Journal of Chromatography B (v.878, #23)

A novel method based on the molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) procedure has been developed for the simultaneous determination of concentrations of sulfonylurea herbicides such as chlorsulfuron (CS), monosulfuron (MNS), and thifensulfuron methyl (TFM) in maize samples by liquid chromatography–tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS). The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for sulfonylurea herbicides was synthesized by precipitation polymerization using chlorsulfuron as the template molecule, 2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DEAMA) as the functional monomer, and trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM) as the cross-linker. The selectivities of the chlorsulfuron template and its analogs on the molecularly imprinted polymer were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The extraction and purification procedures for the solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridge with a molecularly imprinted polymer as the adsorbent for the selected sulfonylurea herbicides were then established. A molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of chlorsulfuron, monosulfuron, and thifensulfuron methyl was also established. The mean recoveries of these compounds in maize were in the range 75–110% and the limits of detection (LOD) of chlorsulfuron, monosulfuron, and thifensulfuron methyl were 0.02, 0.75, and 1.45 μg kg−1, respectively. It was demonstrated that the MISPE–HPLC–MS/MS method could be applied to the determination of chlorsulfuron, monosulfuron, and thifensulfuron methyl in maize samples.
Keywords: Sulfonylurea herbicides; Molecularly imprinted polymers; Maize; Solid-phase extraction; High-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry;

Simultaneous determination of nucleosides and nucleotides in dietary foods and beverages using ion-pairing liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry by Noriko Yamaoka; Yuko Kudo; Katsunori Inazawa; Satoko Inagawa; Makoto Yasuda; Ken-ichi Mawatari; Kazuya Nakagomi; Kiyoko Kaneko (2054-2060).
A method using ion-pairing liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometry (MS) was developed for the simultaneous determination of 23 types of purine or pyrimidine nucleosides and nucleotides in dietary foods and beverages. Dihexylammonium acetate (DHAA) was used as an ion-pairing agent and an ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC™) system with a reversed-phase column and a gradient program was employed for the separation of nucleosides and nucleotides. Positive-ion ESI-MS was applied for the detection of nucleosides, and negative-ion ESI-MS was used for nucleotides. Lower limits of quantitation ranged from 0.02 μmol/L (UMP and AMP) to 1.3 μmol/L (CDP). The present method was validated, and sufficient reproducibility and accuracy was obtained for the quantitative measurement of the 23 types of nucleosides and nucleotides. The method was subsequently applied to their determination in a range of Japanese foods and beverages that are considered to contain significant amounts of umami flavor compounds. Because dietary purine nucleosides and nucleotides are known to be related to hyperuricemia and gout, the determination of their concentrations in dietary foods is useful for both evaluating umami flavor and assessing the effects of dietary food on purine metabolism.
Keywords: Simultaneous determination; Nucleosides; Nucleotides; LC–MS; Food; Beverage;

A validated stability-indicating HPLC method for the determination of PEGylated puerarin in aqueous solutions by Xinyi Liu; Boyang Yu; Naijie Wang; Bei Zhang; Feng Du; Cheng He; Zuguang Ye (2061-2066).
The aim of this study was to develop a validated specific stability-indicating HPLC method for the quantitative determination of PEGylated puerarin (PEG-PUE) in aqueous solutions. The method was validated by subjecting PEG-PUE to forced degradation under stress conditions of acid, alkali, water hydrolysis, and oxidation. Both PEG-PUE and puerarin (PUE) were simultaneously determined and separated on CAPCELL PAK C18 column by gradient elution with 0.2% aqueous phosphoric acid and acetonitrile as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.0 mL min−1 and detection wavelength was set at 250 nm. Both calibration curves showed good linear regression (r  ≥ 0.9998) within test ranges. The LOD and LOQ of PEG-PUE were determined to be 3 and 9 μg mL−1 respectively. Degradation of PEG-PUE followed pseudo-first-order kinetics with t 1/2 of 59 min at pH 9.0 and 17.79 h at pH 7.4. However, at pH 5.0 and 2.0, there was no significant degradation of PEG-PUE over time. In conclusion, the method was observed to have the necessary specificity, precision, and accuracy, and to be suitable for quantity monitoring the degradation process of PEG-PUE during stability studies. The degradation studies may give insight into useful information for formulation development of PEG-PUE.
Keywords: PEGylated puerarin; Stress degradation studies; Stability-indicating reversed phase HPLC; Hydrolysis; Degradation kinetics;

We have developed and validated a sensitive liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric (LC–ESI-MS) method for the quantification of verticinone, a major active constituent from Fritillaria hupehensis Hsiao et KC Hsia., in rat plasma. Verticinone and the internal standard (IS), hupehenine, were extracted from plasma samples by a simple liquid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate after being alkalified by 1 M ammonia hydroxide. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column using a gradient elution program with methanol and water as the mobile phase. The detection was performed by selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode via positive electrospray ionization (ESI) interface. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.1 ng/mL. The calibration curves were linear (r 2  > 0.998) over the concentration range of 0.1–200 ng/mL. Within- and between-run precision was less than 6.5% and accuracy was within ±10.7%. The validated method was applied to the pharmacokinetic study of verticinone in rats after a single oral administration of 1 mg/kg.
Keywords: Verticinone; LC–ESI-MS; Pharmacokinetic studies; Rat;

Development and validation of a LC–MS/MS method for the determination of clebopride and its application to a pharmacokinetics study in healthy Chinese volunteers by Zhirong Tan; Dongsheng Ouyang; Yao Chen; Gan Zhou; Shan Cao; Yicheng Wang; Xiujuan Peng; Honghao Zhou (2072-2076).
A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS/MS) method has been developed and validated for the identification and quantification of clebopride in human plasma using itopride as an internal standard. The method involves a simple liquid–liquid extraction. The analytes were separated by isocratic gradient elution on a CAPCELL MG-III C18 (5 μm, 150 mm × 2.1 mm i.d.) column and analyzed in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with positive electrospray ionization (ESI) interface using the respective [M+H]+ ions, m/z 373.9 →  m/z184.0 for clebopride, m/z 359.9 →  m/z71.5 for itopride. The method was validated over the concentration range of 69.530–4450.0 pg/ml for clebopride. Within- and between-batch precision (RSD%) was all within 6.83% and accuracy ranged from −8.16 to 1.88%. The LLOQ was 69.530 pg/ml. The extraction recovery was on an average 77% for clebopride. The validated method was used to study the pharmacokinetics profile of clebopride in human plasma after oral administration of clebopride.
Keywords: LC–MS/MS; Clebopride; Pharmacokinetics;

By adopting the novel surface molecular imprinting technique put forward by us not long ago, a creatinine molecule-imprinted material with high performance was prepared. The functional macromolecule polymethacrylic acid (PMAA) was first grafted on the surfaces of micron-sized silica gel particles in the manner of “grafting from” using 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPS) as intermedia, resulting in the grafted particles PMAA/SiO2. Subsequently, the molecular imprinting was carried out towards the grafted macromolecule PMAA using creatinine as template and with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGGE) as crosslinker by right of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interaction between the grafted PMAA and creatinine molecules. Finally, the creatinine-imprinted material MIP-PMAA/SiO2 was obtained. The binding character of MIP-PMAA/SiO2 for creatinine was investigated in depth with both batch and column methods and using N-hydroxysuccinimide and creatine as two contrast substances, whose chemical structures are similar to creatinine to a certain degree. The experimental results show that the surface-imprinted material MIP-PMAA/SiO2 has excellent binding affinity and high recognition selectivity for creatinine. Before imprinting, PMAA/SiO2 particles nearly has not recognition selectivity for creatinine, and the selectivity coefficients of PMAA/SiO2 for creatinine relative to N-hydroxysuccinimide and creatine are only 1.23 and 1.30, respectively. However, after imprinting, the selectivity coefficients of MIP-PMAA/SiO2 for creatinine in respect to N-hydroxysuccinimide and creatine are remarkably enhanced to 11.64 and 12.87, respectively, displaying the excellent recognition selectivity and binding affinity towards creatinine molecules.
Keywords: Creatinine; Polymethacrylic acid; Silica gel; Graft polymerization; Surface imprinting technique;

A new process of IgG purification by negative chromatography: Adsorption aspects of human serum proteins onto ω-aminodecyl-agarose by Igor Tadeu Lazzarotto Bresolin; Maria Cristiane Martins de Souza; Sonia Maria Alves Bueno (2087-2093).
The adsorbent ω-aminodecyl-agarose was evaluated as to its feasibility for the adsorption of human serum and plasma proteins, aiming at the purification of immunoglobulin G (IgG). The contribution of electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions (mixed-mode) and the effects of buffer system on the adsorption of serum proteins were also studied. The adsorption isotherm parameters of human serum albumin (HSA) and IgG were evaluated, pointing to the existence of cooperative effects in the process. A positive (n  = 2.30 ± 0.38) and negative cooperativity (n  = 0.63 ± 0.12) were observed for IgG and HSA binding, respectively. High purity IgG was obtained (based on total protein concentration and nephelometric analysis of HSA, transferrin, and immunoglobulins A, G, and M) with a 75% recovery in Hepes 25 mmol L−1 pH 6.8 feeding human serum. These results indicate that the use of ω-aminodecyl-agarose is a potential technique for purification of IgG from human serum.
Keywords: Adsorption; Purification; Human IgG; Mixed-mode interactions; ω-Aminodecyl-agarose;

Improved liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of eptifibatide in human plasma by Zhi-Ling Zhou; Xi-Yong Yu; Min Yang; Li-Ping Mai; Qiu-Xiong Lin; Chun-Yu Deng; Zhi-Xin Shan; Su-Juan Kuang; Ping Zhu; Xiao-Zhong Huang; Xiao-Hong Li; Tie-Feng Chen; Shu-Guang Lin (2094-2100).
A rapid, selective and highly sensitive high performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method (LC–MS/MS) was developed and validated for the determination and pharmacokinetic investigation of eptifibatide in human plasma. Eptifibatide and the internal standard (IS), EPM-05, were extracted from plasma samples using solid phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Detection of eptifibatide and the IS was achieved by tandem mass spectrometry with an electrospray ionization (ESI) interface in positive ion mode. Traditional multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using the transition of m/z 832.6 →  m/z 646.4 and m/z 931.6 →  m/z 159.4 was performed to quantify eptifibatide and the IS, respectively. The calibration curves were linear over the range of 1–1000 ng/mL with the lower limit of quantitation validated at 1 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were within 13.3%, while the accuracy was within ±7.6% of nominal values. The validated LC–MS/MS method was successfully applied for the evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters of eptifibatide after intravenous (i.v.) administration of a 45 μg/kg bolus of eptifibatide to 8 healthy volunteers.
Keywords: Eptifibatide; Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS); Traditional multiple reaction monitoring (MRM); Solid phase extraction; Quantitative assay; Pharmacokinetics;

This manuscript describes the determination of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor agonist RO0646198 in rat and Cynomolgus monkey plasma using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The structural analogue RO0658791 served as internal standard. After protein precipitation with ethanol, clean up and enrichment was carried out by on-line solid-phase extraction on a 10 mm C18 trapping column. Gradient separation was performed on a 50 mm C18 analytical column, followed by electrospray ionization and detection in positive ion selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The total run time was 2.5 min. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 10 pg/mL. Precisions were below 19% and accuracies were between 86% and 118%. The recoveries were above 90%, and no significant matrix effect was observed. The method was successfully applied to low dose pharmacokinetic studies. The bioavailability after oral dosing was below 5% for rats and below 1% in Cynomolgus monkeys, limiting the application of RO0646198 in the clinic to parenteral routes.
Keywords: RO0646198; Ro 64-6198; NOP receptor agonist; Pharmacokinetics; Cynomolgus monkeys; Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry; On-line solid-phase extraction; Animal plasma; Matrix effect;

Determination of bicyclol in dog plasma using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry by Li Sheng; Jinping Hu; Baolian Wang; Hui Chen; Yan Li (2106-2110).
A sensitive and accurate method for determination of bicyclol in dog plasma was developed. Thermo Scientific TSQ Quantum triple quadrupole system with multiple ion monitoring (MIM) positive scanning mode was applied. Bicyclol and DDB (IS) sodium adduct molecular ions were monitored at m/z 413 and m/z 441 in both Q1 and Q3, respectively. The collision energy in Q2 was set to 15 eV. Precipitation method was employed in the extraction of bicyclol and DDB from the biological matrix. The method was validated over 1–500 ng/mL for bicyclol. The recovery was 96.5–109.5%, and the limit of quantitation (LOQ) detection was 1 ng/mL for bicyclol. The intra- and inter-day precision of the method at three concentrations was 3.3–14.3% with accuracy of 99.9–109.0%. The method was successfully applied to bioequivalence studies of bicyclol controlled-release formulation to obtain the pharmacokinetic parameters.
Keywords: Bicyclol; LC/MS/MS; Pharmacokinetic; Dog;

A selective, rapid and sensitive hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC–MS/MS) method was developed for the first time to determine adefovir in human plasma and applied to a pharmacokinetic study. Plasma samples were prepared by protein precipitation with methanol followed by a further cleaning using dichloromethane. The chromatographic separation was carried out on an ACQUITY UPLC™ BEH HILIC column with the mobile phase of methanol–water–formic acid (85:15:0.2, v/v/v). The detection was performed on a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode via electrospray ionization (ESI) source. The method was rapid with a run time of 3 min per sample. The linear calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range of 1.02–102 ng/mL (r 2  ≥ 0.99) with the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 1.02 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision (relative standard deviation, R.S.D.) values were below 12% and the accuracy (relative error, R.E.) was from 0.6% to 3.2% at all quality control (QC) levels. The method was applicable to clinical pharmacokinetic study of adefovir in healthy volunteers after oral administration of adefovir dipivoxil tablet.
Keywords: Adefovir; HILIC–MS/MS; Human plasma; Pharmacokinetic study;

Purification of erythropoietin from human plasma samples using an immunoaffinity well plate by J. Mallorquí; E. Llop; C. de Bolòs; R. Gutiérrez-Gallego; J. Segura; J.A. Pascual (2117-2122).
A method is described to isolate human erythropoietin (hEPO) from plasma using an EPO-specific immunoaffinity micro well plate (IAP). The operating conditions of the method (binding, blocking and elution) were optimised to avoid isoform discrimination and cross-contamination with other glycoproteins. The overall hEPO recovery was ca. 56% and significant clean-up for plasmatic hEPO was achieved. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was used as a blocking reagent and elution took place at pH 11.0. Under these conditions all isoforms from recombinant human EPOs (rhEPOs) and analogues were uniformly recovered guaranteeing lack of discrimination. The resulting procedure allowed isolating erythropoietin from plasma in conditions amenable to hEPO analysis by other techniques such as SDS-PAGE or IEF. Moreover, avoiding contamination with other glycosylated material allowed the identification in human plasma samples of the non-human N-glycolyl-neuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) using HPLC-FLD. Neu5Gc is present as 1–2% of the sialic acid content in rhEPO so this approach could be used to unequivocally detect abuse of rhEPOs or analogues as part of the doping control.
Keywords: Erythropoietin; Doping; Human; Plasma; Immunoaffinity; N-Glycolyl-neuraminic acid;

Microextraction in packed sorbent for analysis of antidepressants in human plasma by liquid chromatography and spectrophotometric detection by Andréa R. Chaves; Fernanda Z. Leandro; Juciene A. Carris; Maria Eugênia C. Queiroz (2123-2129).
A sensitive and reproducible method by microextraction packed sorbent and liquid chromatography with UV detection (MEPS/LC–UV) is described for the determination of new generation antidepressants (sertraline, mirtazapine, fluoxetine, citalopram and paroxetine) in human plasma samples. The MEPS variables, such as sample volume, pH, number of extraction cycles (draw–eject), and desorption conditions (solvent and solvent volume of elution) influenced the MEPS/LC efficiency significantly. Important factors in the optimization of MEPS efficiency, as well as washing steps and carryover effect are discussed. The analyses were carried out using small sample volumes (400 μL), and in a short time period (3 min for the entire sample preparation step). The MEPS/LC–UV method was shown to be linear at concentrations ranging from the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 1000 ng mL−1. The LOQ values ranged from 10 to 25 ng mL−1. The inter-day precision of the method presented coefficient of the variation ranging from 1.3% to 8.7%. On the basis of analytical validation, it is shown that the MEPS/LC–UV methodology is adequate for antidepressant analysis, from therapeutic to toxic levels. In order to evaluate the proposed method for clinical use, the MEPS/LC–UV method was applied to analysis of plasma samples from elderly depressed patients.
Keywords: Microextraction in packed sorbent; Sample preparation; Antidepressants; Liquid chromatography; Human plasma samples;

Quantitative analysis of five sterols in amniotic fluid by GC–MS: Application to the diagnosis of cholesterol biosynthesis defects by C. Amaral; E. Gallardo; R. Rodrigues; R. Pinto Leite; D. Quelhas; C. Tomaz; M.L. Cardoso (2130-2136).
Cholesterol and its precursors, namely 7-dehydrocholesterol, desmosterol and lathosterol are important biochemical markers of cholesterol biosynthesis, and their quantification in body fluids is useful for the diagnosis of cholesterol biosynthesis pathway disorders. A rapid and sensitive gas chromatographic–mass spectrometric method was developed and validated for quantitative analysis of five sterols (cholesterol, 7-dehydrocholesterol, desmosterol, lathosterol and sitosterol) in amniotic fluid. The method was linear for all compounds (r 2  > 0.99), and intra and inter-assay coefficients of variation were typically below 5%, and inaccuracy was within a ±12% interval. The method was applied to 330 amniotic fluid samples, grouped by gestational age between 13 and 22 weeks of pregnancy, in order to establish reference intervals for sterols in this specimen. The obtained concentrations (μmol/L) for each sterol was as follows: 22.1758 ± 4.2716 at 13 weeks and 78.5082 ± 12.9041 at 22 weeks for cholesterol; 0.0039 ± 0.0007 at 13 weeks and 0.1150 ± 0.0212 at 22 weeks for 7-dehydrocholesterol; 0.1562 ± 0.0406 at 13 weeks and 0.7691 ± 0.0821 at 22 weeks for desmosterol; 0.0272 ± 0.0035 at 13 weeks and 0.8551 ± 0.1791 at 22 weeks for lathosterol; and 0.0404 ± 0.0039 at 13 weeks and 0.2326 ± 0.0386 at 22 weeks for sitosterol. The method was also applied to one pathological sample that showed decreased levels of cholesterol, and higher concentration of 7-dehydrocholesterol, which is consistent with a 7-dehydrocholesterol-reductase deficiency. Our results showed that as long as pregnancy goes on, the concentrations of cholesterol and precursors increase in amniotic fluid, which is related to the increased need for cholesterol by the fetus. The reference range of each sterol in amniotic fluid was calculated at different gestational ages and will be useful for the interpretation and validation of biochemical prenatal diagnosis of inborn errors of sterol biosynthesis.
Keywords: Sterols; Prenatal diagnosis; Cholesterol biosynthesis defects; GC–MS; Amniotic fluid; Reference values;

Determination of free and glucuronidated kaempferol in rat plasma by LC–MS/MS: Application to pharmacokinetic study by Wei-Dong Zhang; Xiao-Juan Wang; Si-Yuan Zhou; Yi Gu; Rong Wang; Tao-Li Zhang; Hong-Quan Gan (2137-2140).
Flavanoid kaempferol is mainly present as glucuronides and sulfates in rat plasma, and small amounts of the intact aglycone are also detected. In the this study, a rapid, specific and sensitive liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry method (HPLC–MS/MS) was developed and validated for determination of kaempferol and its major metabolite glucuronidated kaempferol in rat plasma. A liquid–liquid extraction with acetic ether was involved for the extraction of kaempferol and internal standard. Analytes were separated on a C18 column (150 mm × 2.1 mm, 4.5 μm, Waters Corp.) with isocratic elution at a flow-rate of 0.3 ml min−1. The mobile phase was consisted of 0.5% formic acid and acetonitrile (50:50, v/v). The Quattro Premier HPLC–MS/MS was operated under the multiple reaction-monitoring mode (MRM) using the electrospray ionization technique. The method was validated according to the FDA guidelines for validation of bioanalytical method. The validated method was successfully applied to the study of the pharmacokinetics in rats after oral administration of kaempferol with different doses.
Keywords: Kaempferol; Genistenin; Pharmacokinetic; LC–MS/MS; Quantitative analysis;

The performance of MabSelect SuRe and IgSelect affinity chromatography resins designed for process-scale purification of antibodies was investigated. Various antibodies (4 human monoclonal, 1 human polyclonal and 1 bovine polyclonal antibody and 1 Fc-fusion protein) were used to evaluate the elution pH and dynamic binding capacity of the resins. The elution pH for each human antibody was similar on MabSelect SuRe and IgSelect (pH 3.5–3.8). No significant differences in dynamic binding capacity were observed among human antibodies on MabSelect SuRe (∼20–40 mg/mL resin) and IgSelect (∼10–30 mg/mL resin). The binding capacity order for the human antibodies was the same on MabSelect SuRe and IgSelect. Using a linear pH gradient, both resins were able to partially separate monomeric and aggregated forms of the antibodies. The results indicate that these new affinity resins are powerful tools for the purification of human polyclonal antibodies from transgenic animals and oligoclonal antibodies from CHO cell cultures.
Keywords: Protein separation; Biopharmaceutical; Purification; Capture;

Different sample treatment approaches for the analysis of T-2 and HT-2 toxins from oats-based media by Angel Medina; Francisco M. Valle-Algarra; Misericordia Jiménez; Naresh Magan (2145-2149).
A LC-DAD method is proposed for the determination of the T-2 and HT-2 toxins in cultures of Fusarium langsethiae in oat-based and other in vitro media. Test media consisted of freshly prepared milled oats to which T-2 and HT-2 toxin stock solutions were added. Different mixtures of extraction solvent (acetonitrile:water and methanol:water), extraction times (30′, 60′ or 90′) and drying methods were investigated. Results showed that extraction with methanol:water (80:20, v/v) for 90 min, drying with N2 and subsequent analysis by LC-DAD was the fastest and most user friendly method for detecting HT-2 and T-2 toxins production by F. langsethiae strains grown on oat-based media at levels of 0.459 and 0.508 mg of toxin/kg of agar, respectively. The proposed method was used to investigate toxin production of 6 F. langsethiae strains from northern Europe and provided clear chromatograms with no interfering peaks in media with and without glycerol as water activity modifier.
Keywords: Analysis; Type A trichothecenes; Diode array; Cereals;

Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric assay for clobetasol propionate in human serum from patients with atopic dermatitis by Rolf W. Sparidans; Sara G.A. van Velsen; Marlise P. de Roos; Jan H.M. Schellens; Carla A.F.M. Bruijnzeel-Koomen; Jos H. Beijnen (2150-2154).
A bioanalytical assay for the topical corticosteroid clobetasol propionate was developed and validated. For the quantitative assay 0.5 ml human serum samples, supplemented with clobetasone butyrate as internal standard, were extracted with hexane–ether. Evaporated and reconstituted extracts were injected on a polar embedded octadecyl silica column with isocratic elution using formic acid in water–methanol as mobile phase. The eluate was led into the electrospray interface with positive ionization and the analyte was detected and quantified using the selective reaction monitoring mode of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The assay was validated in the range 0.04–10 ng/ml, the lowest level of this range being the lower limit of quantification. Precisions were 5–10% and accuracies were between 102 and 109%. The drug was stable under all relevant conditions. Finally, the assay was successfully applied on patients suffering from severe atopic dermatitis treated topically with clobetasol propionate.
Keywords: Clobetasol propionate; Clobetasone butyrate; Topical corticosteroid; LC–MS/MS; Human serum; Atopic dermatitis;

Detection and quantitation of N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine adducts in DNA using online column-switching liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry by Rajinder Singh; Volker M. Arlt; Colin J. Henderson; David H. Phillips; Peter B. Farmer; Gonçalo Gamboa da Costa (2155-2162).
The heterocyclic aromatic amine, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is formed by the grilled cooking of certain foods such as meats, poultry and fish. PhIP has been shown to induce tumours in the colon, prostate and mammary glands of rats and is regarded as a potential human dietary carcinogen. PhIP is metabolically activated via cytochrome P450 mediated oxidation to an N-hydroxylamino-PhIP intermediate that is subsequently converted to an ester by N-acetyltransferases or sulfotransferases and undergoes heterolytic cleavage to produce a PhIP-nitrenium ion, which reacts with DNA to form the N-(deoxyguanosin-8-yl)-2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP-C8-dG) adduct. Thus far, the detection and quantification of PhIP-DNA adducts has relied to a large extent on 32P-postlabelling methodologies. In order to expand the array of available techniques for the detection and improved quantification of PhIP-C8-dG adducts in DNA we have developed an online column-switching liquid chromatography (LC)–electrospray ionization (ESI)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) selected reaction monitoring (SRM) method incorporating an isotopically [13C10]-labelled PhIP-C8-dG internal standard for the analysis of DNA enzymatically hydrolysed to 2′-deoxynucleosides. A dose-dependent increase was observed for PhIP-C8-dG adducts when salmon testis DNA was reacted with N-acetoxy-PhIP. Analysis of DNA samples isolated from colon tissue of mice treated by oral gavage daily for 5 days with 50 mg/kg body weight of PhIP resulted in the detection of an average level of 14.8 ± 3.7 PhIP-C8-dG adducts per 106 2′-deoxynucleosides. The method required 50 μg of hydrolysed animal DNA on column and the limit of detection for PhIP-C8-dG was 2.5 fmol (1.5 PhIP-C8-dG adducts per 108 2′-deoxynucleosides). In summary, the LC–ESI-MS/MS SRM method provides for the rapid automation of the sample clean up and a reduction in matrix components that would otherwise interfere with the mass spectrometric analysis, with sufficient sensitivity and precision to analyse DNA adducts in animals exposed to PhIP.
Keywords: 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine(PhIP); DNA adducts; LC–MS/MS; Chemical carcinogen;

Determination of human serum 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) by HPLC-ECD combined with solid phase extraction (SPE) by Satoshi Koide; Yuri Kinoshita; Narushi Ito; Jun Kimura; Kenji Yokoyama; Isao Karube (2163-2167).
Human serum 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was measured by HPLC-ECD method combined with solid phase extraction (SPE) developed by our group: (our proprietary kit, named 8-OHdG Pre-treatment Kit (TANITA Corporation)). The major interfering substances and proteins in serum were removed by 8-OHdG Pre-treatment Kit. This measurement method was highly reproducible (CV = 2.2–7.1%) and demonstrated the lower detection limit for control serum sample of less than 10 pg/ml without the sample evaporation. The other hand 8-OHdG concentration in serum for healthy people was in the range of 0–70 pg/ml (25.5 ± 13.8 pg/ml, n  = 37). Secondary a relationship between the HPLC-ECD and ELISA methods was investigated. ELISA method could not detect 8-OHdG concentration in serum for healthy people, because the detection limit of 130 pg/ml was higher than the normal range for healthy people. These results show our SPE method has high sensitivity and quantitative accuracy for 8-OHdG analysis.
Keywords: Human serum; 8-Hydroxy-2′–deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG); Solid phase extraction (SPE); High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); Electrochemical detector (ECD);

Liquid chromatographic assay with fluorescence detection to determine ajmaline in serum from patients with suspected Brugada syndrome by Rolf W. Sparidans; Pim Langendijk; Eric Boers; Erik van Kan; Hanno L. Tan; Jos H. Beijnen (2168-2172).
Ajmaline is a sodium channel blocking, class 1A anti-arrhythmic drug. It has gained renewed interest in the field of cardiology as a diagnostic agent to reveal the electrocardiographic characteristics in patients with suspected Brugada syndrome. We developed a simple and precise high-performance liquid chromatographic assay to determine ajmaline in serum of patients. The samples were pre-treated using protein precipitation with perchloric acid and the extract was injected into the chromatographic system. The system consisted of an end-capped octadecyl silica column with isocratic elution using perchloric acid in a water–acetonitrile mixture. Ajmaline was detected by fluorescence at 290 and 355 nm for excitation and emission, respectively. The assay was validated in a 21–5300 ng/ml concentration range, the lower limit of quantification was 25 ng/ml. Within day precisions were 1.3–3.9%, between day precisions 2–7% and accuracies were between 95 and 99% for the whole calibration range. The drug was shown to be chemically stable under all relevant conditions. This assay has been successfully applied to pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic evaluations of intravenous ajmaline administration to patients with suspected Brugada syndrome.
Keywords: Ajmaline; Brugada syndrome; Liquid chromatography; Fluorescence detection;