Journal of Chromatography B (v.877, #20-21)

Overoxidized polypyrrole/multi-walled carbon nanotubes (OPPy/MWNTs) modified electrode has been developed for sensitively detecting dopamine (DA). OPPy films developed outside MWNTs might have a porous morphology. Thus, OPPy/MWNTs films developed by this method do not reject ascorbic acid (AA). However, OPPy/MWNTs modified electrode shows largely enhancing oxidative current responses of DA. When combined with liquid chromatography, it not only obtains a low detection limit of 7.5 × 10−10  mol L−1 for DA, but also improves the selectivity of DA detection. Mechanisms for the enhancement are also well discussed in this paper. With this approach, microdialysis has been employed for successful assessment of DA in rat striatum.
Keywords: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes; Overoxidized polypyrrole; Chemically modified electrode; Dopamine;

A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the first time for the estimation of Tenacissoside A in the rats’ plasma, which is the major active constituent in Marsdenia tenacissima. Tenacissoside A was extracted from the rats’ plasma by using liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), medroxyprogesterone acetate was used as the internal standard. An Alltech C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) was used to provide chromatographic separation by detection with mass spectrometry operating in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. The method was validated over the concentration range of 1–250 ng/mL for Tenacissoside A. The precisions within and between-batch (CV%) were both less than 15% and accuracy ranged from 90 to 102%. The lower limit of quantification was 1 ng/mL and extraction recovery was 88.3% on average. The validated method was used to study the pharmacokinetic profile of Tenacissoside A in rat after administration.
Keywords: Tenacissoside A; LC–MS/MS; Pharmacokinetics;

This paper reports the validation of a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method that allows the quantification of 10 antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) using 6 different isotopic internal standards (IS) and its clinical application. PBMCs are isolated from blood by density gradient centrifugation and drugs are extracted with a 60% methanol (MeOH) solution containing the 6 IS. The cell extract is then injected in the HPLC system and analytes are separated on a Symmetry Shield RP18 2.1 mm × 50 mm column. The different molecules are then detected by MS/MS in electrospray positive or negative ionisation modes and data are recorded using the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Calibration curves are constructed in the range of 0.25–125 ng/ml of cell extract by a 1/x 2 weighted quadratic regression. The regression coefficients obtained are always greater than 0.99 and back calculated values always comprised in the range of ±15% from their nominal concentration. Mean extraction recoveries are greater than 80% for all analytes and the method is accurate and precise with CV and bias lower than 9.4%. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) of the different drugs range from 0.0125 to 0.2 ng/ml of cell extract. This method was successfully applied to a cohort of 98 HIV-infected patients treated with Kaletra® (400/100 mg of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/RTV) twice a day, n  = 48) or with Stocrin® (600 mg once a day, n  = 50) and has been tested for cellular quantification of tipranavir (TPV) in 2 patients treated with Aptivus® (500 mg twice a day). The patients treated by Kaletra® showed mean cell-associated concentrations (CC) of 1819.0 and 917.2 ng/ml, for LPV and RTV, respectively. Patients treated with Stocrin® showed mean CC of 2388.11 ng/ml while both patients under Aptivus® showed TPV CC of 4322.7 and 1078.0 ng/ml, respectively. This method can be used to analyze ARV drug concentrations within the target tissue.
Keywords: Liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry; Anti-HIV drugs; Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells; Isotopic dilution; Quantitative determination;

An improved HPLC method is presented, which allows separation and quantification of a broad range of lipid classes of marine zooplankton with special regard to neutral lipids. Marine zooplankton species often produce high amounts of exceptional lipids, especially at high latitudes, in order to cope with the harsh environmental conditions and strong seasonality in food supply. Major neutral lipid classes are wax esters, triacylglycerols, diacylglycerol ethers, free fatty alcohols and sterols. Neutral and polar lipids were separated and identified on a monolithic silica column (Chromolith®Performance-Si) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an evaporative light scattering detector (ELSD). The method resolves a broad spectrum of lipids, varying in polarity from squalene to lysophosphatidylcholine in a single run. The total run time was 35 min including column re-equilibration. The calibration was made at levels of 0.1–60 μg lipid/injection, but a 10–15-fold greater amount can be injected if single lipid classes need to be separated, e.g. for further determination of individual fatty acids. The method was applied to representative Arctic zooplankton species (copepods, pteropods, euphausiids and ctenophores) that are known to biosynthesize in particular neutral lipids like diacylglycerol ethers and free fatty alcohols.
Keywords: Marine lipids; Lipid classes; Monolithic column; HPLC–ELSD; Zooplankton;

A specific ultra-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of puerarin, daidzein, baicalin, wogonoside and liquiritin in rat plasma. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column packed with 1.7 μm particles by a linear gradient elution. The analytes and carbamazepine (internal standard, I.S.) were monitored in a selected-ion reaction (SIR) mode with a positive electrospray ionization (ESI) interface by the following ions: m/z 417.2 for puerarin, m/z 255.2 for daidzein, m/z 271.0 for baicalin, m/z 461.0 for wogonoside, m/z 441.0 for liquiritin and m/z 237.2 for carbamazepine (I.S.), respectively. The calibration curves of these analytes were linear over the concentration ranges from 0.00254–1.02 μg mL−1 to 0.0102–10.2 μg mL−1. Within-batch and between-batch precisions (RSD%) were all within 15% and accuracy (RE%) ranged from −10% to 10%. The extraction recoveries were on average 79.8% for puerarin, 90.8% for daidzein, 74.4% for baicalin, 70.2% for wogonoside and 84.7% for liquiritin. The validated method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of five bioactive compounds of GegenQinlian decoction (GQD) in rats.
Keywords: Determination; GegenQinlian decoction (GQD); Ultra-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS);

Development of a high performance anion exchange chromatography analysis for mapping of oligosaccharides by Carl Grey; Per Edebrink; Maria Krook; Sven P. Jacobsson (1827-1832).
In the present study a HPAEC-PAD method is described that was developed for monitoring the consistency of N-glycosylation during the production and purification of recombinant proteins and monoclonal antibodies. The method successfully separated 18 neutral and sialylated oligosaccharides. Results obtained were compared with MALDI-TOF MS and it was shown that both methods gave similar results. In addition, a method validation was performed showing that the HPAEC-PAD analysis was well suited for the mapping and characterization of oligosaccharides. The method was found to be robust and additionally the precision was significantly better compared to the MALDI-TOF MS method.
Keywords: HPAEC-PAD; MALDI-TOF MS; Oligosaccharides; N-glycosylation; Glycoprotein; Monoclonal antibodies;

Frontal analysis of cell-membrane chromatography for determination of drug-α1D adrenergic receptor affinity by Aiguo Zeng; Bingxiang Yuan; Changhe Wang; Guangde Yang; Langchong He (1833-1837).
The aim of the present study was to determine drug-α1D adrenergic receptor (AR) affinity by frontal analysis of cell-membrane chromatography (CMC). The cell-membrane stationary phase (CMSP) was prepared by immobilizing rat aorta cell membranes on porous silica, and the resulting CMSP was used to determine drug binding affinity to α1D-AR by frontal analysis. The CMSP of rat aorta was stable and reproducible. Relative binding affinities (dissociation constant, K d) were determined by frontal chromatography for prazosin (166.13 ± 18.36 nmol), BMY7378 (537.40 ± 30.84 nmol), phentolamine (646.92 ± 23.17 nmol), 5-methylurapidil (725.66 ± 25.48 nmol), oxymetazoline (910.56 ± 40.62 nmol) and methoxamine (1299.27 ± 51.73 nmol). These results were consistent with the affinity rank order and showed a good correlation with the affinity of the same compounds for the cloned α1D-AR subtype obtained from radioligand-binding assay. The study demonstrates that frontal analysis of CMC may be used for direct determination of drug–receptor binding interactions, and that CMC is an alternative reliable method to quantitatively study ligand–receptor interactions.
Keywords: Cell-membrane chromatography; Frontal analysis; α1D adrenergic receptor; Rat aorta; Dissociation constant;

Urinary amino acid analysis: A comparison of iTRAQ®–LC–MS/MS, GC–MS, and amino acid analyzer by Hannelore Kaspar; Katja Dettmer; Queenie Chan; Scott Daniels; Subodh Nimkar; Martha L. Daviglus; Jeremiah Stamler; Paul Elliott; Peter J. Oefner (1838-1846).
Urinary amino acid analysis is typically done by cation-exchange chromatography followed by post-column derivatization with ninhydrin and UV detection. This method lacks throughput and specificity. Two recently introduced stable isotope ratio mass spectrometric methods promise to overcome those shortcomings. Using two blinded sets of urine replicates and a certified amino acid standard, we compared the precision and accuracy of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) of propyl chloroformate and iTRAQ® derivatized amino acids, respectively, to conventional amino acid analysis. The GC–MS method builds on the direct derivatization of amino acids in diluted urine with propyl chloroformate, GC separation and mass spectrometric quantification of derivatives using stable isotope labeled standards. The LC–MS/MS method requires prior urinary protein precipitation followed by labeling of urinary and standard amino acids with iTRAQ® tags containing different cleavable reporter ions distinguishable by MS/MS fragmentation. Means and standard deviations of percent technical error (%TE) computed for 20 amino acids determined by amino acid analyzer, GC–MS, and iTRAQ®–LC–MS/MS analyses of 33 duplicate and triplicate urine specimens were 7.27 ± 5.22, 21.18 ± 10.94, and 18.34 ± 14.67, respectively. Corresponding values for 13 amino acids determined in a second batch of 144 urine specimens measured in duplicate or triplicate were 8.39 ± 5.35, 6.23 ± 3.84, and 35.37 ± 29.42. Both GC–MS and iTRAQ®–LC–MS/MS are suited for high-throughput amino acid analysis, with the former offering at present higher reproducibility and completely automated sample pretreatment, while the latter covers more amino acids and related amines.
Keywords: Amino acids; Urine; Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry; Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry; Amino acid analyzer; Precolumn derivatization; Stable isotope dilution; iTRAQ; Propyl chloroformate;

To make analytes amenable for fluorescence (FL) detection, polymer monolith microextraction (PMME) coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with FL detection was developed for the simultaneous determination of catechols and 5-hydroxyindoleamines (5-HIAs) from urine samples. In this method, a two-step pre-column derivatization method was employed to derivatize the analytes and a poly(methacrylic acid-co-ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) monolithic capillary column was used as the extraction medium for PMME. The conditions for the derivatization and subsequent extraction of 5-HIAs and catechols derivatives were optimized. Using our optimum conditions, the detection limit of the target analytes were 0.11–21 nM. Reproducibility of the method was obtained with intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations less than 12% and a recovery of higher than 82%. In this study, we show how our proposed method can be used as a rapid sensitive technique for the determination of catechols and 5-HIAs from urine samples.
Keywords: Catechols; 5-Hydroxyindoleamines; Derivatization; Polymer monolith microextraction; High-performance liquid chromatography;

Improved pre-concentration and detection methods for volatile sulphur breath constituents by Paweł Mochalski; Beata Wzorek; Ireneusz Śliwka; Anton Amann (1856-1866).
Suitability of different types of pre-concentration (solid phase microextraction and sorbent trapping) and detection (flame photometric detector (FPD) and mass selective detector (MSD)) for gas chromatographic determination of sulphur-containing compounds (H2S, MeSH, EtSH, DMS, COS and CS2) in breath-gas was assessed in this study. Several factors like influence of humidity, influence of oxygen, or stability of target compounds in extraction vessels (SPME vials and sorbent tubes) were investigated. Despite poor stability of VSCs in SPME vials and matrix effects (unfavorable influence of humidity), SPME was found to be a fast and reliable enrichment method, which coupled with mass selective detector provided satisfactory LODs of target compounds at the ppt level (from 0.15 ppb for CS2 to 2.3 ppb for H2S). Application of sorbent trapping with two-bed sorbent tubes containing Tenax TA and Carboxen 1000 gave excellent LODs (0.03–0.3 ppb for 200 ml sample and MSD). Stability of investigated VSCs in sorbents was found to be very poor (30–40% losses after 2 h). FPD showed satisfactory sensitivity only when it was coupled with sorbent trapping. Breath samples were collected into Tedlar bags in a CO2-controlled manner. Humidity was removed during sampling (permeation dryer – Nafion) to avoid unfavorable water dependent effects during analysis.
Keywords: Breath analysis; Volatile sulphur compounds; SPME; Sorbent trapping; H2S; MeSH; EtSH; DMS; COS; CS2;

Chemically synthesized 3-carbamyl-4-methylpyrroles were characterized as a group of antihypertensive agents with dual-targeting mechanism to simultaneously inhibit type 4 phosphodiesterase (PDE4) and L-type calcium channels. A 5-butyl analog of the pyrrole family, MNP001, was found to have high potency in reducing animal blood pressure and heart rate. A method for measuring MNP001 using high performance liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS) was developed. The calibration curve for MNP001 showed good linearity with the value of correlation coefficient greater than 0.987 over the range of 0.25–500 ng/mL. The results for inter-day and intra-day precision as well as accuracy were acceptable according to the criteria established by FDA. The lower limit of quantification was 0.25 ng/mL. This method was quick, sensitive and sufficient for in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies on this novel antihypertensive pyrrole compound.
Keywords: Antihypertensive; MNP001; NP06; HPLC/MS/MS; Validation;

Reversed phase and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) were successfully coupled for the on-line extraction and quantitative analysis of peptides by ESI–LC–MS/MS. A total of 11 peptides were utilized to determine the conditions for proper focusing and separation on both dimensions. Minor modifications to the initial organic composition of the first reversed-phase dimension provided options between a comprehensive (generic) or more selective approach for peptide transfer to the second HILIC dimension. Ion-pairing with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) provided adequate chromatographic retention and peak symmetry for the selected peptides on both C18 and HILIC. The resulting signal suppression from TFA was partially recovered by a post-column “TFA fix” using acetic acid yielding improvements in sensitivity. Minimal sample preparation aligned with standard on-line extraction procedures provided highly reproducible and robust results for over 300 sequential matrix injections. Final optimized conditions were successfully employed for the quantitation of peptide PTHrP (1–36) in rat K3EDTA plasma from 25.0 to 10,000 ng/mL using PTHrP (1–34) as the analog internal standard. This highly orthogonal two-dimensional configuration was found to provide the unique selectivity required to overcome issues with interfering endogenous components and minimize electrospray ionization effects in biological samples.
Keywords: Two-dimensional; HILIC; Peptide; LC–MS/MS; On-line extraction; Bioanalytical;

An improved and easy to use method for the determination of thiamin diphosphate (TDP) in 100 μl of whole blood was developed. The small sample volume makes it possible to assess the nutritional status of vitamin B1 in infants and even in preterm infants. Sample preparation comprises the extraction of TDP from whole blood by hemolysis, protein precipitation with trichloroacetic acid, and subsequent centrifugation. Potassium ferricyanide is used for pre-column derivatization of TDP to its fluorescent thiochrome derivative. Chromatographic separation was carried out using a reversed-phase column and an isocratic elution which consisted of a phosphate buffer and acetonitrile. TDP was detected fluorimetrically and quantified by external standardization. Method validation showed a high precision, almost complete recovery, and a high sensitivity. The lower limit of detection and the lower limit of quantification were 0.2 ng/ml and 4 ng/ml, respectively. Linearity was demonstrated over the expected concentration range of 4–400 ng/ml. In conclusion, we present a convenient HPLC method for the determination of TDP which is precise, sensitive and suitable for pediatric diagnostics.
Keywords: Thiamin; Thiamin diphosphate; Determination; HPLC; Preterm infants; Pediatric diagnostics;

A LC–MS/MS method was developed and validated for determination of nucleoside analog (NA) in rat plasma. The method run time was 6 min and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was estimated at 100 pg/mL. The extraction procedure consisted on plasma samples protein precipitation with an acetonitrile solution which contained the stable isotope labeled internal standard (IS). Chromatography was performed on a newly developed C16 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) in order to avoid the use ion pair salts. The samples were eluted at 0.8 mL/min with a gradient of mobile phase made of water and acetonitrile both acidified with 0.5% acetic acid and 0.025% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). A tandem mass spectrometer was used as a detector for quantitative analysis. Intra-run and inter-run precision and accuracy within ±15% were achieved during a 3-run validation for quality control samples at four concentration levels in rat plasma, over a concentration ranging between 0.1 and 1000 ng/mL. The data indicate that our LC–MS/MS assay is an effective method for the pharmacokinetics study of NA in rat plasma.
Keywords: Nucleoside analogs; LC–MS/MS; Polar compounds; TFA; Validation and pharmacokinetic;

A high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry assay for quantitation of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor nilotinib in human plasma and serum by Robert A. Parise; Merrill J. Egorin; Susan M. Christner; Dhvani D. Shah; Wei Zhou; Jan H. Beumer (1894-1900).
Nilotinib (AMN-107, Tasigna™) is a small-molecule inhibitor of BCR/ABL, approved for chronic myelogenous leukemia. We developed and validated, according to FDA-guidelines, an LC–MS assay for sensitive, accurate and precise quantitation of nilotinib in 0.2 mL human plasma or serum. After acetonitrile protein precipitation, separation is achieved with a hydro-Synergi column and a 0.1% formic acid in methanol/water-gradient. Detection uses electrospray, positive-mode ionization mass spectrometry. Between 5 (LLOQ) and 5000 ng/mL, accuracy (92.1–109.5%), intra-assay precision (2.5–7.8%), and inter-assay precision (0–5.6%)) were within FDA limits. We demonstrated the suitability of this assay by quantitating plasma concentrations of nilotinib in a healthy volunteer after oral administration of 400 mg nilotinib.
Keywords: Nilotinib; AMN-107; LC–MS; Mass spectrometry; Chronic myeloid leukemia;

Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analysis was used to study volatile and semi-volatile compounds emitted by the Eupatorium odoratum (E. odoratum) extract. Variables of HS-SPME such as the type of SPME fiber, extraction time and temperature, incubation time, desorption time and temperature have been optimized. Optimized conditions were obtained by the use of divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (DVB/CAR/PDMS) fiber, 5 min/20 min incubation/extraction time at 65 °C, 5 min desorption time at 260 °C. Using three different polar chromatographic columns to get retention index and mass spectrometry data, 99 volatile and semi-volatile compounds were tentatively identified in the E. odoratum extract. This study has identified the promising source of E. odoratum oviposition repellent.
Keywords: Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME); Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS); Eupatorium odoratum (E. odoratum); Volatile and semi-volatile compounds; Identification;

The simultaneous assay of tenofovir and emtricitabine in plasma using LC/MS/MS and isotopically labeled internal standards by Tom Delahunty; Lane Bushman; Brian Robbins; Courtney V. Fletcher (1907-1914).
An LC/MS/MS assay we published for tenofovir (TFV) plasma levels is a useful tool for monitoring the pharmacotherapy of HIV-positive individuals [T. Delahunty, L. Bushman, C.V. Fletcher, J. Chromatogr. B 830 (2006) 6–12]. A new combination therapy consisting of the TFV pro-drug (300 mg) and another reverse transcriptase inhibitor, emtricitabine (FTC, 200 mg) has become available in a convenient once-daily dosage form (Truvada). This widely used medication has prompted us to develop and validate a convenient assay to determine simultaneously TFV and FTC plasma concentrations. In view of their chemical similarity to the analytes, stable isotope internal standards (IS) were chosen. These consisted of TFV labeled uniformly with 13C in the adenine moiety (Iso-TFV) and FTC labeled with 13C and 15N in the cytosine moiety (Iso-FTC). Trifluoroacetic acid was added to the patient's EDTA plasma (containing the IS) to produce a de-proteinated extract after high speed centrifugation. The extracts were directly injected into the mobile phase (3% acetonitrile/1% acetic acid, aq.) stream flowing at 200 μL/min. A Synergi Polar-RP, 2.0 mm × 150 mm, reversed-phase analytical column was used to achieve the chromatographic separation. Detection of the analytes was achieved by ESI positive ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The precursor/product transitions (m/z) in the positive ion mode were 288/176 and 293/181 ions for TFV and Iso-TFV, respectively and the precursor/product transitions (m/z) were 248/130 and 251/133 ions for FTC and Iso-FTC, respectively. When the analyte/IS abundance ratios were plotted against the specified concentrations, the linearity of the concentration curves were in the range 10 ng/mL to 1500 ng/mL for both analytes (250 μL plasma extracted), with a minimum quantifiable limit of 10 ng/mL for both analytes. The inter- and intra-day accuracy and precision for both TFV and FTC were within ± 20% at the LLOQ and ± 15% at the other QC levels. We have expanded the method originally designed for the assay of TFV alone to incorporate the simultaneous determination of the latter and FTC using stable isotope IS. This assay has been successfully used for the periodic monitoring of 678 HIV-positive patients being treated with the combination therapy.
Keywords: Tenofovir (TFV); Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF); Emtricitabine (FTC); LC/MS/MS; Isotopic internal standards (IS); Selective reaction monitoring (SRM); Pharmacokinetics;

A method using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS) was developed to screen and confirm residues of multi-class veterinary drugs in animal tissues (porcine kidney, liver, muscle; bovine muscle). Thirty target drugs (19 β-blockers, 11 sedatives) were determined simultaneously in a single run. Homogenized tissue samples were extracted with acetonitrile and purified using a NH2 solid-phase extraction cartridge. An Acquity UPLC™ BEH C18 column was used to separate the analytes, followed by tandem mass spectrometry using an electrospray ionization source in positive mode. Recovery studies were done at three fortification levels. Overall average recoveries in pig muscle, kidney, and liver fortified at three levels from 76.4% to 118.6% based on matrix-fortified calibration with coefficients of variation from 2.2% to 19.9% (n  = 6). The limit of quantification of these compounds in different matrices was 0.5–2.0 μg/kg. This method was successfully applied in screening and confirming target drugs in >200 samples.
Keywords: β-blocker; Sedative; LC–MS/MS; Animal tissues;

The applicability of hollow fiber liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME) for extraction and preconcentration of trace amounts of pioglitazone (PGL) as an anti-diabetic drug in biological fluids, prior to determination by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), was evaluated. In this technique, the target drug was extracted into di-n-hexyl ether immobilized in the wall pores of a porous hollow fiber from 10 mL of the aqueous sample (source phase, SP) with pH 8.0, and then back extracted into the receiving phase (RP) with pH 2.2 located in the lumen of the hollow fiber. The extraction occurred due to a pH gradient between the two sides of the hollow fiber. After extracting for a prescribed time, 24 μL of the RP solution was taken back into the syringe and injected directly into a HPLC instrument for quantification. The Taguchi orthogonal array (OAD) experimental design with an OA16 (45) matrix was employed to optimize the HF-LPME conditions. Different factors affecting the HF-LPME efficiency such as the nature of organic solvent used to impregnate the membrane, pH of the SP and RP, stirring speed, extraction time and ionic strength were studied and optimized. Under the optimum conditions (di-n-hexyl ether as membrane impregnation solvent, pHs of the SP and RP equal to 8.0 and 2.2, respectively, extraction time of 30 min, stirring speed of 500 rpm and 10% (w/v) NaCl for adjusting the ionic strength), preconcentration factor of 180, linear dynamic range (LDR) of 2.5–250 μg L−1 with good correlation of determination (r 2  > 0.998) and limit of detection (LOD) of 1.0 μg L−1 were obtained for the target drug. The percent relative intra-day and inter-day standard deviations (RSDs%) based on five replicate determinations were 4.7 and 15%, respectively. Once LPME was optimized, the performance of the proposed technique was evaluated for the determination of PGL in different types of biological fluids such as plasma and urine samples. The results showed that the proposed HF-LPME method could be successfully applied to determine trace amounts of PGL in biological samples.
Keywords: HF-LPME; Orthogonal array design; Pioglitazone; Biological samples; High-performance liquid chromatography;

Ultraviolet and tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous quantification of 21 pivotal metabolites in plasma from patients with diabetic nephropathy by Jian-Fei Xia; Qiong-Lin Liang; Xiao-Ping Liang; Yi-Ming Wang; Ping Hu; Ping Li; Guo-An Luo (1930-1936).
A sensitive and specific method was developed for simultaneous determination of 21 compounds related to the diabetic nephropathy (DN) in a single analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ultraviolet and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–UV/MS/MS) in human plasma. With retention times and MS/MS for peak identification, both UV and MS detectors were used for quantification. Calibration curves suitable for the analysis of plasma were linear (r 2  > 0.998) with limits of detection (LOD) from 10 to 1000 ng/mL. Intraday relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) and interday R.S.D. were both lower than 15%. With the case and control study, we found five potential biomarkers of DN, including adenosine, inosine, uric acid, xanthine and creatinine.
Keywords: Diabetic nephropathy; Purine and pyrimidine metabolism; Ultraviolet and tandem mass spectrometry; Biomarker;

Enatiomeric determination of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol in human urine by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry by Lukáš Chytil; Martin Štícha; Olga Matoušková; František Perlík; Ondřej Slanař (1937-1942).
A GC–MS assay for stereoselective determination of tramadol and its pharmacologically active phase I metabolite O-desmethyltramadol in human urine was developed. Nefopam was used as internal standard. The method involves a simple solid phase extraction with chiral analysis by gas chromatography–electron ionization mass spectrometry using m/z 263; 58, 249; 58, and 179; 58 for the determination of concentration of tramadol, O-desmethyltramadol and internal standard, respectively. Chromatography was performed on a Rt-βDEXcst column containing alkylated beta-cyclodextrins as a chiral selector. The calibration curves were linear in the concentration range 0.1–20 μg/mL (R 2  ≥ 0.998). Intra-day accuracies ranged between 97.2–104.9%, 96.1–103.2%, and 97.3–102.8% at the lower, intermediate, and high concentration for all analytes, respectively. Inter-day accuracies ranged between 95.2–105.7%, 99.1–105.2%, and 96.5–101.2% at the lower, intermediate, and high concentration for all analytes, respectively. This method was successfully used to determine the concentration of enantiomers of T and ODT in a pharmacogenetic study.
Keywords: Tramadol; O-Desmethyltramadol; Enantiomeric separation; Metabolic phenotype; Urine; Excretion; Probe drug; Cytochrome P450 2D6;

Capillary electrophoresis determination of thiopurine methyl transferase activity in erythrocytes by Jana Tomkova; David Friedecky; Adriana Polynkova; Tomas Adam (1943-1945).
Thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT) catalyzes methylation of thiopurine drugs (e.g. 6-mercaptopurine, azathioprine). Decreased activity of TPMT is associated with hematopoietic toxicity after administration of standard doses of the drugs. We developed capillary electrophoretic method for determination of TPMT enzyme activity in erythrocytes. Limit of quantification of the method is 1.5 μmol/L (S/N = 6). The recovery of 6-methylmercaptopurine was 87.5–94.8%, imprecision value (as CV, n  = 10) was 1.68% (within-day) and 2.53% (between-day). Erythrocyte TPMT activities were measured in 60 healthy adult volunteers.
Keywords: Thiopurine S-methyltransferase; 6-Mercaptopurine; Capillary electrophoresis; Enzyme activity;

The apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide D-4F is a potential therapeutical agent effective in maintaining cardiovascular health. A bioanalytical assay based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) to quantitate the D-4F amount in rabbit plasma was developed and validated. A compound with a close structure similarity to the D-4F (only one amino acid A–V altered) was used as an internal standard. Both D-4F and the internal standard were extracted by protein precipitation using acetonitrile/0.2% Triton XL 80N. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curve was 0.9991 in the range 20–40,000 ng/mL. This assay can be used for pharmacokinetic studies of the drug. Also, it may be adjusted for the quantification of other members of apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide family.
Keywords: Apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide; D-4F; Quantification; LC/MS/MS;

We present a simple, rapid, and sensitive liquid chromatography (LC)–tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method for the simultaneous quantification of rosiglitazone and its two major metabolites via CYP2C8/9, N-desmethyl and p-hydroxy rosiglitazone, in human plasma. The procedure was developed and validated using rosiglitazone-d3 as the internal standard. Plasma samples (0.1 ml) were prepared using a simple deproteinization procedure with 0.2 ml of acetonitrile containing 40 ng/ml of rosiglitazone-d3. Chromatographic separation was carried out on a Luna C18 column (100 mm × 2.0 mm, 3-μm particle size) using an isocratic mobile phase consisting of a 60:40 (v/v) mixture of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid(aq). Each sample was run at 0.2 ml/min for a total run time of 2.5 min per sample. Detection and quantification were performed using a mass spectrometer in selected reaction-monitoring mode with positive electrospray ionization at m/z 358.1 → 135.1 for rosiglitazone, m/z 344.2 → 121.1 for N-desmethyl rosiglitazone, m/z 374.1 → 151.1 for p-hydroxy rosiglitazone, and m/z 361.1 → 138.1 for rosiglitazone-d3. The linear ranges of concentration for rosiglitazone, N-desmethyl rosiglitazone, and p-hydroxy rosiglitazone were 1–500, 1–150, and 1–25 ng/ml, respectively, with a lower limit of quantification of 1 ng/ml for all analytes. The coefficient of variation for assay precision was less than 14.4%, and the accuracy was 93.3–112.3%. No relevant cross-talk and matrix effect were observed. This method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study after oral administration of a 4-mg rosiglitazone tablet to healthy male Korean volunteers.
Keywords: Rosiglitazone; N-desmethyl rosiglitazone; p-Hydroxy rosiglitazone; Human plasma; LC–MS/MS;

Determination of 5-methyl-2′-deoxycytidine in genomic DNA using high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection by Jatinderpal Sandhu; Balvinder Kaur; Christine Armstrong; Christopher J. Talbot; William P. Steward; Peter B. Farmer; Rajinder Singh (1957-1961).
The formation of 5-methyl-2′-deoxycytidine (5-MedC) following methylation of the C-5 position of cytosine in genomic DNA provides an epigenetic mechanism for the regulation of gene expression and cellular differentiation. We describe the development of a method using HPLC-ultraviolet (UV) detection for the accurate determination of 5-MedC in DNA. Genomic DNA was obtained from HeLa cells and rat liver tissue using an optimised anion-exchange column DNA extraction procedure incorporating a ribonuclease incubation step to remove any potential interference from RNA. Following extraction the DNA samples were enzymatically hydrolysed to 2′-deoxynucleosides using a combination of an endo-exonuclease plus 5′-exonuclease together with a 3′-nucleotidase. The hydrolysed DNA samples (10 μg on column) were analysed using narrow-bore reverse phase HPLC-UV detection. The level of 5-MedC in the DNA samples was expressed as a percentage of the level of 2′-deoxycytidine (dC) determined from calibration lines constructed using authentic standards for 5-MedC and dC. The percentage 5-MedC level determined for commercially available calf thymus DNA was 6.26%, for HeLa cell DNA was 3.02% and for rat liver DNA was 3.55%.
Keywords: 5-Methyl-2′-deoxycytidine; DNA methylation; High performance liquid chromatography; DNA extraction;