Journal of Chromatography B (v.878, #2)

Immunoaffinity column clean-up techniques in food analysis: A review by Hamide Z. Şenyuva; John Gilbert (115-132).
This review provides a critical assessment of the applications of immunoaffinity columns for sample clean-up in the field of food safety. The performance of immunoaffinity columns are compared in terms of specificity, binding capacity and recovery, and commercial disposable columns are contrasted with home-made columns. Areas covered include multiple-use of columns, multiple-analyte columns, use with automated systems and validation of IAC methods. Publications illustrating the many varied applications of IAC for sample clean-up in the areas of mycotoxins, veterinary drug residues, pesticide residues, environmental contaminants and vitamins have been compiled, comparing extraction methods, achievable recovery, and illustrating the variety of end-detection methods that have been employed.
Keywords: Immunoaffinity columns; Clean-up; Antibodies; Applications; Food safety analysis;

Immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC), mass spectrometry and especially tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) represent the most efficient and reliable analytical techniques for specific isolation, unequivocal identification and accurate quantification of numerous natural and synthetic substances in biological samples. This review article focuses on the combined use of these outstanding methodologies in basic and clinical research and in life sciences for the quantitative analysis of low- and high-molecular mass biomarkers, drugs and toxins in urine, plasma or serum samples, in tissue and other biologicals systems published in the last decade. The analytes discussed in some detail include the biomarkers of oxidative stress 15(S)-8-iso-prostaglandin F {15(S)-8-iso-PGF} and 3-nitrotyrosine, the major urinary metabolite of the lipid mediators cysteinyl leukotrienes, i.e., the leukotriene E4 (LTE4), melatonin, and the major collagen type II neoepitope peptide in human urine.
Keywords: Accuracy; Biomarkers; Drugs; GC–MS and GC–MS/MS; LC–MS and LC–MS/MS; Pathways; Quantification; Specificity;

Biopharmaceutical production: Applications of surface plasmon resonance biosensors by Pranavan Thillaivinayagalingam; Julien Gommeaux; Michael McLoughlin; David Collins; Anthony R. Newcombe (149-153).
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) permits the quantitative analysis of therapeutic antibody concentrations and impurities including bacteria, Protein A, Protein G and small molecule ligands leached from chromatography media. The use of surface plasmon resonance has gained popularity within the biopharmaceutical industry due to the automated, label free, real time interaction that may be exploited when using this method. The application areas to assess protein interactions and develop analytical methods for biopharmaceutical downstream process development, quality control, and in-process monitoring are reviewed.
Keywords: Biacore; Binding; Biotherapeutic; Interaction; Antibody; Kinetic; Biosensor;

Centrifugal precipitation chromatography by Yoichiro Ito; Lin Qi (154-164).
Centrifugal precipitation chromatography separates analytes according their solubility in ammonium sulfate (AS) solution and other precipitants. The separation column is made from a pair of long spiral channels partitioned with a semipermeable membrane. In a typical separation, concentrated ammonium sulfate is eluted through one channel while water is eluted through the other channel in the opposite direction. This countercurrent process forms an exponential AS concentration gradient through the water channel. Consequently, protein samples injected into the water channel is subjected to a steadily increasing AS concentration and at the critical AS concentration they are precipitated and deposited in the channel bed by the centrifugal force. Then the chromatographic separation is started by gradually reducing the AS concentration in the AS channel which lowers the AS gradient concentration in the water channel. This results in dissolution of deposited proteins which are again precipitated at an advanced critical point as they move through the channel. Consequently, proteins repeat precipitation and dissolution through a long channel and finally eluted out from the column in the order of their solubility in the AS solution. The present method has been successfully applied to a number of analytes including human serum proteins, recombinant ketosteroid isomerase, carotenoid cleavage enzymes, plasmid DNA, polysaccharide, polymerized pigments, PEG-protein conjugates, etc. The method is capable to single out the target species of proteins by affinity ligand or immunoaffinity separation.
Keywords: Centerifugal precipitation chromatography; Protein purification by ammonium sulfate; Rotary-seal-free flow-through centrifuge; Separation of proteins;

A system based on high-performance affinity chromatography was developed for characterizing the binding, elution and regeneration kinetics of immobilized antibodies and immunoaffinity supports. This information was provided by using a combination of frontal analysis, split-peak analysis and peak decay analysis to determine the rate constants for antibody–antigen interactions under typical sample application and elution conditions. This technique was tested using immunoaffinity supports that contained monoclonal antibodies for 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Association equilibrium constants measured by frontal analysis for 2,4-D and related compounds with the immobilized antibodies were 1.7–12 × 106  M−1 at pH 7.0 and 25 °C. Split-peak analysis gave association rate constants of 1.4–12 × 105  M−1  s−1 and calculated dissociation rate constants of 0.01–0.4 s−1 under the application conditions. Elution at pH 2.5 for the analytes from the antibodies was examined by peak decay analysis and gave dissociation rate constants of 0.056–0.17 s−1. A comparison of frontal analysis results after various periods of column regeneration allowed the rate of antibody regeneration to be examined, with the results giving a first-order regeneration rate constant of 2.4 × 10−4  s−1. This combined approach and the information it provides should be useful in the design and optimization of immunoaffinity chromatography and other analytical methods that employ immobilized antibodies. The methods described are not limited to the particular analytes and antibodies employed in this study but should be useful in characterizing other targets, ligands and supports.
Keywords: Biointeraction analysis; Immunoaffinity chromatography; High-performance affinity chromatography; Split-peak analysis; Peak decay analysis; Frontal affinity chromatography; Antibody–antigen interactions; Kinetic studies;

Liposome-based immunoaffinity chromatographic assay for the quantitation of immunoglobulin E in human serum by Ja-an Annie Ho; Li-Chen Wu; Li-Hui Chang; Kuo-Chu Hwang; Jih-Ru Reuben Hwu (172-176).
Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated type I allergies affect over 25% of the world's population; they are among the most common diseases in developed countries. Therefore, simple and rapid in vivo and in vitro methods for diagnosing allergies are becoming increasingly important. In this paper, we demonstrate the feasibility of using sulforhodamine B, a fluorescent dye, entrapped inside immunoliposomes, the outer surfaces of which were sensitized with IgE, as a signal amplifier for the development of a simple, rapid, and inexpensive colorimetric affinity chromatographic immunoassay for the detection of total IgE in serum. This assay operates based on competition between standards (or human serum samples) containing IgE and IgE-sensitized immunoliposomes for the limited number of antigen binding sites of immobilized anti-IgE antibodies at the antigen capture (AC) zone on the nitrocellulose membranes. The color density of the AC zone is indirectly proportional to the number of IgE units present in the test sample. The detection limit of this liposome-based immunoaffinity chromatographic assay was 0.37 ng in IgE-free serum solution (equivalent to 20 μL of a 18.5 ng mL−1 solution). A commercially available ELISA kit was used as a reference method to validate the proposed assay through the analysis of three human serum samples.
Keywords: Immunoglobulin E; Liposome; Immunoassay; Chromatographic assay;

Production and characterization of a genetically engineered anti-caffeine camelid antibody and its use in immunoaffinity chromatography by Elliott J. Franco; Gregory J. Sonneson; Thomas J. DeLegge; Heike Hofstetter; James R. Horn; Oliver Hofstetter (177-186).
This work demonstrates the feasibility of using a camelid single domain antibody for immunoaffinity chromatographic separation of small molecules. An anti-caffeine VHH antibody was produced by grafting the complementarity determining sequences of a previously generated antibody onto an anti-RNase A antibody scaffold, followed by expression in E. coli. Analysis of the binding properties of the antibody by ELISA and fluorescence-based thermal shift assays showed that it recognizes not only caffeine, but also theophylline, theobromine, and paraxanthine, albeit with lower affinity. Further investigation of the effect of environmental conditions, i.e., temperature, pH, and ionic strength, on the antibody using these methods provided useful information about potential elution conditions to be used in chromatographic applications. Immobilization of the VHH onto a high flow-through synthetic support material resulted in a stationary phase capable of separating caffeine and its metabolites.
Keywords: Caffeine; Camelid antibody; CDR grafting; Immunoaffinity chromatography; Small molecule; VHH;

Determination of deoxynivalenol in organic and conventional food and feed by sol–gel immunoaffinity chromatography and HPLC–UV detection by Christine Klinglmayr; Katharina Nöbauer; Ebrahim Razzazi-Fazeli; Margit Cichna-Markl (187-193).
The paper describes the determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) in 55 wheat food and feed samples, 26 from conventional and 29 from organic production. Immunoaffinity columns prepared by entrapping anti-DON antibodies by the sol–gel method were used for sample clean-up. DON was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultraviolet (UV) detection. In general, the incidence of DON contamination was rather low. In eight samples (14.5%) the DON concentration was above the LOQ (380 ng/g), in six samples (10.9%) DON was detected but could not be quantified (>LOD (200 ng/g), <LOQ). In seven conventional samples (two pasta, two cookie, two snack and one feed sample) but only in one organic sample (a snack) the DON concentration was >LOQ. The data indicate both a higher incidence of DON contamination and higher DON concentrations in food and feed samples from conventional than in those from organic production.
Keywords: Sol–gel; Immunoaffinity chromatography; Sample clean-up; Deoxynivalenol; Mycotoxin; Wheat; Food; Feed; Organic production;

Neurotrophins, including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), neurotrophin-4 (NT-4), and β-nerve growth factor (β-NGF), play an active role in the development, maintenance and survival of cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Previous research has indicated that a decrease in concentrations of these neurotrophins is often associated with cell death and ultimately patient demise. However, much of the research conducted analyses of samples taken directly from the CNS, i.e., of samples that are not readily available in clinical trauma centers. In an attempt to obtain a method for evaluating neurotrophins in a more readily accessible matrix, i.e., serum, a precise and accurate immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis (ICE) method was developed and applied to measure neurotrophins in serum from patients with various degrees of head injury. The five neurotrophins of interest were extracted and concentrated by specific immunochemically immobilized antibodies, bound directly to the capillary wall, and eluted and separated in approximately 10 min. NT-3, BDNF, CNTF and β-NGF showed a marked decrease in concentration as the severity of the head injury increased: mild versus severe: 91% decrease for NT-3; 93 % decrease for BDNF; 93 % decrease for CNTF; and a 87 % decrease for β-NGF. This decrease in concentration is consistent with the neuro-protective roles that neurotrophins play in the maintenance and survival of neuronal cells. The results obtained by the ICE method were closely comparable with those generated by a commercially available ELISA method.
Keywords: CE; Head trauma; Immunoaffinity; Neurotrophins; Serum;

Analysis of lysozyme in cheese by immunocapture mass spectrometry by Nadine Schneider; Cord-Michael Becker; Monika Pischetsrieder (201-206).
The enzyme lysozyme is used as a preservative to prevent late blowing of ripened cheese, caused by Clostridium tyrobutyricum. Since the enzyme is extracted from hen egg white, lysozyme has to be declared on food product labels as a potential allergen. Here, a method is reported that combines immunocapture purification and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis for the detection of lysozyme in cheese samples. Cheese extracts were treated with magnetic particles coated with a monoclonal antibody directed against lysozyme. After immunocapture purification, lysozyme was detected by MALDI-TOF-MS. The limit of detection of the assay was about 5 mg/kg lysozyme in cheese. The method reliably distinguished between cheese samples which had been produced with and without lysozyme. Thus, the novel assay allows the reliable, sensitive, and specific detection of lysozyme in a food matrix. The assay could be easily adapted to other target peptides and proteins in complex food matrices and, therefore, has a broad application potential, e.g. for the analysis of allergens.
Keywords: Cheese; Lysozyme; Immunocapture mass spectrometry; Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry;

Simultaneous determination of thiamphenicol, florfenicol and florfenicol amine in swine muscle by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry with immunoaffinity chromatography clean-up by Pengjie Luo; Xia Chen; Chunlai Liang; Hua Kuang; Liming Lu; Zhigang Jiang; Zhanhui Wang; Cun Li; Suxia Zhang; Jianzhong Shen (207-212).
A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS/MS) method to quantify thiamphenicol (TAP), florfenicol (FF), and florfenicol amine (FFA) in swine muscle is described. An immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) column based on polyclonal antibodies and protein A-sepharose CL 4B was used to clean-up extracted samples. IAC optimized conditions were found that allowed the IAC to be reused for selective binding of TAP, FF, and FFA. The dynamic column capacity was more than 512 ng/mL of gel after being used for 15 cycles. From fortified swine muscle samples at levels of 0.4–50 ng/g, the average recoveries were 85.2–98.9% with intra- and inter-day variations less than 9.8% and 12.4%, respectively. The limit of quantitation ranged from 0.4 to 4.0 μg/kg.
Keywords: LC–ESI-MS/MS; Immunoaffinity chromatography; Thiamphenicol; Florfenicol; Florfenicol amine; Swine muscle;

A total on-line analysis of a target protein from a plasma sample was made using a selective immunoextraction step coupled on-line to an immobilized enzymatic reactor (IMER) for the protein digestion followed by LC–MS/MS analysis. For the development of this device, cytochrome c was chosen as model protein due to its well-known sequence. An immunosorbent (IS) based on the covalent immobilization of anti-cytochrome c antibodies on a solid support was made and an immunoextraction procedure was carefully developed to assess a selective extraction of the target protein from plasma. For the first time, IS was easily coupled on-line with a laboratory-made IMER based on pepsin. The whole on-line device (IS-IMER-LC-MS/MS) allowed the quantification of cytochrome c from 8.5 pmol to 1.7 nmol in buffer medium. Finally, this device was applied to the analysis of only 85 pmol of cytochrome c from plasma with a RSD value lower than 10% (n  = 3).
Keywords: Immunoextraction; Immobilized pepsin; On-line analysis; Protein analysis; LC–MS/MS;

LC–MS/MS coupled with immunoaffinity extraction for determination of estrone, 17β-estradiol and estrone 3-sulfate in human plasma by Jun Hosogi; Hideyuki Tanaka; Kazuhiro Fujita; Takashi Kuwabara; Shigeo Ikegawa; Norihiro Kobayashi; Nariyasu Mano; Junichi Goto (222-227).
Determination of estrogens in plasma is important in evaluation of effects of some anticancer drugs, such as aromatase inhibitors. However, as reported previously, high performance liquid chromatography–radio immunoassay (HPLC–RIA) and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) with chemical derivatization require complicated sample preparation. In this study, a highly sensitive and simple method for determination of estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone 3-sulfate (E1S) in human plasma has been developed. Following diethylether extraction from plasma, analytes were purified by immunosorbents and then determined by LC–MS/MS using electrospray ionization (ESI). Immunosorbents were prepared by immobilization of specific antibodies raised against each analyte onto solid support. Use of selective immunosorbents in sample preparation removed interference in plasma samples that would cause ionization suppression, and markedly improved the sensitivity of LC–MS/MS for these analytes, without derivatization. Calibration curves of each analyte showed good linearity and reproducibility over the range of 0.05–50 pg/injection for E1, 0.2–50 pg/injection for E2 and 0.05–300 pg/injection for E1S, respectively. The mean values of lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) in human plasma corrected by recovery of deuterated estrogens (internal standard, I.S.) were 0.1892 pg/mL for E1, 0.7064 pg/mL for E2 and 0.3333 pg/mL for E1S, respectively. These LLOQ values were comparable to those previous reported using HPLC–RIA and LC–MS/MS. Using this method, the normal levels of three estrogens in healthy female plasma (n  = 5) were determined. The mean values of E1, E2 and E1S were 38.0 pg/mL (range 24.8–53.0), 34.3 pg/mL (22.6–46.6) and 786 pg/mL (163–2080), respectively. The immunoaffinity LC–MS/MS described here allows sensitive and accurate quantification of E1, E2 and E1S without laborious sample preparation.
Keywords: Estradiol; Estrone; Estrone sulfate; LC–MS/MS; Immunoaffinity extraction;

Microfluidic, bead-based assay: Theory and experiments by Jason A. Thompson; Haim H. Bau (228-236).
Microbeads are frequently used as a solid support for biomolecules such as proteins and nucleic acids in heterogeneous microfluidic assays. However, relatively few studies investigate the binding kinetics on modified bead surfaces in a microfluidics context. In this study, a customized hot embossing technique is used to stamp microwells in a thin plastic substrate where streptavidin-coated agarose beads are selectively placed and subsequently immobilized within a conduit. Biotinylated quantum dots are used as a label to monitor target analyte binding to the bead's surface. Three-dimensional finite element simulations are carried out to model the binding kinetics on the bead's surface. The model accounts for surface exclusion effects resulting from a single quantum dot occluding multiple receptor sites. The theoretical predictions are compared and favorably agree with experimental observations. The theoretical simulations provide a useful tool to predict how varying parameters affect microbead reaction kinetics and sensor performance. This study enhances our understanding of bead-based microfluidic assays and provides a design tool for developers of point-of-care, lab-on-chip devices for medical diagnosis, food and water quality inspection, and environmental monitoring.
Keywords: Biosensors; Microfluidics; Agarose beads; Numerical simulation;

A regenerable flow-through affinity sensor for label-free detection of proteins and DNA by Maria Zavali; Panagiota S. Petrou; Dimitrios Goustouridis; Ioannis Raptis; Konstantinos Misiakos; Sotirios E. Kakabakos (237-242).
Label-free monitoring of biomolecular reactions in real-time is of great interest since it can provide valuable information about binding kinetics and equilibrium constants. In this report, a sensor based on White Light Reflectance Spectroscopy (WLRS) is presented that is capable of real-time monitoring of biomolecular reactions taking place on top of a polymer covered silicon dioxide reflective surface. The optical set-up consists of a visible–near infrared light source, a bifurcated optical fiber and a spectrometer. The outer part of the optical fiber guides the light vertically onto the surface where the biomolecular reactions occur, whereas the reflected light is driven from the central part of the fiber to the spectrometer. A microfluidic module in combination with a pump supplies the reagents at a constant rate. The biomolecular interactions are monitored as shifts of the wavelength of the interference minimum. The proposed methodology was applied for real-time and label-free monitoring mouse gamma-globulins binding onto immobilized anti-mouse IgG antibody. Mouse gamma-globulins at concentrations down to 150 pM were detected in reaction times of 1-min. Regeneration of immobilized antibody was accomplished up to seven times without loss of its activity. In addition, real-time monitoring of hybridization reaction between complementary oligonucleotides was accomplished. The proposed sensor provides a simple, fast, low cost approach for label-free monitoring of biomolecular interactions and therefore it should by suitable for a wide range of analytical applications.
Keywords: Label-free; Real-time signal monitoring; White Light Reflectance Spectroscopy; Mouse gamma-globulins assay; Oligonucleotide hybridization;

A high-throughput immunosorbent solid-phase extraction (HTS-IS-SPE) procedure coupled to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been established for the analysis of stanozolol (St) and its main metabolite in cattle, 16β-hydroxy-stanozolol (16βOH-St), in cow urine samples. The chemical structure of the immunizing hapten 2′H-androst-2-eno[3,2-c]-pyrazol-17-hemiglutarate 5 (hapten A) has been designed to accomplish simultaneous detection of St and 16βOH-St. The antibodies obtained have been used to establish a microplate ELISA method able to detect these metabolites with IC50 values of 0.57 μg L−1 and 1.46 μg L−1, respectively in PBST. Immunosorbents prepared by covalently attaching the antibodies to Sepharose, efficiently removed the matrix interferences caused by the cattle urine samples. Moreover, St and 16βOH-St were efficiently extracted from urine samples as demonstrated by LC–MS/MS analysis. The immunosorbents are filled on small mini-columns arranges on a 96-SPE-setup compatible with the microplate based ELISA methods. Samples and standards can be run in parallel which increment considerably the speed of the screening method. The recovery values of the whole HTS-IS-SPE-ELISA procedure has found to be 112 ± 10% and St can be detected in hydrolyzed urine samples with LOD of 1.26 ± 0.46 μg L−1 using just 1 mL of sample. As proof-of-concept the urinary excretion profile of St treated animals has been investigated by analyzing individual sampling points. Results from pooled urine samples have also been compared with the results obtained by GC–MS analysis demonstrating the StIR equiv. measured with the HTS-IS-SPE-ELISA protocol are in accordance with the St and 16βOH-St levels found with the chromatographic method. The analytical procedure is rapid, effective and the detectability achieved is below the MPRL (minimum performance required levels) recommended by CRL (Community Reference Laboratory) to the European Community.
Keywords: Stanozolol; 16b-hydroxy-stanozolol; ELISA; Antibody; High-throughput; Screening; Cow urine; Immunosorbent; Immunoaffinity column;

In this paper, we have developed and characterized a microfluidic magnetic immunosensor coupled to a gold electrode for the rapid and sensitive quantification of human serum IgG antibodies to Helicobacter pylori. This microorganism cause peptic ulcers and chronic gastritis, affecting around the 10% of the world population. The sensor was completely automated and the antibodies detection in serum samples was carried out using a non-competitive immunoassay based on the use of purified H. pylori antigens that are immobilized on magnetic microspheres 3-aminopropyl-modified. The magnetic microbeads were injected into microchannel devices and manipulated for an external removable magnet. The IgG antibodies in human serum sample are allowed to react immunologically with the immobilized antigens, and the bounded antibodies are quantified by alkaline phosphatase (AP) enzyme-labeled second antibodies specific to human IgG. The p-aminophenyl phosphate (p-APP) was converted to p-aminophenol (p-AP) by AP and an electroactive product was detected on gold layer electrode at 0.250 V. The response current obtained from the product of enzymatic reaction is directly proportional to the activity of the enzyme and, consequently, to the amount of IgG antibodies to H. pylori in serum samples. The electrochemical detection can be done within 1 min and total assay time was 25 min. The calculated detection limits for electrochemical detection and the ELISA procedure were 0.37 and 2.1 U mL−1, respectively, and the within- and between-assay coefficients of variation were below 5%. Our results indicate the potential usefulness of our fabricated microbiochip for the early assessment of human serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to H. pylori.
Keywords: Enzyme immunoassays; Helicobacter pylori; Paramagnetic beads; Alkaline phosphatase; Microfluidic; Flow injection analysis;

Internally calibrated quantification of VEGF in human plasma by fluorescence immunoassays in disposable elastomeric microfluidic devices by David H. Lin; Clive R. Taylor; W. French Anderson; Axel Scherer; Emil P. Kartalov (258-263).
Herein we report on a proof of principle for the reproducible quantification of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) in human plasma by fluorescence sandwich immunoassays using disposable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chips. The system requires 100 times less sample than typical clinical blood tests, while its current quantification limit is established at 4 pM. The in-built calibration method of spiking the plasma with known concentrations of commercially available antigen avoids common sources of error and improves the reliability of the test results. The demonstrated technique is important for immunoassay applications in fundamental scientific research and “point-of-care” (POC) biomedical diagnostics. In particular, the system is immediately applicable to microfluidic quantification of VEGF in human plasma in cancer studies.
Keywords: Plasma; Immunoassay; Microfluidic; Fluorescence; VEGF; Diagnostic;

Immunoaffinity approaches remain invaluable tools for characterization and quantitation of biopolymers. Their application in separation science is often limited due to the challenges of immunoassay development. Typical end-point immunoassays require time consuming and labor-intensive approaches for optimization. Real-time label-free analysis using diffractive optics technology (dot®) helps guide a very effective iterative process for rapid immunoassay development. Both label-free and amplified approaches can be used throughout feasibility testing and ultimately in the final assay, providing a robust platform for biopolymer analysis over a very broad dynamic range. We demonstrate the use of dot in rapidly developing assays for quantitating (1) human IgG in complex media, (2) a fusion protein in production media and (3) protein A contamination in purified immunoglobulin preparations.
Keywords: Label-free; Biosensor; Diffraction; Protein A; Regeneration;

Immunogold–silver staining-on-a-chip biosensor based on cross-flow chromatography by Il-Hoon Cho; Sung-Min Seo; Eui-Hwan Paek; Se-Hwan Paek (271-277).
Immunogold–silver staining (IGSS) was adopted in cross-flow chromatographic analysis in which immunological reactions and silver intensification were sequentially conducted in the vertical and horizontal directions, respectively. Factors controlling the performance, except the silver substrate solution, were optimized to increase the signal-to-background ratio in measurements of cardiac troponin I as a model analyte. In generating the signal, the size of colloidal gold catalyst was critical; the smallest size (5-nm diameter) in the selected range yielded the highest colorimetric signal. To maintain the low background, two processes, blocking the remaining surfaces of membrane after antibody immobilization and washing the residual tracer after immunological reaction, were necessary. Self-nucleation of silver ions also caused a background signal and was controlled to some degree by decreasing the hydrodynamic force that arose when the substrate solution was supplied in the horizontal direction. Finally, a new chip (IGSS-on-a-chip; IOC) that allowed for convenient, efficient IGSS was produced by injection molding of plastic. This method enhanced the detection capability by 51-fold compared to the conventional rapid test kit using 30 nm-sized colloidal gold as the tracer. The IOC biosensor results also showed that silver intensification yield via cross flow after immunological reaction was 19% higher than that by traditional incubation.
Keywords: Silver intensification; Non-laboratory immunoassay; Background staining control; Self-nucleation of silver ions; Detection capability; Cardiac troponin I;

A class-specific monolithic immunoaffinity column was developed for on-line clean-up of pyrethroid insecticides in complex samples. Deltamethrin was oxidized with ozone to generate the hapten of (RS)-α-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl (RS)-cis,trans-2,2-dimethyl-3-formyl-cyclopropane carboxylate. Class-specific antibodies against pyrethroids were produced using the conjugate of above hapten with bovine serum albumin as the immunogen. Poly(ethylene dimethacrylate-glycidyl methacrylate) monolith was synthesized in a 50 mm × 4.6 mm i.d. stainless steel cartridge with two auxiliary pipette tips. The polymerization method was proved to be economic and reproducible. Antibodies against pyrethroids were covalently immobilized onto the monolithic support via Schiff base reaction. With a column-switching valve system, the immunoaffinity monolith (IAM) could be readily adapted to the reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. Under the optimum loading, washing and eluting conditions, the IAM specifically retained deltamethrin, flumethrin, flucythrinate and cis/trans permethrin, which were further baseline separated by C18 column using acetonitrile–water (83:17, V/V) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. The established system provides a highly efficient approach for high-throughput on-line clean-up of pyrethroid in various samples.
Keywords: Immunoaffinity monolith; Class-specific; Pyrethroid; On-line clean-up;