Journal of Chromatography B (v.878, #22)

Current and emerging techniques of fetal cell separation from maternal blood by D.M. Kavanagh; M. Kersaudy-Kerhoas; R.S. Dhariwal; M.P.Y. Desmulliez (1905-1911).
Intense research has been carried out in recent years into methods that aim to harvest fetal genetic material from maternal blood as substitutes to amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling. Just over 30 years have past since the first fetal cells were separated from maternal blood using flow cytometry highlighting the prospect of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of fetal abnormalities. The aim of this review paper is to describe the most commonly used cell separation methods with emphasis on the isolation of fetal cells from maternal blood. The most significant breakthroughs and advances in fetal cell separation are reviewed and critically analyzed. Although much has been accomplished using well established techniques, a rapid and inexpensive method to separate fetal cells with great accuracy, sensitivity and efficiency to maximize cell yield is still required. In the past decade MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) technologies have enabled the miniaturization of many biological and medical laboratory processes. Lab-on-chip systems have been developed and encompass many modules capable of processing different biological samples. Such chips contain various integrated components such as separation channels, micropumps, mixers, reaction and detection chambers. This article will also explore new emerging MEMS based separation strategies, which hope to overcome the current limitations in fetal cell separation.
Keywords: Fetal cells; Maternal blood; Prenatal diagnosis; Microfluidic; Lab-on-chip;

Liquid chromatographic methods for the determination of endogenous nucleotides and nucleotide analogs used in cancer therapy: A review by Sabine Cohen; Lars P. Jordheim; Mehdi Megherbi; Charles Dumontet; Jérôme Guitton (1912-1928).
Endogenous ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides play a crucial role in cell function. The determination of their levels is of fundamental interest in numerous applications such as energy metabolism, biochemical processes, or in understanding the mechanism of nucleoside analog compounds. Nucleoside analogs are widely used in anticancer therapy. Their mechanisms of action are related to their structural similarity with natural nucleotides. Numerous assays have been described for the determination of endogenous nucleotides or anticancer nucleotide analogs in different matrices such as cellular cultures, tissue or peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The determination of these compounds is challenging due to the large difference of concentrations between ribonucleotides and deoxyribonucleotides, the presence of numerous endogenous interferences in complex matrices and the high polarity of the molecules due to the phosphate moiety. The extraction was generally performed at low temperature and was based on protein precipitation using acid or solvent mixture. This first phase could be coupled with extraction or cleaning step of the supernatant. Liquid chromatography coupled with UV detection and based on ion-exchange chromatography using non-volatile high salt concentrations was largely described for the quantification of nucleotides. However, the development of LC–MS and LC–MS/MS during the last ten years has constituted a sensitive and specific tool. In this case, analytical column was mostly constituted by graphite or C18 stationary phase. Mobile phase was usually based on a mixture of ammonium buffer and acetonitrile and in several assays included a volatile ion-pairing agent. Mass spectrometry detection was performed either with positive or negative electrospray mode according to compounds and mobile phase components. The purpose of the current review is to provide an overview of the most recent chromatographic assays (over the past ten years) developed for the determination of endogenous nucleotides and nucleotide analogs used in cancer therapy. We focused on sample preparation, chromatographic separation and quantitative considerations.
Keywords: Ribonucleotides; Deoxyribonucleotides; Mass spectrometry; Nucleoside analogs; Cancer therapy;

Predictable and linear scale-up of four phenolic alkaloids separation from the roots of Menispermum dauricum using high-performance counter-current chromatography by Houding Luo; Ming Peng; Haoyu Ye; Lijuan Chen; Aihua Peng; Minghai Tang; Fan Zhang; Jie Shi (1929-1933).
This paper describes how distribution ratios were used for prediction of peak elution in analytical high-performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC) to explore the method for separation and purification of bioactive compounds from the roots of Menispermum dauricum. Then important parameters related to HPCCC separations including solvent systems, sample concentration, sample loading volume and flow rate were optimized on an analytical Mini-DE HPCCC and finally linearly scaled up to a preparative Midi-DE HPCCC with nearly the same resolutions and separation time. Four phenolic alkaloids were for the first time obtained by HPCCC separation with a two-phase solvent system composed of petroleum ether–ethyl acetate–ethanol–water (1:2:1:2, v/v). This process produced 131.3 mg daurisolin, 197.1 mg dauricine, 32.4 mg daurinoline and 14.7 mg dauricicoline with the purity of 97.6%, 96.4%, 97.2% and 98.3%, respectively from 500 mg crude extract of the roots of M. dauricum in a one-step separation. The purities of compounds were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Their structures were identified by electrospray ionization mass spectrometer (ESI-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).
Keywords: HPCCC; Menispermum dauricum; Phenolic alkaloids; Linear scale-up;

Fipronil is an insecticide extensively used to treat pets, which has been identified as a potential thyroid disruptor in the rat. In this species, fipronil is mainly metabolized to fipronil sulfone and plasma concentrations of fipronil sulfone can be at least 20-fold higher than those of fipronil. Investigations of fipronil and fipronil sulfone exposure in blood remain sparse because of the lack of convenient and suitable analytical methods. We have developed and validated an LC/UV/MS/MS method to quantify both fipronil and fipronil sulfone within a wide range of concentrations in rat plasma. The double detection UV and MS coupled on-line enabled the concentrations to be measured over a 3 Log range (2.5–2500 ng/mL). The volume of sample required for the extraction by solid phase extraction was reduced to 75 μL with a recovery higher than 70%. The two-detection method agreement, evaluated with a Bland–Altman plot, was good for concentrations between 50 and 150 ng/mL. The method was applied to monitor plasma concentrations following a commonly used dosage regimen for the toxicological evaluation of fipronil in rats.
Keywords: Fipronil; HPLC; Mass spectrometry; UV detection; Double detection; Validation; Rat plasma;

Affinity recovery of lentivirus by diaminopelargonic acid mediated desthiobiotin labelling by Rongjun Chen; Najeem Folarin; Vincent H.B. Ho; David McNally; David Darling; Farzin Farzaneh; Nigel K.H. Slater (1939-1945).
Desthiobiotin-tagged lentiviral vectors have been metabolically produced by DBL producer cells in a 7,8-diaminopelargonic acid (7-DAPA) dependent manner for envelope independent, single-step affinity purification. 7-DAPA, which has little or no affinity for avidin/streptavidin, was synthesised and verified by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. By expressing the biotin acceptor, biotin ligase and desthiobiotin synthase bioD, DBL cells converted exogenous 7-DAPA into membrane-bound desthiobiotin. Desthiobiotin on the DBL cell surface was visualised by confocal microscopy and the desthiobiotin density was quantified by HABA-avidin assay. Desthiobiotin was then spontaneously incorporated onto the surface of lentiviral vectors produced by the DBL cells. It has been demonstrated by flow cytometry that the desthiobiotinylated lentiviruses were captured from the crude 7-DAPA-containing viral supernatant by Streptavidin Magnespheres® and eluted by biotin solution efficiently whilst retaining infectivity. The practical, high yielding virus purification using Pierce monomeric avidin coated columns indicates a highly efficient biotin-dependent recovery of infectious lentiviruses at 68%. The recovered lentiviral vectors had a high purity and the majority were eluted within 45 min. This 7-DAPA mediated desthiobiotinylation technology can be applied in scalable production of viral vectors for clinical gene therapy.
Keywords: 7-DAPA; Desthiobiotin; Metabolic biotinylation; Streptavidin; Monomeric avidin; Vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein pseudotyped lentivirus; Affinity chromatography; Gene therapy;

Optimization and quality assessment of the post-digestion 18O labeling based on urea for protein denaturation by HPLC/ESI-TOF mass spectrometry by Hongbin Wang; Gaofei Hu; Yongqian Zhang; Zheng Yuan; Xuan Zhao; Yong Zhu; De Cai; Yujuan Li; Shengyuan Xiao; Yulin Deng (1946-1952).
The post-digestion 18O labeling method decouples protein digestion and peptide labeling. This method allows labeling conditions to be optimized separately and increases labeling efficiency. A common method for protein denaturation in proteomics is the use of urea. Though some previous studies have used urea-based protein denaturation before post-digestion 18O labeling, the optimal 18O labeling conditions in this case have not been yet reported. Present study investigated the effects of urea concentration and pH on the labeling efficiency and obtained an optimized protocol. It was demonstrated that urea inhibited 18O incorporation depending on concentration. However, a urea concentration between 1 and 2 M had minimal effects on labeling. It was also demonstrated that the use of FA to quench the digestion reaction severely affected the labeling efficiency. This study revealed the reason why previous studies gave different optimal pH for labeling. They neglect the effects of different digestion conditions on the labeling conditions. Excellent labeling quality was obtained at the optimized conditions using urea 1–2 M and pH 4.5, 98.4 ± 1.9% for a standard protein mixture and 97.2 ± 6.2% for a complex biological sample. For a 1:1 mixture analysis of the 16O- and 18O-labeled peptides from the same protein sample, the average abundance ratios reached 1.05 ± 0.31, demonstrating a good quantitation quality at the optimized conditions. This work will benefit other researchers who pair urea-based protein denaturation with a post-digestion 18O labeling method.
Keywords: Quantitative proteomics; 18O labeling; Labeling efficiency; HPLC/ESI-TOF;

A method for the quantitative analysis of cudratricusxanthone B (CXB) in rat plasma by high performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI-MS/MS) has been developed and validated. The method involved liquid–liquid extraction from plasma, simple chromatographic conditions on a Venusil XBP-PH C18 column with the mobile phase of 0.5% formic acid in methanol, and mass spectrometric detection using an API-3000 instrument. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used to monitor precursor/product ion transitions of m/z 397.1/285.0 for CXB and m/z 381.6/269.2 for the internal standard (I.S.) cudraxanthone H. The standard curves were linear over the concentration range of 1–500 ng/mL for CXB in rat plasma. The intra- and inter-batch accuracy for CXB at four concentrations was 89.4–99.5% and 89.4–100.8%, respectively. The RSDs were less than 7.92%. The lower limit of quantification for CXB was 1.0 ng/mL using 100 μL of plasma. The average extraction recoveries of CXB ranged from 80.1 to 95.4% at the concentrations of 2, 50 and 500 ng/mL, respectively. This method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study after an intravenous administration of CXB in male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats.
Keywords: Cudratricusxanthone B; HPLC–ESI-MS/MS; Liquid–liquid extraction; Rat plasma; Pharmacokinetics;

Determination of vinpocetine and its primary metabolite, apovincaminic acid, in rat plasma by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry by Hui-Min Xia; Li-Na Su; Jian-Wei Guo; Guang-Ming Liu; Zhi-Qing Pang; Xin-Guo Jiang; Jun Chen (1959-1966).
A precise and sensitive liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method for simultaneous determination of vinpocetine (VP) and its primary metabolite, apovincaminic acid (AVA), in rat plasma was developed and validated. The analytes and the internal standard-dimenhydrinate were extracted from 50 μL aliquots of rat plasma via solid–liquid extraction. Chromatographic separation was achieved in a run time of 3.5 min on a C18 column under isocratic conditions. Detection of analytes and IS was done by tandem mass spectrometry, operating in positive ion and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) acquisition mode. The protonated precursor to product ion transitions monitored for VP, AVA and IS were m/z 351.4 → 280.2, 323.2 → 280.2 and 256.2 → 167.3 respectively. The method was fully validated for its sensitivity, selectivity, accuracy and precision, matrix effect, stability study and dilution integrity. A linear dynamic range of 0.5–500 ng/mL for both VP and AVA was evaluated with mean correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9970 and 0.9984 respectively. The precision of the assay (RSD%) was less than 8.55% at all concentrations levels for both VP and AVA. This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of VP in rats after intravenous (1 mg/kg) and oral (1 mg/kg) administration.
Keywords: Vinpocetine; Apovincaminic acid; LC–MS/MS; Pharmacokinetics;

Simultaneous determination of cytosine arabinoside, daunorubicin and etoposide in human plasma by Mikkel Krogh-Madsen; Steen Honoré Hansen; Per Hartvig Honoré (1967-1972).
A method for simultaneous bioanalysis of the three cytotoxic drugs cytosine arabinoside, daunorubicin and etoposide in human plasma was developed and validated. A HPLC method with ultra-violet and fluorescence detection, preceded by mixed-mode cation-exchange solid phase extraction sample preparation, was used for the quantification of the analytes. The assay was used for the simultaneous measurement of cytosine arabinoside, daunorubicin and etoposide with linearity in the ranges of 13–1500 ng/mL, 15–1000 ng/mL and 52.5–3500 ng/mL, respectively. The chromatographic run-time was 15.5 min. The overall precision (% relative standard deviation) was within 0.2–13.5% and the recovery ranged between 86.1% and 110.1% for the three drugs at all concentrations tested. Plasma samples were stable for at least two months when stored at −20 °C. The method was successfully applied to quantification of the three drugs in blood samples from patients undergoing induction treatment for acute myeloid leukaemia, thus demonstrating its suitability for clinical studies.
Keywords: Cytosine arabinoside; Daunorubicin; Etoposide; Plasma; HPLC; AML;

Characterization of a unique IgG1 mAb CEX profile by limited Lys-C proteolysis/CEX separation coupled with mass spectrometry and structural analysis by Jaewon Kim; Laurie Jones; Lisa Taylor; Gunasekaran Kannan; Frank Jackson; Hollis Lau; Ramil F. Latypov; Bob Bailey (1973-1981).
The unique cation exchange chromatography (CEX) charge variant profile of mAb1 is characterized by a combination of mass spectrometry, limited Lys-C digestion followed by CEX separation and structural analysis. During CEX method development, mAb1 showed several unexpected phenomena, including a unique profile containing two main species (acidic 2 and main) and significant instability during stability studies of the main species. Reduced Lys-C peptide mapping identified a small difference in one of the heavy chain peptides (H4) in acidic 2 and further mass analysis identified this difference as Asn55 deamidation. However, the amount of Asn55 deamidation in acidic 2 could account for only half of the species present in this peak. Lys-C limited digest followed by CEX separated several unique peaks in the acidic peak 2 including two pre Fab peaks (LCC1 and LCC2). Whole protein mass analysis suggested that both LCC1 and LCC2 were potentially deamidated species. Subsequent peptide mapping with MS/MS determined that LCC1 contained isoAsp55 and LCC2 contained Asp55. Combining LCC1 and LCC2 CEX peak areas could account for nearly all of the species present in acidic peak 2. Subsequent detailed sequence analysis combined with molecular modeling identified Asn55 and its surrounding residues are responsible for the different CEX behavior and instability of mAb1 following forced degradation at high pH. Overall, the combinatorial approach used in this study proved to be a powerful tool to understand the unique charge variant and stability profile of a monoclonal antibody.
Keywords: Monoclonal antibody; Cation exchange chromatography; Limited Lys-C proteolysis; Mass spectrometry; Structural analysis;

In present study, an HPLC method coupled with photodiode array detector (HPLC-PDA) was established for determination and pharmacokinetics of gastrodin (GAS) in human plasma after an oral administration of GAS capsule. In the method, ethanol and dichloromethane were respectively used for deproteinization and purification during the sample preparation procedure. Separation of GAS was achieved on an AichromBond-AQ C18 column (5 μm, 150 mm × 4.6 mm) with the mobile phase of methanol–0.1% phosphoric acid solution (2:98, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min. The wavelength was set at 220 nm and the injection volume was 20 μl. Under the conditions, the calibration curve was linear within the concentration range of 50–4000 ng/ml with the correlation coefficient (r) of 0.99554 (weight = 1/X 2) and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 50 ng/ml. The inter- and intra-day precisions were less than 11% and the accuracies (%) were within the range of 95.55–103.78%. The extraction recoveries were over 65% with RSDs less than 5.50%. The GAS was proved to be stable under tested conditions. Thus, the method was valid enough to be applied for pharmacokinetic study of GAS in human plasma. The pharmacokinetic parameters of GAS in human plasma after an oral administration of 200 mg GAS capsule were described as: C max, 1484.55 ± 285.05 ng/ml; T max, 0.81 ± 0.16 h; t 1/2α, 3.78 ± 2.33 h; t 1/2β, 6.06 ± 3.20 h; t 1/2Ka, 0.18 ± 0.53 h; K 12, 0.18 ± 0.41/h; K 21, 0.20 ± 0.16/h; K 10, 4.11 ± 15.81/h; V1/F, 180.35 ± 89.44 L; CL/F, 62.50 ± 140.03 l/h; AUC0→t , 5619.41 ± 1972.88 (ng/ml) h; and AUC0→∞, 7210.26 ± 3472.74 (ng/ml) h, respectively. These will be useful for the clinical application of GAS.
Keywords: Gastrodin; HPLC; Pharmacokinetics; Human plasma;

Fentanyl and its major metabolite norfentanyl often occur in low doses in biological samples. Therefore, a highly sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) method has been developed and fully validated. Sample preparation was performed on a mixed-mode cation exchange solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge with an additional alkaline wash step to decrease matrix effects and thus increase sensitivity. Ionization of fentanyl and norfentanyl with electrospray ionization (ESI) was more efficient than atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). The use of a mobile phase of high pH resulted in higher ESI signals than the conventional low pH mobile phases. In the final method, gradient elution with 10 mM ammonium bicarbonate (pH 9) and methanol was performed. A comparison of columns with different internal diameter and/or smaller particles showed optimal resolution and sensitivity when an Acquity C18 column (1.7 μm, 2.1 mm × 50 mm) was used. Deuterium labeled internal standards were used, but with careful evaluation of their stability since loss of deuteriums was seen. With limits of detection of 0.25 pg/ml for fentanyl and 2.5 pg/ml for norfentanyl in urine and 5 pg/ml for fentanyl and norfentanyl in whole blood the presented method is highly appropriate for the analysis of fentanyl and norfentanyl in forensic urine and blood samples.
Keywords: LC–MS/MS; High pH mobile phase; UFLC or UPLC; Fentanyl; Norfentanyl; Post-mortem samples;

Analysis by LC/ESI-MS of iophenoxic acid derivatives and evaluation as markers of oral baits to deliver pharmaceuticals to wildlife by Cristina Ballesteros; Pablo R. Camarero; Carles Cristòfol; Joaquín Vicente; Christian Gortazar; José de la Fuente; Rafael Mateo (1997-2002).
Iophenoxic acid and its derivatives (methyl, ethyl, and propyl) are organic chemicals used as markers in baiting campaigns to deliver vaccines, pharmaceuticals, contraceptives or poisons to wildlife. In this study we develop a method of detection of IPA derivatives by LC/ESI-MS (using butyl-IPA as internal standard) obtaining a limit of detection and quantification in wild boar (Sus scrofa) serum of 0.037 μg/ml and 0.123 μg/ml, respectively. The average recovery of IPA derivatives was 88% at levels >0.2 μg/ml, with coefficients of variation <15%. Wild boars in captivity were orally treated with 5 mg/kg b.w. (three adults) or 15 mg/kg b.w (two piglets and three adults) of methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-IPA and the serum levels of these were monitored during 18 months after dosing. Ethyl- and propyl-IPA were detected up to 18 months after a single oral dose in wild boar, especially at 15 mg/kg. Methyl-IPA was detected until 9 months after dosing. Half-lives of methyl-, ethyl- and propyl-IPA were (mean ± SD) 41 ± 5, 183 ± 85 and 165 ± 45 days, respectively. One control piglet not exposed to IPA, but housed in the same facility than treated animals showed detectable IPA levels in serum. Piglets born from mothers exposed to marked baits also showed detectable IPA levels in serum. The high persistence of Et- and Pr-IPA must be considered in the field trials, because the presence of the product at low levels in one animal may not reflect a real ingestion of the marked bait.
Keywords: Iophenoxic acid; Oral vaccination; Markers; Wildlife; Tuberculosis; Disease control;

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an acute event resulting from external force to the brain and is a major cause of death and disability associated with high health care costs in the western world. Additional injuries, originating from the secondary molecular events after the initial intensive care, may be limited by the use of objective biomarkers to provide the best treatment and patient prediction outcome. In this study, hexapeptide ligand libraries (HLL) have been used for the enrichment of suggested protein biomarkers for TBI in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). HLL have the potential to enrich low abundant proteins and simultaneously reduce the high abundant proteins, rendering a sample with significantly reduced dynamic range. The CSF proteome from two TBI inflicted patients have been extensively mapped using a large initial sample volume obtained by extraventricular drainage. Shotgun proteomics, in combination with isoelectric focusing (IEF) and nano-LC–MS/MS, identified 339 unique proteins (MudPIT scoring p  ≤ 0.05) with a protein overlap of 130 between the patients. As much as 45% of the proteins reported in the literature to be associated with degenerative/regenerative processes occurring after a trauma to the head were identified. Out of the most prominent potential protein biomarkers, such as neuron specific enolase, glial fibrillary acidic protein, myelin basic protein, creatine kinase B-type and S-100β, all except myelin basic protein were detected in the study. This study shows the possibility of using HLL as a tool for screening of low abundant protein biomarkers in human CSF.
Keywords: Cerebrospinal fluid; Hexapeptide ligand library; Traumatic brain injury; Proteomics; Mass spectrometry;

Development and validation of an HPLC–FLD method for milbemectin quantification in dog plasma by Qianqian Xu; Wensheng Xiang; Jichang Li; Yong Liu; Xiaolei Yu; Yaoteng Zhang; Mingli Qu (2013-2017).
Milbemectin is a widely used veterinary antiparasitic agent. A high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescent detection (HPLC–FLD) method is described for the determination of milbemectin in dog plasma. The derivative procedure included mixing 1-methylimizole [MI, MI-ACN (1:1, v/v), 100 μL], trifluoroacetic anhydride [TFAA, TFAA-ACN (1:2, v/v), 150 μL] with a subsequent incubation for 3 s at the room temperature to obtain a fluorescent derivative, which is reproducible in different blood samples and the derivatives proved to be stable for at least 80 h at room temperature. HPLC method was developed on C18 column with FLD detection at an excitation wavelength of 365 nm and emission wavelength of 475 nm, with the mobile phase consisting of methanol and water in the ratio of 98:2 (v/v). The assay lower limit of quantification was 1 ng/mL. The calibration curve was linear over concentration range of 1–200 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day accuracy was >94% and precision expressed as % coefficient of variation was <5%. This method is specific, simple, accurate, precise and easily adaptable to measure milbemycin in blood of other animals.
Keywords: Milbemectin; HPLC–FLD; Dog plasma; Derivative;

Quantitative analysis of lignocaine and metabolites in equine urine and plasma by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry by Samantha A. Nelis; Catherine Sievers; Mark Jarrett; Lisa M. Nissen; Carl M.J. Kirkpatrick; P. Nicholas Shaw (2018-2022).
In this paper, a method for the sensitive and reproducible analysis of lignocaine and its four principal metabolites, monoethylxylidide (MEGX), glycylxylidide (GX), 3-hydroxylignocaine (3-HO-LIG), 4-hydroxylignocaine (4-HO-LIG) in equine urine and plasma samples is presented. The method uses liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry operating in electrospray ionisation positive ion mode (+ESI) via multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Sample preparation involved solid-phase extraction using a mixed-mode phase. The internal standard adopted was lignocaine-d10. Lignocaine and its metabolites were successfully resolved using an octadecylsilica reversed-phase column using a gradient mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1% (v/v) aqueous formic acid at a flow rate of 300 μL/min. Target analytes and the internal standard were determined by using the following transitions; lignocaine, 235.2 > 86.1; 3-HO-LIG and 4-HO-LIG, 251.2 > 86.1; MEGX, 207.1 > 58.1; GX, 179.1 > 122.1; and lignocaine-d10, 245.2 > 96.1. Calibration curves were generated over the range 1–100 ng/mL for plasma samples and 1–1000 ng/mL for urine samples. The method was validated for instrument linearity, repeatability and detection limit (IDL), method linearity, repeatability, detection limit (MDL), quantitation limit (LOQ) and recovery. The method was successfully used to analyse both plasma and urine samples following a subcutaneous administration of lignocaine to a thoroughbred horse.
Keywords: Lignocaine; Lidocaine; Horse; LCMS; Liquid chromatography; Mass spectrometry;

Separation of fructooligosaccharides using zeolite fixed bed columns by Raquel Cristine Kuhn; Francisco Maugeri Filho (2023-2028).
Recent studies have shown that the chromatographic separation of mixtures of monosaccharides and disaccharides may be improved by employing Y zeolites, a procedure which holds promise in the separation of oligosaccharides. In the present study, a column packed with zeolite was employed to study the separation of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). FOS were produced by an enzyme isolated from Rhodotorula sp., which produces GF2 (kestose), GF3 (nystose) and GF4 (frutofuranosyl nystose). The identification and quantification of the sugars were carried out by ion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). The separation of fructooligosaccharides was carried out using a fixed bed column packed with Ba2+-exchange Y zeolites. The effects of temperature (40–50 °C), injected volume per bed volume (2.55–7.64%), superficial velocity (0.1–0.15 cm min−1) and eluent composition (40–60% ethanol) were investigated using a fractionary factorial design with separation efficiency as the response. The results showed that the most favorable conditions for the separation of the oligosaccharide–glucose mixture were 60% ethanol as eluent, temperature of 50 °C, superficial velocity of 0.1 cm min−1 and 2.55% injection volume per bed volume of injection mixture, using two columns in series. The values for separation efficiency were 0.60 for oligosaccharide–glucose, 1.00 for oligosaccharide–fructose, 0.22 for oligosaccharide–sucrose, 0.43 for glucose–fructose, 0.82 for glucose–sucrose and 1.23 for fructose–sucrose.
Keywords: Fixed bed column; Fructooligosaccharides; Zeolites; Separation; Experimental design; Adsorption;

A receptor affinity chromatographic selection method was developed for screening the bioactive compounds binding to β 2-adrenoceptor (β 2-AR) in Coptidis rhizome. The bioactive compounds were analyzed by molecular recognition with a β 2-AR affinity column. The retention compounds eluted from the β 2-AR column were separated online with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography by column switching technology, and identified by a coupled ion-trap mass spectrometer. Four compounds were screened as the bioactive compounds of Coptidis rhizome and identified as 2,9,10-trimethoxy-3-hydroxyl-protoberberine (jateorhizine), 2,3-methylenedioxy-9-methoxy-protoberberine, 2,3,9,10-tetramethoxy-protoberberine (palmatine) and 2,3-methylenedioxy-9,10-dimethoxy-protoberberine (berberine). The association constants of jatrorrhizine, palmatine and berberine to the β 2-AR were determined by the zonal elution method with standards. Berberine and palmatine had only one type of binding site on the immobilized β 2-AR. Their association constants were (2.28 ± 0.11) × 104/M and (3.00 ± 0.10) × 104/M, respectively. Jatrorrhizine had at least two type of binding sites on the immobilized β 2-AR, and the corresponding association constants were (2.20 ± 0.09) × 10−4/M and (6.78 ± 0.001) × 105/M.
Keywords: Affinity chromatography; β 2-Adrenoceptor; Coptidis rhizome; Bioactive compound; Column switching;

In the present study, a simple and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FD) method was developed to determine TJ0711 hydrochloride, a novel α- and β-receptor blocker. TJ0711 hydrochloride and verapamil hydrochloride (the internal standard) were separated on Knauer Eurospher C18 (250 mm × 4.0 mm i.d., 5 μm) column at 50 °C. The mobile phase was methanol:perchloric acid (12 nM, aq) (56:44, v:v), with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The wavelengths of FD were set at 246 nm for excitation and 300 nm for emission. For plasma samples of rats, the analytes were extracted with acetic ether from alkalinized plasma, and then back-extracted into 10 mM dilute sulfuric acid. The linearity was over a concentration range of 20–10,000 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions referred by relative standard deviation were less than 2.0% and 4.3%, respectively. The mean analytical recoveries of TJ0711 hydrochloride at different concentrations (50, 1000 and 8000 ng/mL) ranged from 88.3% to 92.9%. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 20 ng/mL. Finally, this method was successfully applied to the estimation of pharmacokinetic parameters of TJ0711 hydrochloride after intravenous doses of 4, 8 and 16 mg/kg in rats.
Keywords: TJ0711 hydrochloride; α11-Adrenoceptor blocker; HPLC; Pharmacokinetics; Liquid–liquid extraction;

Analysis of 12 beta-lactam antibiotics in human plasma by HPLC with ultraviolet detection by Brett C. McWhinney; Steven C. Wallis; Tara Hillister; Jason A. Roberts; Jeffrey Lipman; Jacobus P.J. Ungerer (2039-2043).
A simple and economical high performance liquid chromatography method was developed and validated for routine analysis of 12 Penicillin, Cephalosporin and Carbapenem antibiotics in 200 μL of human plasma. Antibiotics determined were Ceftazidime, Meropenem, Ceftriaxone, Ampicillin, Cefazolin, Ertapenem, Cephalothin, Benzylpenicillin, Flucloxacillin, Dicloxacillin, Piperacillin and Ticarcillin. There was a common sample preparation approach involving precipitation of proteins with acetonitrile and removal of lipid-soluble components by a chloroform wash. Separations were performed on a Waters X-bridge C18 column with, depending on analytes, one of three acetonitrile–phosphate buffer mobile phases. Detection was by UV at 210, 260 and 304 nm. Validation has demonstrated the method to be linear, accurate and precise. The method has been used in a pathology laboratory for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of beta-lactams in critically ill patients.
Keywords: HPLC; beta-Lactam; Antibiotic; Plasma; Validation; TDM;