Cameroonian traditional sauces prepared from red sorrel leaves. A survey of the cooking methods and consumption was conducted in 120 households that accepted to take part in the study in the city of Garoua, in the North region of Cameroon. The proximate composition was determined by the standard Association of Official Analytical Chemists methods and minerals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. From the survey, eleven traditional sauces were prepared from fresh or dried leaves of red sorrel in the city of Garoua. Basing on the compositional analyses carried out in this study, recipe 5 is the best source of protein, fat, dietary fiber (6.18, 13.75 and 1.99 g /100 g edible portion, respectively). Appreciable levels of minerals were recorded in all the sauces. But recipe 5 also had the highest calcium, sodium, iron and copper contents (321.99, 425.30, 5.67 and 0.29 mg /100 g edible portion, respectively). Consumption of each recipe (100 g) by children of 1-2 years old would meet 12.26-47.51%, 14.30-45.82%, 4.20-10.48%, 0.82-6.54% and 3.87-13.51% of their daily recommended intakes, respectively for protein, fat, dietary fibre, carbohydrates and energy. On the other hand, consumption of each recipe (100 g) by children of 1-2 years old would meet 8.58-64.40%, 19.16-67.34%, 16.48-42.53%, 2.66-22.68%, 21.22-80.95%, 5.55-37.67%, 39.66-86.18% and 14.94-37.72% of their daily recommended intake, respectively for calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, zinc, copper and manganese. Malnutrition in this population can therefore be reduced through the consumption of these sauces.

The red and white Hibiscus sabdariffa, were grown on a control soil and on soils enriched with organic manure, cow dung, goat dung, chicken droppings and NPK chemical fertilizers. Calyxes were gathered and characterized for their physicochemical and antioxidant potential. Results showed that the soil enrichment significantly (p < 0.05) affects the physicochemical properties of the two types of calyx. The red calyx exhibited the best nutritional value compared to the white one. Red calyx was richer in ash (18-23 mg / g fresh matter), calcium (2.21 to 4.34 mg / g), iron, manganese, fibres and phenolic compounds (5.1 to 7.4 mg / g) than the white calyx. However the later exhibited highest values of organic acids, copper and lipid content. Calyx harvested on soil enriched with organic manure had the best physicochemical characteristics compared to those obtained from soil enriched with NPK fertilizers. It is thus advisable to enrich soils with organic manure or chicken drops.

Goat Milk Frozen Yogurt Caja (Spondias mombin L.) Flavor: Development and Sensory Acceptance of an Exotic Food by Keily Alves de Moura Oliveira, Luciana Silva Ribeiro, Glauco Vieira de Oliveira, M&#225;rcia Cristina Teixeira Ribeiro Vidigal (105-112).
The main objective of this study was to make goat milk frozen yogurt with caja (Spondias mombim L.) flavor, a typical fruit of the Brazilian Cerrado, and to evaluate its sensory acceptance. Four formulations were prepared with different concentrations of caja pulp (0% - control; 20%; 30%; and 40%). An acceptance test was performed to evaluate the attributes color, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall impression using a 9-point hedonic scale with 150 consumers, who also indicated their intention to purchase the product. Physicochemical (pH, total soluble solids, ash, proteins, lipids, moisture, total solids, total sugar, glucose and lactose reducing sugars, and titratable acidity expressed as lactic acid) and microbiological (thermotolerant coliforms bacteria counts, and standard plate count for Salmonella, Staphylococcus aureus, psychrotrophs, and lactic acid bacteria) analyses were also performed. All frozen yogurt samples exhibited pH and acidity values in accordance to the requirements of the legislation. Coliform at 30 °C, thermotolerant coliforms, filamentous fungi, and yeast counts were lower than the limits established by law. The sensory acceptance test indicated a significant difference (p <0.05) among the samples, and the formulations containing 20% and 30% caja pulp were the most accepted. The purchase intention test showed that at least 68% consumers would probably or certainly consume goat milk frozen yogurt caja flavor. Therefore, the use caja pulp up to 30% in goat milk frozen yogurt is an attractive alternative for the food industry, since the product has good acceptance and improved sensory characteristics when compared to the control formulation.

Preparation and Evaluation of a Food Additive Based on Polymeric Nanoparticles for Controlled Delivery of Antioxidant Extracts by Enrique Morales-Avila, Rosa Maydelid Trujillo-Nolasco, Leticia Xochitl L&#243;pez-Mart&#237;nez, Octavio Dublan-Garc&#237;a, Leobardo Manuel G&#243;mez Olivan (113-120).
Background: Advances in nanotechnology have enabled new strategies for transport, controlled deliver, preservation and increases in stability of degradable biomolecules. Nanoparticles have been developed for alimentary porpoises, using a great diversity of raw materials. Poly(lactide-coglicolide) acid (PLGA) a biodegradable polyester, has been used extensively as a controlled delivery platform for a great variety of biomolecules and drugs.
Methods: Extracts from Zea mays and Phaseolus vulgaris were obtained and characterized, PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by emulsion-solvent evaporation method and loaded with antioxidant extracts. Finally, antioxidant- loaded nanoparticles were incorporated into a film-forming solution and antioxidant release were tested in a meal preparation.
Results: Antioxidant-loaded nanoparticles (300 - 500 nm), were prepared with adequate stability. Encapsulation efficiency showed a mean value of 67.4 % for bean and 41 % for corn extracts. IR-FT provided information about nanoparticle formation and encapsulation. Kinetic release of antioxidants demonstrate a prolonged delivery of phenolic compounds from nanoparticles (< 60 h). In situ test showed the functionality of PLGA-NP as food additive for controlled release of antioxidants.
Conclusion: Antioxidant encapsulation and loading efficiency in PLGA matrix, produce a stable nanostructure with adequate characteristics for sustained and controlled release, with a great variety of possible applications as an alimentary additive.

Relation of Neck Circumference with Total Body Fat and BMI by Dimitrios Papandreou, Mark Causapin, Zujaja Tul-Noor, Pavlos Malindretos (121-124).
Purpose: The prevalence of obesity in United Arab Emirates (UAE) has reached alarming rates during the last decade. Neck Circumference (NC) is a simple measure that can identify obesity levels. However, no studies in UAE so far have studied the connection of NC with other anthropometric measurements. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between NC and obesity.
Methods: Two hundred and forty-three female students participated in the study. Anthropometric data was also collected from all subjects. The study was approved by the ethical committee of the university and a consent form was signed by all participating subjects.
Results: Based on under the area curve (AUC), obesity was defined with NC >31.25cm. Pearson correlation analysis showed a significantly moderate relationship between obesity and BMI (r=0.454, P<0.001), obesity and Body Fat (BF) (r=0.429, P<0.001) and obesity and waist circumference (WC) (r=0.365, P<0.001). In multiple regression analysis, BMI (Beta: 2.348, 95% CI:1.01, 3.512, P<0.011) and TBF% (1.291, 95% CI:1.04,1.381, P<0.030) were found independently associated with NC for obesity.
Conclusion: NC is a potential tool for measuring obesity. A value of NC >31 cm may be used as a cut off level for determining obesity in female college students. TBF and BMI were also independently associated with NC.

Robust HPLC-Refractive Index Analysis of Simple Sugars in Bev erages Using Silica Hydride Columns by Joshua E. Young, Joseph J. Pesek, Maria T. Matyska (125-131).
Background: Chromatographic analysis of sugars is impaired by several factors: polarity of the analytes, lack of chromophores in the structures, and chemical reactivity/degradation of HPLC columns typically used. As a result, existing routine sugars assays tend to be difficult and lack robustness.
Objective: The unique characteristics of silica hydride-based columns are investigated for separation of two common sugars, fructose and glucose.
Methods: Two stationary phase types are studied, and their chromatographic properties are compared in terms of analyte retention, selectivity, and peak shape. As a proof of concept, the developed chromatographic approach is used to obtain estimates of the concentration of fructose and glucose in three selected beverage samples. Robustness in analyte retention is also addressed in both intra- and inter-day timescales.
Results: The silica hydride based phases can overcome the commonly reported issue of peak shape distortion from mutorotation using carefully chosen mobile phase conditions. Concentrations in the samples were obtained using calibration curve data (0.5-10.0 mg/mL range) and, accounting for sample dilutions, were 42.3 and 25.0 mg/mL for fructose and glucose respectively in cola, 1.22 and 1.46 mg/mL in red wine, and 13.7 and 13.1 mg/mL in grape juice. For robustness, percent relative standard deviation of analyte retention was not more than 0.010% for intra-day (ten injections) and not more than 1.0% for inter-day (five days).
Conclusion: Silica hydride columns can be used in routine sugar analysis in a robust manner, which may be of great benefit to QC laboratories that need reliable assay methods.

Attitudes Towards Dietary Fibre on a Multicultural Basis: A Fibre Study Framework by Raquel P. F. Guin&#233;, Jo&#227;o Duarte, Manuela Ferreira, Paula Correia, Marcela Leal, Ivana Rumbak, Irena C. Baric, Drazenka Komes, Zvonimir Satalic, Marijana M. Saric, Monica Tarcea, Zita Fazakas, Dijana Jovanoska, Dragoljub Vanevski, Elena Vittadini, Nicoletta Pellegrini, Vikt&#243;ria Szucs, J&#250;lia Harangoz&#243;, Ayman EL-Kenawy, Omnia EL-Shenawy, Erkan Yalcin, Cem K&#246;semeci, Dace Klava, Evita Straumite (132-141).
Background: Dietary fibre (DF) has been recognised as having many positive health effects. Hence, the objective of this research was to evaluate the consuming habits relating to DF on people from different countries, as well as their knowledge about the fibre rich foods and their attitudes towards food labelling.
Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was undertaken on a non-probabilistic sample of 6010 participants from 10 countries. Descriptive statistics and inferential tests were done using SPSS software considering a level of significance of 5%.
Results: The results suggested that the ingestion of fibre rich foods like fruit, vegetables and cereals, was low and far from the recommended amounts. It was also concluded that most people did not pay the desired level of attention to food labelling and nutritional information. Furthermore, the level of knowledge about dietary fibre was generally not satisfactory.
Conclusion: In view of these findings it becomes important to develop actions to better inform the population and to make them better aware of the importance of dietary fibre in their habitual diet.

Background: In the current study, porridges were analyzed for antioxidant properties (total phenolic content-TPC, DPPH radical scavenging activity-DPPH-RSA and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity-TEAC) extracted with acetone, methanol and hexane under conventional and microwave assisted extraction.
Methods: Two extraction methods (traditional and microwave assisted) with different solvents (acetone, hexane and methanol) were followed for potential extraction of antioxidants.
Results: The effect of system solvents and different types of brans employed for the precise quantification of antioxidant properties showed that for various types of bran enriched porridge; methanol gave the highest yield of total phenolic content followed by acetone and hexane under both extraction methods. The level of supplementation of brans increased the total phenolic content of porridge significantly (P≤0.05). Methanolic extracts of all cereal bran enriched porridge showed the highest values for percent inhibition of DPPH-RSA. With the ABTS method (TEAC), wheat bran enriched methanolic extracts showed the highest values (up to 8.88 TEµmole/g).
Conclusion: Bran enriched porridge showed high phenolic content having high antioxidant activity, which could be serve a potential ingredient for consumer health. Moreover, methanol was found to be effective in solvent extraction of phenolic compounds.

Cyanogenic Toxicity and Human Health by Poonam Singhal, Santosh Satya, Satya N . Naik (150-154).
Cyanogenic glycosides are naturally occurring compounds and are classified as secondary plant metabolites have been produced by many plant species. Hydrogen cyanide remains a product of enzymatic hydrolysis and thus a matter of concern when consumed fresh or raw. Bamboo shoot is one such species which liberates cyanide upon hydrolysis of Taxiphyllin. Literature on the toxicity aspect of bamboo shoots is scattered and very few studies report its significance, determination of toxic levels and ways to eliminate the toxic content to make it safe for consumption. With this background, this paper tries to reflect light on the safety aspect of bamboo shoots which cannot be neglected when we say bamboo shoots are nutritious vegetables. Therefore compiled and comprehensive information has been provided on the cyanogenic content in different species of bamboo shoots, fate of metabolism of Taxiphyllin and its degradation, health implications of cyanide poisoning and ways to eliminate it from shoots.