Journal of Chromatography B (v.975, #C)

Alkaline cation-exchange chromatography for the reduction of aggregate and a mis-formed disulfide variant in a bispecific antibody purification process by Troii Hall; Joseph J. Wilson; Tammy J. Brownlee; James R. Swartling; Sarah E. Langan; Peter K. Lambooy (1-8).
During the purification development of a bispecific antibody, cation-exchange chromatography was screened for its ability to separate a prominently expressed (>12%) mis-formed disulfide bond variant, termed MAb-diabody, and aggregate from the product of interest. The influence of pH, product load (g of product per liter of resin) and linear velocity on the separations were evaluated for the strong cation-exchange resins SP Sepharose HP and POROS® HS50. Cation-exchange chromatography is commonly operated distant to the isoelectric point of a molecule, generally leading to acidic conditions for antibody purification. However, the results herein demonstrated improved removal of MAb-diabody with increasing pH, resulting in reduction of MAb-diabody content greater than 12-fold when operating near the alkaline pI of the product. This approach was successful over a range of linear velocities and g/L of resin loading. Aggregate removal was less affected by pH and was effectively reduced from 10.9% to less than 3% for each condition. Furthermore, this method was successfully scaled to a 60 cm diameter column using SP Sepharose HP resin.
Keywords: Cation-exchange chromatography; Bispecific; Antibody; Diabody;

A simple sample pretreatment for simultaneous determination of nine fungicides (triadimefon, picoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl, diniconazole, epoxiconazole, trifloxystrobin, triticonazole, difenoconazole, and azoxystrobin) in chrysanthemum was developed using matrix extraction-vortex-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (ME-VADLLME) prior to gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The target fungicides were firstly extracted with acetonitrile and cleaned with the mixture of primary secondary amine and graphite carbon black. The VADLLME procedure was performed by using toluene with lower density than water as the extraction solvent and the acetonitrile extract as the dispersive solvent, respectively. After vortexing and centrifugation, the fine droplet of toluene was collected on the upper of the mixed toluene/acetonitrile/water system using a 0.1-mL pipettor. Under the optimum conditions, the relative recoveries ranged from 73.9 to 95.1% with relative standard deviations of 3.5–9.7% for all of the analytes. The limits of detection were in the range of (0.005–0.05) ×10−3  mg kg−1. In the proposed method, the ME step provides more effective cleanup for the chrysanthemum matrix, and VADLLME introduces higher sensitivity with the remarkable enrichment factors up to 88-fold compared with the conventional QuEChERS or SPE. The good performance has demonstrated that ME-VADLLME has a strong potential for application in the multi-residue analysis of complex matrices.
Keywords: Chrysanthemum; Matrix extraction; Vortex-assisted dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction; Fungicide residues; Comparison;

Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic method to quantify sucrose, glucose, and fructose in tubers of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja by Diana Duarte-Delgado; Carlos-Eduardo Narváez-Cuenca; Luz-Patricia Restrepo-Sánchez; Ajjamada Kushalappa; Teresa Mosquera-Vásquez (18-23).
A High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated to quantify sucrose (non-reducing sugar), glucose, and fructose (reducing sugars) in raw tubers of Solanum tuberosum Group Phureja. Chromatographic analysis was performed using an AMINEX HPX 87H column, at 18 °C, linked to a refraction index detector, at 35 °C. The eluent was 10 mM sulfuric acid. The conditions established for the method provided an optimum separation of sugars, citric acid, and malic acid, with resolution values higher or equal to one. Among the four sugar extraction methods tested, the double 50% (v/v) aqueous methanol extraction gave the highest level of analytes. Recovery of this extraction method ranged between 94.14 and 99.77%. The HPLC method was validated for repeatability, reproducibility, linearity, and limits of detection, and quantification. Relative standard deviation was found to be lower than five, when testing repeatability and reproducibility, which is suitable considering a range of acceptability from 5.3 to 7.3. Additionally, the regression analyses supported the method linearity in a range of quantification from 3 to 100 mg/L with regression coefficients values greater than 0.998 for the three analytes. Limits of detection were 3.0 mg/L for the three sugars and limits of quantification were 2.0 mg/L for sucrose and 3.0 mg/L for glucose and fructose. Four Colombian commercial cultivars (Criolla Guaneña, Criolla Paisa, Criolla Galeras, and Criolla Colombia) and five landrace accessions from the Colombian Core Collection of Group Phureja were grown in the district of Usme (Bogotá) fields to analyze their sugar contents. Sucrose, glucose, and fructose contents were found ranging from 0.93 to 3.11 g/100 g tuber dried weight (DW), from 0.25 to 4.53 g/100 g tuber DW, and from 0.10 to 1.49 g/100 g tuber DW, respectively. Therefore, a high range in the variability of sugar contents was found among genotypes. However, the variability was low among technical replicates of the same genotype, revealing an accurate quantification of sugars in Group Phureja. This method can be used to assess the amount of reducing and non-reducing sugars accumulation in potato germplasm.
Keywords: HPLC; Reducing sugars; Non-reducing sugars; Group Phureja;

Determination of low levels of benzodiazepines and their metabolites in urine by hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) by André Valle de Bairros; Rafael Menck de Almeida; Lorena Pantaleão; Thiago Barcellos; Sidnei Moura e Silva; Mauricio Yonamine (24-33).
In this study, it is shown a method for the determination of benzodiazepines and their main metabolites in urine samples by hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) in the three-phase mode. Initially, the hydrolysis step was performed using 100 μL of sodium acetate 2.0 mol/L buffer solution (pH 4.5), 25 μL of β-glucuronidase enzyme and incubation for 90 min at 55 °C. In parallel with hydrolysis, the LPME fiber (9 cm) was prepared. Its pores were filled with a mixture of dihexyl ether: 1-nonanol (9:1). Afterwards, a solution of 3.0 mol/L of HCl was introduced into the lumen of the fiber (acceptor phase). After hydrolysis, the fiber was submersed in the alkalinized urine (pH 10) containing 10% NaCl. Samples were then submitted to orbital shaking (2400 rpm) for 90 min. The acceptor phase was later withdrawn from the fiber, dried and the residue derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) for 10 min at 60 °C with further addition of N-methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide containing 1% tert-butyldimethylchlorosilane (MTBSTFA) for 45 min at 90 °C followed by determination by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The calibration curves obtained showed linearity over the specified range, with a similar sensitivity to traditional techniques and a higher detection capability compared to most of the miniaturized methods described in the literature. The method has been developed and successfully validated and applied to urine samples from real cases of benzodiazepines intake.
Keywords: Benzodiazepines; Gas chromatography; Mass spectrometry; Urine; Liquid phase microextraction; Double derivatization;

In the present study, for the first time, a new extraction method based on “ultrasound assisted microextraction-nanomaterial solid phase dispersion (UAME-NMSPD)” was developed to preconcentrate the low quantity of thymol and carvacrol in pharmaceutical samples prior to their HPLC-UV separation/determination. The analytes were accumulated on nickel sulfide nanomaterial loaded on activated carbon (NiS-NP-AC) that with more detail identified by XRD, FESEM and UV–vis technique. Central composite design (CCD) combined with desirability function (DF) was used to search for optimum operational conditions. Working under optimum conditions specified as: 10 min ultrasonic time, pH 3, 0.011 g of adsorbent and 600 μL extraction solvent) permit achievement of high and reasonable linear range over 0.005–2.0 μg mL−1 (r 2  > 0.9993) with LOD of thymol and carvacrol as 0.23 and 0.21 μg L−1, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 4.93% (n  = 3).
Keywords: Central composite design; Response surface methodology; Ultrasound assisted microextraction; Nano material; Solid phase dispersion;

A simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatographic method with spectrophotometric detection was developed for the determination of lamivudine in human plasma. Sample preparation was accomplished through protein precipitation with acetonitrile followed by aqueous phase separation using dichloromethane. Lamivudine and the internal standard acyclovir were well separated from endogenous plasma peaks on a Chromolith RP-18e column under isocratic elution with 50 mM sodium dihydrogen phosphate–triethylamine (996:4, v/v), pH 3.2 at 20 °C. Total run time at a flow-rate of 1.5 ml/min was less than 5 min. Detection was made at 278 nm. The method was specific and sensitive, with a lower quantification limit of 40 ng/ml and a detection limit of 10 ng/ml. The absolute recovery was 97.7%, while the within- and between-day coefficient of variation and percent error values of the assay method were all less than 7%. The linearity was assessed in the range of 40–2560 in plasma, with a correlation coefficient of greater than 0.999. The method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study in healthy volunteers.
Keywords: Lamivudine; Acyclovir; HPLC; Plasma; Bioequivalence studies;

Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and Quil A are two immunological adjuvants commonly used in vaccines. At present no simple, validated methods for the quantification of Quil A and MPL have been previously reported therefore the aim of the current study was to develop a simple, fast and validated method to quantify MPL and Quil A using high performance liquid chromatography evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD). The HPLC-ELSD technique was carried out using a ZORBAX Eclipse XDB-C8 column (2.1 × 50 mm; particle size, 3.5 μm) in an isocratic elution mode at 25 °C. MPL was eluted at a retention time of 1.8 min with methanol-water as the mobile phase and a detector temperature of 75 °C. Quil A was resolved as three peaks with retention times of 4.1, 5.5 and 6.4 min with a detector temperature of 30 °C and with water-acetonitrile and 0.01% formic acid as the mobile phase. The nebulizer pressure and gain were set at 3.5 bar and 10, respectively. Calibration curves plotted for both the adjuvants had an R 2  > 0.997. Accuracy, intra- and inter-day precision were within the accepted limits. The limit of detection for MPL and Quil A were calculated as 1.343 and 2.06 μg/mL, respectively. The limit of quantification was 2.445 for MPL and 8.97 μg/mL for Quil A. This analytical method was used to quantify the entrapment and in vitro release of MPL and Quil A in a poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticle vaccine.
Keywords: Adjuvants; ELSD; Validation; Nanoparticles; Encapsulation efficiency; In vitro release;

Separation and purification of amygdalin from thinned bayberry kernels by macroporous adsorption resins by Tao Wang; Shengmin Lu; Qile Xia; Zhongxiang Fang; Stuart Johnson (52-58).
To utilize the low-value thinned bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc) kernels (TBKs) waste, an efficient method using macroporous adsorption resins (MARs) for separation and purification of amygdalin from TBKs crude extracts was developed. An aqueous crude sample was prepared from a methanol TBK extract, followed by resin separation. A series of MARs were initially screened for adsorption/desorption of amygdalin in the extract, and D101 was selected for characterization and method development. The static adsorption data of amygdalin on D101 was best fitted to the pseudo-second-order kinetics model. The solute affinity toward D101 at 30 °C was described and the equilibrium experimental data were well-fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Through one cycle of dynamic adsorption/desorption, the purity of amygdalin in the extract, determined by HPLC, increased about 17-fold from 4.8% to 82.0%, with 77.9% recovery. The results suggested that D101 resin effectively separate amygdalin from TBKs.
Keywords: Bayberry; Amygdalin; Thinned bayberry kernels (TBKs); Macroporous adsorption resins (MARs); Purification;

Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) is considered as a parameter for renal insufficiency superior to the established creatinine. Its applicability for this purpose may be hampered by the fact that SDMA is not exclusively eliminated via the renal route but is also metabolized. In this work, we present a method for the quantification of the metabolite symmetric N α-acetyldimethylarginine (Ac-SDMA) by LC–MS/MS in human plasma and urine. D6-Ac-SDMA was used as internal standard. After simple protein precipitation and in-line clean up, the analytes were separated on a porous graphitic carbon column. Calibration functions were linear in the ranges of 0.2–80 nM for plasma and 10–4000 nM for urine. The quantification was matrix independent and the precisions and accuracies were better than 8% at all concentration levels. Concentration found in human plasma and urine was 3.51 nM and 558 nM, respectively, with marked inter-individual differences.
Keywords: Symmetric N α-acetyldimethylarginine; Symmetric dimethylarginine; Plasma; Urine; LC–MS/MS;

Plant poisonings have left their mark on history and still cause many deaths, whether intentional or accidental. The means to show toxicological evidence of such poisonings should be implemented with great care. This article presents a technique for measuring thirty-nine toxic principles of plant origin in the blood, covering a large amount of toxins from local or exotic plants: α-lobeline, α-solanine, aconitine, ajmaline, atropine, brucine, cephalomannine, colchicine, convallatoxin, cymarine, cytisine, digitoxin, digoxin, emetine, gelsemine, ibogaine, jervine, kavain, lanatoside C, lupanine, mitragynine, neriifolin, oleandrin, ouabain, paclitaxel, physostigmine, pilocarpine, podophyllotoxin, proscillaridin A, reserpine, retrorsine, ricinine, scopolamine, senecionine, sparteine, strophanthidin, strychnine, veratridine and yohimbine. Analysis was carried out using an original ultra-high performance liquid chromatography separation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection. Extraction was a standard solid phase extraction performed on Oasis® HLB cartridge. Thirty-four of the thirty-nine compounds were put through a validation procedure. The assay was linear in the calibration curve range from 0.5 or 5 μg/L to 1000 μg/L according to the compounds. The method is sensitive (LOD from 0.1 to 1.6 μg/L). The within-day precision of the assay was less than 22.5% at the LLOQ, and the between-day precision was less than 21.5% for 10 μg/L for all the compounds included. The assay accuracy was in the range of 87.4 to 119.8% for the LLOQ. The extraction recovery and matrix effect ranged from 30 to 106% and from −30 to 14%, respectively. It has proven useful and effective in several difficult forensic cases.
Keywords: Toxic plants; Multiresidue screening; Forensic toxicology; Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS);

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune diseases characterized by the presence of antiphospholipid and anti-dsDNA autoantibodies in the sera of patients. These autoantibodies and their subclasses have received increasing attention by medical community due to their association with recurrent venous thrombosis, fetal loss and thrombocytopenia. In particular, attention has been paid to IgG subclasses in SLE. The biological and functional properties together with the subclass distribution might therefore influence the course of SLE. The separation and elimination of these autoantibodies from sera of patients can be effective in clinical therapy. In the present study, histidine based pseudobioaffinity adsorbents have been used for the selective adsorption and separation of anti-double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA), anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-β2-glycoprotein-I (anti-β2-GPI) antibodies from sera of patients with SLE. For this purpose histidine acting as a pseudobiospecific ligand has been coupled to bisoxirane activated sepharose CL-6B for the adsorption and separation of these autoantibodies. The removal of autoantibodies was carried out under gentle adsorption and elution chromatographic conditions at pH values 7.0 and 8.0. Autoantibodies isotypes and subclasses distribution in the separated fractions were studied by enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay. The obtained results showed that the separated anticardiolipin and anti-β2-glycoprotein-I autoantibodies belong to IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3subclasses, while those of anti-dsDNA belong to IgM isotype and were shown to have a DNA hydrolyzing activity that hydrolyzes plasmid DNA. The results also indicate a total IgM and IgG recovery superior to 90% of the fraction loaded at pH 7.4 and pH 8.0 respectively.
Keywords: Pseudobioaffinity chromatography; Histidine; SLE; Autoantibodies; DNA hydrolysis; Autoantibodies subclasses;

Simultaneous determination of lopinavir and three ester prodrugs by LC–MS/MS in lysates of BeWo cells by Meng Wang; Matthew S. Halquist; Yan Zhang; Phillip M. Gerk (84-90).
A liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method with positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode has been validated for the simultaneous determination of lopinavir (LPV) and three prodrugs, succinic acid ester of lopinavir (SLPV), glutaric acid ester of lopinavir (GLPV), and diglycolic acid ester of lopinavir (DLPV) in BeWo cell lysate. A methanolic precipitation was employed after addition of an internal standard ritonavir (RTV), followed by centrifugation, separation of the supernatant liquid, evaporation, and reconstitution. A reversed-phase Phenomenex C18 column was used for separation of lopinavir and three prodrugs with a mobile phase which comprises methanol (solvent A), acetonitrile (solvent B), and 50 mM ammonium acetate buffer adjusted to pH 5.5 with acetic acid (solvent C), with isocratic elution (A:B:C = 34:34:32, v/v). The detection of target compounds was conducted using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with the following transitions of m/z 729 → 447, 745 → 563, 743 → 429, 629 → 447 and 721 → 296 to measure SLPV, DLPV, GLPV, LPV and RTV (I.S.), respectively. The calibration ranges were determined using quadratic regression over concentration ranges of 7–743 ng/mL (DLPV), 7.5–745 ng/mL (GLPV), 7–729 ng/mL (SLPV) and 6–189 ng/mL (LPV). The reverse calculated residuals for LPV and these prodrugs were all less than 15% different from nominal (range). The method we established was fully validated for accuracy (≤15% different from nominal) and precision (≤15% RSD). The results proved that the method is accurate and specific, and also this method has been successfully applied to test the uptake of lopinavir and prodrugs into BeWo cells.
Keywords: Lopinavir novel ester prodrugs of lopinavir LC–MS/MS; BeWo trophoblast cell cultures; Placenta HIV protease inhibitors;